Browsing by Subject "RATING-SCALE"

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  • Söderholm, John J.; Socada, J. Lumikukka; Rosenström, Tom; Ekelund, Jesper; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    ObjectiveWe investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among currently depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), major depressive episode (MDE) in bipolar disorder (BD), or MDE with comorbid borderline personality disorder (MDE/BPD). We compared current and lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and behavior, and investigated dimensional measures of BPD or mixed affective features of the MDE as indicators of risk.MethodsBased on screening of 1,655 referrals, we recruited 124 psychiatric secondary care outpatients with MDE and stratified them into three subcohorts (MDD, BD, and MDE/BPD) using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV I and II. We examined suicidal ideation and behavior with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS). In addition, we quantified the severity of BPD symptoms and BD mixed features both categorically/diagnostically and dimensionally (using instruments such as the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index) in two time frames.ResultsThere were highly significant differences between the lifetime prevalences of suicide attempts between the subcohorts, with attempts reported by 16% of the MDD, 30% of the BD, and 60% of the BPD subcohort. Remarkably, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in patients with comorbid BD and BPD exceeded 90%. The severity of BPD features was independently associated with risk of suicide attempts both lifetime and during the current MDE. It also associated in a dose-dependent manner with recent severity of ideation in both BPD and non-BPD patients. In multinominal logistic regression models, hopelessness was the most consistent independent risk factor for severe suicidal ideation in both time frames, whereas younger age and more severe BPD features were most consistently associated with suicide attempts.ConclusionsAmong patients with major depressive episodes, diagnosis of bipolar disorder, or presence of comorbid borderline personality features both imply remarkably high risk of suicide attempts. Risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicidal acts overlap, but may not be identical. The estimated severity of borderline personality features seems to associate with history of suicidal behavior and current severity of suicidal ideation in dose-dependent fashion among all mood disorder patients. Therefore, reliable assessment of borderline features may advance the evaluation of suicide risk.
  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Romskaug, Rita; Skovlund, Eva; Straand, Jorund; Molden, Espen; Kersten, Hege; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Lundqvist, Christofer; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun (2020)
    IMPORTANCE Polypharmacy and inappropriate drug regimens are major health concerns among older adults. Various interventions focused on medication optimization strategies have been carried out, but the effect on patient-relevant outcomes remains uncertain. Objective To investigate the effect of clinical geriatric assessments and collaborative medication reviews by geriatrician and family physician (FP) on health-related quality of life and other patient-relevant outcomes in home-dwelling older patients receiving polypharmacy. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized, single-blind, clinical trial. Norwegian FPs were recruited from March 17, 2015, to March 16, 2017, to participate in the trial with their eligible patients. Participants were home-dwelling patients 70 years or older, using at least 7 medications regularly, and having their medications administered by the home nursing service. Patients in the control group received usual care. Randomization occurred at the FP level. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was used. Intervention The intervention consisted of 3 main parts: (1) clinical geriatric assessment of the patients combined with a thorough review of their medications; (2) a meeting between the geriatrician and the FP; and (3) clinical follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was health-related quality of life as assessed by the 15D instrument (score range, 0-1; higher scores indicate better quality of life, with a minimum clinically important change of +/- 0.015) at week 16. Secondary outcomes included changes in medication appropriateness, physical and cognitive functioning, use of health services, and mortality. Results Among 174 patients (mean [SD] age, 83.3 [7.3] years; 67.8% women; 87 randomized to the intervention group and 87 randomized to the control [usual care] group) in 70 FP clusters (36 intervention and 34 control), 158 (90.8%) completed the trial. The mean (SD) 15D instrument score at baseline was 0.708 (0.121) in the intervention group and 0.714 (0.113) in the control group. At week 16, the mean (SD) 15D instrument score was 0.698 (0.164) in the intervention group and 0.655 (0.184) in the control group, with an estimated between-group difference of 0.045 (95% CI, 0.004-0.086; P = .03). Several secondary outcomes were also in favor of the intervention. There were more drug withdrawals, reduced dosages, and new drug regimens started in the intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance This study's findings indicate that, among older patients exposed to polypharmacy, clinical geriatric assessments and collaborative medication reviews carried out by a geriatrician in cooperation with the patient's FP can result in positive effects on health-related quality of life.
