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  • Rantala, Pekka; Taipale, Risto; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2014)
  • Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Rusanen, A.; Smolander, S.; Guenther, A. B.; Kulmala, Markku; Karl, T.; Boy, M. (2015)
    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Biohydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.
  • Crowley, John N.; Pouvesle, Nicolas; Phillips, Gavin J.; Axinte, Raoul; Fischer, Horst; Petäjä, Tuukka; Noelscher, Anke; Williams, Jonathan; Hens, Korbinian; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez-Harder, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Kubistin, Dagmar; Bohn, Birger; Lelieveld, Jos (2018)
    Unlike many oxidised atmospheric trace gases, which have numerous production pathways, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and PAN are formed almost exclusively in gasphase reactions involving the hydroperoxy radical (HO2), the acetyl peroxy radical (CH3C(O)O-2) and NO2 and are not believed to be directly emitted in significant amounts by vegetation. As the self-reaction of HO2 is the main photochemical route to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), simultaneous observation of PAA, PAN and H2O2 can provide insight into the HO2 budget. We present an analysis of observations taken during a summertime campaign in a boreal forest that, in addition to natural conditions, was temporarily impacted by two biomass-burning plumes. The observations were analysed using an expression based on a steady-state assumption using relative PAA-to-PAN mixing ratios to derive HO2 concentrations. The steady-state approach generated HO2 concentrations that were generally in reasonable agreement with measurements but sometimes overestimated those observed by factors of 2 or more. We also used a chemically simple, constrained box model to analyse the formation and reaction of radicals that define the observed mixing ratios of PAA and H2O2. After nudging the simulation towards observations by adding extra, photochemical sources of HO2 and CH3C(O)O-2, the box model replicated the observations of PAA, H2O2, ROOH and OH throughout the campaign, including the biomass-burning-influenced episodes during which significantly higher levels of many oxidized trace gases were observed. A dominant fraction of CH3O2 radical generation was found to arise via reactions of the CH3C(O)O-2 radical. The model indicates that organic peroxy radicals were present at night in high concentrations that sometimes exceeded those predicted for daytime, and initially divergent measured and modelled HO2 concentrations and daily concentration profiles are reconciled when organic peroxy radicals are detected (as HO2) at an efficiency of 35 %. Organic peroxy radicals are found to play an important role in the recycling of OH radicals subsequent to their loss via reactions with volatile organic compounds.
  • Vanhatalo, A.; Chan, T.; Aalto, J.; Korhonen, J. F.; Kolari, P.; Holtta, T.; Nikinmaa, E.; Back, J. (2015)
    Tree canopies are known to emit large amounts of VOCs( volatile organic compounds) such as monoterpenes into the surrounding air. High VOC emission rates from bo-real forests have been observed during the transition from winter to summer activity. The most important sources of these are considered to be the green foliage, understory vegetation and soil organisms, but emissions from the living stand woody compartments have so far not been quantified. We analyzed whether the non-foliar components could partially explain the springtime high emission rates. We measured the monoterpene emissions from Scots pine( Pinus sylvestris L.) stem and shoots during the dehardening phase of trees in field conditions in two consecutive springs. We observed a large, transient monoterpene burst from the stem, while the shoot monoterpene emissions remained low. The burst lasted about 12 h. Simultaneously, an unusual nighttime sap flow and a non-systematic diurnal pattern of tree diameter were detected. Hence, we suggest that the monoterpene burst was a consequence of the recovery of the stem from wintertime, and likely related to the refilling of embolized tracheids and/or phenological changes in the living cells of the stem. This indicates that the dominant processes and environmental drivers triggering the monoterpene emissions are different between the stem and the foliage.
  • Holzinger, Rupert; Acton, W. Joe F.; Bloss, William J.; Breitenlechner, Martin; Crilley, Leigh R.; Dusanter, Sebastien; Gonin, Marc; Gros, Valerie; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kramer, Louisa J.; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Languille, Baptiste; Locoge, Nadine; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Materic, Dusan; Moreno, Sergi; Nemitz, Eiko; Quelever, Lauriane L. J.; Esteve, Roland Sarda; Sauvage, Stephane; Schallhart, Simon; Sommariva, Roberto; Tillmann, Ralf; Wedel, Sergej; Worton, David R.; Xu, Kangming; Zaytsev, Alexander (2019)
    In September 2017, we conducted a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) intercomparison campaign at the CESAR observatory, a rural site in the central Netherlands near the village of Cabauw. Nine research groups deployed a total of 11 instruments covering a wide range of instrument types and performance. We applied a new calibration method based on fast injection of a gas standard through a sample loop. This approach allows calibrations on timescales of seconds, and within a few minutes an automated sequence can be run allowing one to retrieve diagnostic parameters that indicate the performance status. We developed a method to retrieve the mass-dependent transmission from the fast calibrations, which is an essential characteristic of PTR-MS instruments, limiting the potential to calculate concentrations based on counting statistics and simple reaction kinetics in the reactor/drift tube. Our measurements show that PTR-MS instruments follow the simple reaction kinetics if operated in the standard range for pressures and temperature of the reaction chamber (i.e. 1-4 mbar, 30-120 degrees, respectively), as well as a reduced field strength E/N in the range of 100-160 Td. If artefacts can be ruled out, it becomes possible to quantify the signals of uncalibrated organics with accuracies better than +/- 30 %. The simple reaction kinetics approach produces less accurate results at E/N levels below 100 Td, because significant fractions of primary ions form water hydronium clusters. Deprotonation through reactive collisions of protonated organics with water molecules needs to be considered when the collision energy is a substantial fraction of the exoergicity of the proton transfer reaction and/or if protonated organics undergo many collisions with water molecules.