Browsing by Subject "RATIO"

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  • Reinsalu, Olavi; Scheler, Ott; Mikelsaar, Ruth; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Hallap, Triin; Jaakma, Ülle; Padrik, Peeter; Kavak, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Kurg, Ants (2019)
    Background: Usage of sexed semen that allows to choose the gender of the calves, is commonly practiced in livestock industry as a profitable breeding alternative, especially in dairy farming. The flow cytometric cell sorting is the only commercially available method for bovine sperm sexing. For validation of the sexing procedure several methods have been developed including sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques. Latter usually include the use of pre-labelled nucleotides for probe synthesis which is relatively expensive approach compared to combined application of aminoallyl-dUTP and chemical binding of fluorescent dyes. Here a sex determining dual colour bovine sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation method is presented which is considered more cost-effective technique than the previously reported approaches. Results: The reliability of sex chromosome identifying probes, designed in silico, was proven on bovine metaphase plate chromosomes and through comparison with a commercially available standard method. In the dual colour FISH experiments of unsexed and sexed bovine sperm samples the hybridisation efficiency was at least 98%, whereas the determined sex ratios were not statistically different from the expected. Very few cells carried both of the sex chromosome-specific signals (less than 0.2%). Conclusions: A protocol for a dual colour bovine sperm FISH method is provided which is cost-effective, simple and fast for sex determination of spermatozoa in bull semen samples.
  • Loukola, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Gupta, Richa; Palviainen, Teemu; Hallfors, Jenni; Tikkanen, Emmi; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ollikainen, Miina; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Ripatti, Samuli; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Rose, Richard J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2015)
    Individuals with fast nicotine metabolism typically smoke more and thus have a greater risk for smoking-induced diseases. Further, the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is dependent on the rate of nicotine metabolism. Our objective was to use nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), an established biomarker of nicotine metabolism rate, in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants influencing nicotine metabolism. A heritability estimate of 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.88) was obtained for NMR using monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the FinnTwin cohort. We performed a GWAS in cotinine-verified current smokers of three Finnish cohorts (FinnTwin, Young Finns Study, FIN-RISK2007), followed by a meta-analysis of 1518 subjects, and annotated the genome-wide significant SNPs with methylation quantitative loci (meQTL) analyses. We detected association on 19q13 with 719 SNPs exceeding genome-wide significance within a 4.2 Mb region. The strongest evidence for association emerged for CYP2A6 (min p = 5.77E-86, in intron 4), the main metabolic enzyme for nicotine. Other interesting genes with genome-wide significant signals included CYP2B6, CYP2A7, EGLN2, and NUMBL. Conditional analyses revealed three independent signals on 19q13, all located within or in the immediate vicinity of CYP2A6. A genetic risk score constructed using the independent signals showed association with smoking quantity (p = 0.0019) in two independent Finnish samples. Our meQTL results showed that methylation values of 16 CpG sites within the region are affected by genotypes of the genome-wide significant SNPs, and according to causal inference test, for some of the SNPs the effect on NMR is mediated through methylation. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS on NMR. Our results enclose three independent novel signals on 19q13.2. The detected CYP2A6 variants explain a strikingly large fraction of variance (up to 31%) in NMR in these study samples. Further, we provide evidence for plausible epigenetic mechanisms influencing NMR.