  • Sorsa, Johanna; Fontell, Tuija; Laajasalo, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T. (2019)
    Assessment of behavioral disorders is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in child psychiatry. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widespread measurement tool used for assessing conduct problems, though the psychometric properties of the tool have varied in different samples. In this study, the ECBI was evaluated in a Finnish population based sample of children aged 4 to 12 years (n = 1,715). Factor structure and internal consistency of the ECBI and associates of behavioral problems in Finnish children were evaluated. The results showed that a unidimensional one‐factor solution for the ECBI intensity scale was the best fit for the data. The ECBI mean scores were considerably higher in our sample compared to other Nordic countries. Boys scored higher than girls on both ECBI scales, and the mean scores decreased with child's age. Socioeconomic status (SES) was weakly connected to the ECBI scores. Our results highlight the need for country specific reference norms in order to improve the clinical utility of evidence‐based measures for assessing conduct problems.
  • Pierides, Georgios A.; Paajanen, Hannu E.; Vironen, Jaana H. (2016)
    Introduction: Chronic postherniorrhaphy pain is the foremost setback of today's inguinal hernia repair. Finding predictors for it affects implants, operative techniques and allows for preventive measures. Methods: Prospectively collected data from 932 outpatient open inguinal hernia operations between 2003 and 2010 were subjected to regression analysis. Visual analogue scale score (VAS) at least a year after operation and a measurement of chronic pain at one year were the target variables. Results: Chronic pain was present in 99 (11.5%) patients one year after operation. Independent predictors for the occurrence of chronic pain were positively recurrence (Odds ratio, OR 6.77 vs. no recurrence, P = 0.005), complication (OR 5.16 vs. no complication, P = 0.002), mid-density mesh (OR 2.28 vs. lightweight mesh, P = 0.012), higher preoperative VAS score (OR 1.15, P = 0.006) and negatively higher age (OR 0.98, P = 0.027). Predictors for a higher postoperative VAS score were recurrence (regression coefficient, RC, 1.49 vs. no recurrence, P = 0.001), complication (RC 0.76 vs. no complication, P = 0.016), heavyweight mesh (RC 0.50 vs. lightweight mesh, P = 0.046) and higher preoperative VAS level (RC 0.10, P <0.001). Conclusions: Recurrence, complication, mesh weight, preoperative VAS score and age are predictors for the occurrence chronic pain after open mesh based inguinal hernia repair. Recurrence, complication, mesh weight and preoperative VAS score are predictors of postherniorrhaphy VAS level. (C) 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jylhä, Pekka; Rosenstrom, Tom; Mantere, Outi; Suominen, Kirsi; Melartin, Tarja; Vuorilehto, Maria; Holma, Mikael; Riihimaki, Kirsi; Oquendo, Maria A.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Isometsa, Erkki T. (2016)
    Background: Comorbid personality disorders may predispose patients with mood disorders to suicide attempts (SAs), but factors mediating this effect are not well known. Methods: Altogether 597 patients from three prospective cohort studies (Vantaa Depression Study, Jorvi Bipolar Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study) were interviewed at baseline, at 18 months, and in VDS and PC-VDS at 5 years. Personality disorders (PDs) at baseline, number of previous SAs, life-charted time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs), and precise timing of SAs during follow-up were determined and investigated. Results: Overall, 219 (36.7%) patients had a total of 718 lifetime SAs; 88 (14.7%) patients had 242 SAs during the prospective follow-up. Having any PD diagnosis increased the SA rate, both lifetime and prospectively evaluated, by 90% and 102%, respectively. All PD clusters increased the rate of new SAs, although cluster C PDs more than the others. After adjusting for time spent in MDEs, only cluster C further increased the SA rate (by 52%). Mediation analyses of PD effects on prospectively ascertained SAs indicated significant mediated effects through time at risk in MDEs, but also some direct effects. Limitations: Findings generalizable only to patients with mood disorders. Conclusions: Among mood disorder patients, comorbid PDs increase the risk of SAs to approximately two-fold. The excess risk is mostly due to patients with comorbid PDs spending more time in depressive episodes than those without. Consequently, risk appears highest for PDs that most predispose to chronicity and recurrences. However, also direct risk-modifying effects of PDs exist. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.