  • Paakkinen, Petja; Eskola, Kari J.; Paukkunen, Hannu (2017)
    Despite the success of modern nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) in describing nuclear hard-process data, they still suffer from large uncertainties. One of the poorly constrained features is the possible asymmetry in nuclear modifications of valence u and d quarks. We study the possibility of using pion-nucleus Drell-Yan dilepton data as a new constraint in the global analysis of nPDFs. We find that the nuclear cross-section ratios from the NA3, NA10 and E615 experiments can be used without imposing significant new theoretical uncertainties and, in particular, that these datasets may have some constraining power on the u/d-asymmetryin nuclei. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Sandberg, Lars Johan; Tonseth, Kim Alexander; Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Liu, Jun; Reece, Gregory; Halle, Martin; Edsander-Nord, Asa; Höckerstedt, Anna; Kauhanen, Susanna; Tindholdt, Tyge Tind; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Selber, Jesse Creed (2021)
    Background: The 21-cm notch-to-nipple distance has been accepted without academic scrutiny as a key measure in breast aesthetics. The Fibonacci sequence and phi ratio occur frequently in nature. They have previously been used to assess aesthetics of the face, but not the breast. This study aims to assess if the static 21-cm measure or the proportional phi ratio is associated with ideal breast aesthetics. Method: Subclavicular-breast height and breast width were used to calculate the aesthetic ratio. Subjects were subsequently aesthetically rated. A one-sample t-test was used to determine if the ratio for each breast differed from phi. Breast scores with one, both, or no breasts were compared with an optimal phi ratio. Analysis of variance was performed. Tukey-Kramer adjustment for multiple comparisons was used when pairwise comparisons were conducted. Results: Five subjects (14%) had bilateral optimal phi ratio breasts. Four subjects (11%) had one breast with an optimal phi ratio. Subjects with bilateral optimal phi ratios had significantly higher overall breast scores than those with only one optimal breast (Delta = 0.86, P = 0.025) or no optimal breast (Delta = 0.73, P = 0.008). Distance from optimal Fibonacci nipple position was moderately to strongly correlated with aesthetic score (-0.630, P = 0.016). No correlation was found between 21-cm notch-to-nipple distance and aesthetic score. Conclusion: The bilateral optimal phi ratio is correlated with high overall aesthetic scores, as is the optimal Fibonacci nipple position. No correlation was found between 21-cm notch-to-nipple distance and overall aesthetic score.
  • Relander, Kristiina; Hietanen, Marja; Nuotio, Krista; Ijäs, Petra; Tikkala, Irene; Saimanen, Eija; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Soinne, Lauri (2021)
    Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been associated with both postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and improvement (POCI). However, the prognostic significance of postoperative cognitive changes related to CEA is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between postoperative cognitive changes after CEA and long-term survival. Methods: We studied 43 patients 1 day before CEA as well as 4 days and 3 months after surgery with an extensive neuropsychological test array, and followed them for up to 14 years. POCD and POCI relative to baseline were determined with the reliable change index derived from 17 healthy controls. Associations between POCD/POCI and mortality within the patient group were studied with Cox regression analyses adjusted for confounders. Results: POCD in any functional domain was evident in 28% of patients 4 days after surgery and in 33% of patients 3 months after surgery. POCI was shown in 23% of patients at 4 days and in 44% of patients at 3 months. POCD at 3 months was associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-13.9, p = 0.002) compared with patients with no cognitive decline. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that POCD in a stable phase, 3 months after CEA predicts premature death. Evaluation of postoperative cognitive changes is essential, and POCD in a stable phase after CEA should prompt scrutiny of underlying factors and better adherence to therapies to prevent recurrences and to promote early intervention in imminent deterioration.
  • Sumia, Maria; Lindberg, Nina; Tyolajarvi, Marja; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2017)
    We studied current (GIDYQ-A) and recalled (RCGI) childhood gender identity among 719 upper secondary school students 401 girls, mean age 17.0 (SD = 0.88) years old and 318 boys, mean age 17.2 (SD = 0.86 years old in Finland. We also compared these dimensions of identity in community youth to same dimensions among adolescent sex reassignment (SR) applicants. Most community youth scored high on the normative, cis-gender end of gender experience (median score 4.9 for boys and 4.9 for girls) and recalled fairly gender typical childhood behaviours and experiences. The girls displayed more gender non-conformity in childhood. Among the boys 2.2% and among the girls 0.5% displayed potentially clinically significant gender dysphoria on the GIDYQ-A. The community youth differed clearly from adolescent SR applicants on current and recalled childhood gender identity (SR applicants were 47, 6 natal boys and 41 natal girls, average ages were 16.4 years old (SD = 0.93) and girls were on average 16.8 years old (SD = 1.0). (C) 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Lehenkari, Petri; Huhtakangas, Johanna; Turunen, Sanna; Joukainen, Antti; Kaariainen, Tommi; Paakkonen, Tommi; Kroger, Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri (2019)
    Background: Infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) has recently emerged as a potential source of inflammation in knee arthropathies. It has been proposed to be one source of adipocytokines, fatty acids (FA), and FA-derived lipid mediators that could contribute to the pathophysiological processes in the knee joint. Alterations in synovial fluid (SF) lipid composition have been linked to both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to compare the FA signatures in the IFP and SF of RA and OA patients. Methods: Pairs of IFP and SF samples were collected from the same knees of RA (n=10) and OA patients (n=10) undergoing total joint replacement surgery. Control SF samples (n=6) were harvested during diagnostic or therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery unrelated to RA or OA. The FA composition in the total lipids of IFP and SF was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Results: Arthropathies resulted in a significant reduction in the SF proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), more pronouncedly in OA than in RA. OA was also characterized with reduced percentages of 22:6n-3 and lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA. The proportions of total monounsaturated FA increased in both RA and OA SF. Regarding IFP, RA patients had lower proportions of 20:4n-6, total n-6 PUFA, and 22:6n-3, as well as lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA compared to OA patients. The average chain length of SF FA decreased in both diagnoses and the double bond index in OA. Conclusions: The observed complex alterations in the FA signatures could have both contributed to but also limited the inflammatory processes and cartilage destruction in the RA and OA knees.
  • Snäll, Johanna; Narjus-Sterba, M.; Toivari, M.; Wilkman, T.; Thoren, H. (2019)
    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intraorbital volume change caused by orbital fracture and globe malposition (GMP) in blow-out fracture patients undergoing surgery and to clarify the significance of different radiologically detected predictors associated with GMP.Patients and methodsA 6-month prospective follow-up study of unilateral isolated orbital fractures was designed and implemented. The main outcome variable was GMP (present or absent); the secondary outcome was orientation of GMP (horizontal or vertical). The primary predictor variable was postoperative orbital volume difference determined as the difference between the fractured and non-fractured orbit (measured in milliliter and analyzed in milliliter and percentages). The explanatory variables were gender, age, treatment delay from trauma to surgery, fracture site, horizontal depth of the fracture, fracture area, maximum vertical dislocation of the fracture, and preoperative volume difference.ResultsA total of 15 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were followed for 6months from a larger cohort. GMP was detected in 6/15 patients (40.0%). GMP was more often present in large (2.5cm(2)) fractures (55.6%), in combined orbital fractures (50.0%), and in fractures with preoperative volume difference 2.5ml (62.5%) regardless of the postoperative volume correction. Postoperatively, patients with and without GMP displayed overcorrection of orbital volume; 4.15% corresponded to 1.15ml (with GMP) and 7.6% corresponded to 1.9ml (without GMP).ConclusionGMP was present in large and combined orbital fractures. Clinically detectable postoperative GMP occurred despite satisfactory orbital reconstruction and overcorrection. Mild GMP, however, is not significant for the patient.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2017)
    Background: The relative scale has been used for decades in analysing binary data in epidemiology. In contrast, there has been a long tradition of carrying out meta-analyses of continuous outcomes on the absolute, original measurement, scale. The biological rationale for using the relative scale in the analysis of binary outcomes is that it adjusts for baseline variations; however, similar baseline variations can occur in continuous outcomes and relative effect scale may therefore be often useful also for continuous outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the relative scale is more consistent with empirical data on treating the common cold than the absolute scale. Methods: Individual patient data was available for 2 randomized trials on zinc lozenges for the treatment of the common cold. Mossad (Ann Intern Med 125:81-8, 1996) found 4.0 days and 43% reduction, and Petrus (Curr Ther Res 59:595-607, 1998) found 1.77 days and 25% reduction, in the duration of colds. In both trials, variance in the placebo group was significantly greater than in the zinc lozenge group. The effect estimates were applied to the common cold distributions of the placebo groups, and the resulting distributions were compared with the actual zinc lozenge group distributions. Results: When the absolute effect estimates, 4.0 and 1.77 days, were applied to the placebo group common cold distributions, negative and zero (i.e., impossible) cold durations were predicted, and the high level variance remained. In contrast, when the relative effect estimates, 43 and 25%, were applied, impossible common cold durations were not predicted in the placebo groups, and the cold distributions became similar to those of the zinc lozenge groups. Conclusions: For some continuous outcomes, such as the duration of illness and the duration of hospital stay, the relative scale leads to a more informative statistical analysis and more effective communication of the study findings. The transformation of continuous data to the relative scale is simple with a spreadsheet program, after which the relative scale data can be analysed using standard meta-analysis software. The option for the analysis of relative effects of continuous outcomes directly from the original data should be implemented in standard meta-analysis programs.
  • Ramula, Satu; Öst, Markus; Lindén, Andreas; Karell, Patrik; Kilpi, Mikael (2018)
    In contrast to theoretical predictions of even adult sex ratios, males are dominating in many bird populations. Such bias among adults may be critical to population growth and viability. Nevertheless, demographic mechanisms for biased adult sex ratios are still poorly understood. Here, we examined potential demographic mechanisms for the recent dramatic shift from a slight female bias among adult eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) to a male bias (about 65% males) in the Baltic Sea, where the species is currently declining. We analysed a nine-year dataset on offspring sex ratio at hatching based on molecularly sexed ducklings of individually known mothers. Moreover, using demographic data from long-term individual-based capture-recapture records, we investigated how sex-specific survival at different ages after fledgling can modify the adult sex ratio. More specifically, we constructed a stochastic two-sex matrix population model and simulated scenarios of different survival probabilities for males and females. We found that sex ratio at hatching was slightly female-biased (52.8%) and therefore unlikely to explain the observed male bias among adult birds. Our stochastic simulations with higher survival for males than for females revealed that despite a slight female bias at hatching, study populations shifted to a male-biased adult sex ratio (> 60% males) in a few decades. This shift was driven by prime reproductive-age individuals(>5-year-old), with sex-specific survival of younger age classes playing a minor role. Hence, different age classes contributed disproportion ally to population dynamics. We argue that an alternative explanation for the observed male dominance among adults sex-biased dispersal can be considered redundant and is unlikely, given the ecology of the species. The present study highlights the importance of considering population structure and age-specific vital rates when assessing population dynamics and management targets.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M.; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (2018)
    Background: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omits; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Ellul, Susan; Wake, Melissa; Clifford, Susan A.; Lange, Katherine; Würtz, Peter; Juonala, Markus; Dwyer, Terence; Carlin, John B.; Burgner, David P.; Saffery, Richard (2019)
    Objectives Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics is high throughput and cost-effective, with the potential to improve the understanding of disease and risk. We examine the circulating metabolic profile by quantitative NMR metabolomics of a sample of Australian 11-12 year olds children and their parents, describe differences by age and sex, and explore the correlation of metabolites in parent-child dyads. Design The population-based cross-sectional Child Health CheckPoint study nested within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Setting Blood samples collected from CheckPoint participants at assessment centres in seven Australian cities and eight regional towns; February 2015-March 2016. Participants 1180 children and 1325 parents provided a blood sample and had metabolomics data available. This included 1133 parent-child dyads (518 mother-daughter, 469 mother-son, 68 father-daughter and 78 father-son). Outcome measures 228 metabolic measures were obtained for each participant. We focused on 74 biomarkers including amino acid species, lipoprotein subclass measures, lipids, fatty acids, measures related to fatty acid saturation, and composite markers of inflammation and energy homeostasis. Results We identified differences in the concentration of specific metabolites between childhood and adulthood and in metabolic profiles in children and adults by sex. In general, metabolite concentrations were higher in adults than children and sex differences were larger in adults than in children. Positive correlations were observed for the majority of metabolites including isoleucine (CC 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.38), total cholesterol (CC 0.30, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35) and omega 6 fatty acids (CC 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.34) in parent-child comparisons. Conclusions We describe the serum metabolite profiles from mid-childhood and adulthood in a population-based sample, together with a parent-child concordance. Differences in profiles by age and sex were observed. These data will be informative for investigation of the childhood origins of adult non-communicable diseases and for comparative studies in other populations.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Forthomme, L.; Österberg, K.; Garcia, F.; Kim, M. S.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Pekkanen, Juska; Viinikainen, Jussi (2020)
    The observation of the Lambda(0)(b) -> J/psi Lambda phi decay is reported using proton-proton collision data collected at root s = 13TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 60fb(-1). The ratio of the branching fractions B(Lambda(0)(b) -> J/psi Lambda phi)/B(Lambda(0)(b) > psi(2S)Lambda) is measured to be (8.26 +/- 0.90 (stat) +/- 0.68 (syst) +/- 0.11 (B)) x 10(-2), where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the last uncertainty reflects the uncertainties in the world-average branching fractions of phi and psi(2S) decays to the reconstructed final states. (C) 2020 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Global Retinoblastoma Study Grp; Fabian, Ido Didi; Khetan, Vikas; Stacey, Andrew W.; Kivelä, Tero T.; Bowman, Richard (2022)
    Objective To investigate in a large global sample of patients with retinoblastoma whether sex predilection exists for this childhood eye cancer. Methods A cross-sectional analysis including 4351 treatment-naive retinoblastoma patients from 153 countries who presented to 278 treatment centers across the world in 2017. The sex ratio (male/female) in the sample was compared to the sex ratio at birth by means of a two-sided proportions test at global level, country economic grouping, continent, and for selected countries. Results For the entire sample, the mean retinoblastoma sex ratio, 1.20, was higher than the weighted global sex ratio at birth, 1.07 (p < 0.001). Analysis at economic grouping, continent, and country-level demonstrated differences in the sex ratio in the sample compared to the ratio at birth in lower-middle-income countries (n = 1940), 1.23 vs. 1.07 (p = 0.019); Asia (n = 2276), 1.28 vs. 1.06 (p < 0.001); and India (n = 558), 1.52 vs. 1.11 (p = 0.008). Sensitivity analysis, excluding data from India, showed that differences remained significant for the remaining sample (chi(2) = 6.925, corrected p = 0.025) and for Asia (chi(2) = 5.084, corrected p = 0.036). Excluding data from Asia, differences for the remaining sample were nonsignificant (chi(2) = 2.205, p = 0.14). Conclusions No proof of sex predilection in retinoblastoma was found in the present study, which is estimated to include over half of new retinoblastoma patients worldwide in 2017. A high male to female ratio in Asian countries, India in specific, which may have had an impact on global-level analysis, is likely due to gender discrimination in access to care in these countries, rather than a biological difference between sexes.
  • Chen, Juan; Han, Qingquan; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2017)
    Lead (Pb) contamination seriously threatens agroforestry production and safety. We aim to determine the interactive influence of Pb and sexual competition on the growth performance, photosynthetic and biochemical traits, ultrastructure and phytoremediation-related parameters of males and females. In the present study, eco-physiological responses and phytoremediation traits of Populus cathayana females and males were evaluated under interactive treatments of Pb and competition. There were significant sex-specific competition effects on biomass partition, photosynthetic activities, carbohydrate contents, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies, ultrastructure and phytoremediation under Pb stress. When competition within the same sex was compared, females were more sensitive to Pb stress, while males possessed greater Pb contents, and a higher bioconcentration factor and tolerance index. Under inter-sexual competition, males alleviated competition effects through greater Pb absorption, and lower photosynthetic rates, nutrient use efficiencies and biomass accumulation. Moreover, Pb stress altered competition intensities of both sexes. Sex-specific competition and neighbor effects may regulate responses and phytoremediation under heavy metal stress in dioecious plants. In the future, more attention should be paid on the effects of inter- and intra-sexual competition on dioecious species in the process of forestation and restoration of contaminated soil.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Heikkinen, Ilkka; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Nieminen, Pentti; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2021)
    Stromal categorization has been used to classify many epithelial cancer types. We assessed the desmoplastic reaction and compared its significance with other stromal characteristics in early (cT1-2N0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). In this multi-institutional study, we included 308 cases treated for early OTSCC at five Finnish university hospitals or at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The desmoplastic reaction was classified as immature, intermediate, or mature based on the amount of hyalinized keloid-like collagen and myxoid stroma. We compared the prognostic value of the desmoplastic reaction with a stromal grading system based on tumor-stroma ratio and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. We found that a high amount of stroma with a weak infiltration of lymphocytes was associated statistically significantly with a worse disease-free survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.68 (95% CI 1.26-5.69), worse overall survival (HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.69-5.15), and poor disease-specific survival (HR 2.66, 95% CI 1.11-6.33). Tumors having a high amount of stroma with a weak infiltration of lymphocytes were also significantly associated with a high rate of local recurrence (HR 4.13, 95% CI 1.67-10.24), but no significant association was found with lymph node metastasis (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.37-4.35). Categorization of the stroma based on desmoplastic reaction (immature, intermediate, mature) showed a low prognostic value for early OTSCC in all survival analyses (P> 0.05). In conclusion, categorization of the stroma based on the amount of stroma and its infiltrating lymphocytes shows clinical relevance in early OTSCC superior to categorization based on the maturity of stroma.
  • Weiderpass, Elisabete; Botteri, Edoardo; Longenecker, Joseph C.; Alkandari, Abdullah; Al-Wotayan, Rihab; Al Duwairi, Qais; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2019)
    Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, Kuwait is ranked amongst the top countries in the world in obesity prevalence. This study aims to describe the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and various types of adiposity in Kuwaiti adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 3,915 Kuwaiti adults aged 18-69 years used the STEP-wise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases, a WHO Instrument for Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. We assessed demographic information, lifestyle, personal and family history of diseases and physical measurements (height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences). All participants with valid height and weight measurements (n = 3,589) were included in the present analysis. Overweight was defined as BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obesity as BMI >= 30 kg/m(2). Results: Obesity prevalence was 40.3% [95% confidence interval, 38.6-42.0%] (men, 36.5%; women, 44.0%); and overweight prevalence was 37% [35.4-38.7%] (men, 42%; women, 32.1%). The median BMI was 28.4 kg/m(2) among men and 29.1 kg/m(2) among women. Obesity prevalence was directly associated with female sex, age, history of diabetes, and being married in both men and women; and was inversely associated with education level in women. The prevalence of elevated waist-to-hip ratio was 46.9% among men and 37.9% among women. Waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratios were directly associated with diabetes in both men and women, and inversely associated with education level in women. Conclusion: Almost eight in ten Kuwaiti adults were overweight or obese. Urgent public health action is warranted to tackle the obesity epidemic in Kuwait.
  • Luta, X.; Hayoz, S.; Krause, C. Grea; Sommerhalder, K.; Roos, E.; Strazzullo, P.; Beer-Borst, S. (2018)
    Background and aims: High sodium (Na) and low potassium (K) intake are associated with hypertension and CVD risk. This study explored the associations of health literacy (HL), food literacy (FL), and salt awareness with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K ratio in a workplace intervention trial in Switzerland. Methods and results: The study acquired baseline data from 141 individuals, mean age 44.6 years. Na and K intake were estimated from a single 24-h urine collection. We applied validated instruments to assess HL and FL, and salt awareness. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association of explanatory variables with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K. Mean daily salt intake was 8.9 g, K 3.1 g, and Na/K 1.18. Salt intake was associated with sex (p <0.001), and K intake with sex (p <0.001), age (p = 0.02), and waist-to-height ratio (p = 0.03), as was Na/K. HL index and FL score were not significantly associated with salt or K intake but the awareness variable "salt content impacts food/menu choice" was associated with salt intake (p = 0.005). Conclusion: To achieve the established targets for population Na and K intake, health-related knowledge, abilities, and skills related to Na/salt and K intake need to be promoted through combined educational and structural interventions. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Jula, Antti (2018)
    The role of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a predictor of incident liver disease is unknown. 6626 individuals from the Finnish population-based Health 2000 Study were linked with national registers for liver-related admissions, mortality and cancer. SAD predicted incident liver disease (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.65) when adjusted for age and sex, but the association was weaker than for waist-hip ratio (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35-2.55), waist circumference (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.12-1.81), and waist-height ratio (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.87); BMI was non-significant. In conclusion, SAD provided no additional benefit to other obesity measures in predicting incident severe liver disease. (C) 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Danielsson, Oscar A; Nissinen, Markku; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Åberg, Fredrik (2021)
    Background & Aims While several anthropometric measures predict liver disease, the waist-hip ratio (WHR) has shown superiority in previous studies. We analysed independent and joint associations of waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) with liver disease and liver-related risk factors. Methods Cross-sectional study (n = 6619) and longitudinal cohort (n = 40 923) comprised individuals from Health 2000 and FINRISK 1992-2012 studies. Prevalent and viral liver diseases were excluded. Longitudinal cohort was linked with national healthcare registers for severe incident liver disease. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse anthropometric, lifestyle, metabolic and bioimpedance-related parameters; liver enzymes; and 59 liver-related genetic risk variants. Results WC and HC showed independent and opposite associations with both liver enzymes and incident liver disease among men (HR for liver disease: WC, 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11; HC, 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99; P-range .04 to