Browsing by Subject "REACTION NORMS"

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  • Debes, Paul; Piavchenko, Nikolai; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Ovaskainen, Outi; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Parre, Noora; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2021)
    Sexual maturation timing is a life-history trait central to the balance between mortality and reproduction. Maturation may be triggered when an underlying compound trait, called liability, exceeds a threshold. In many different species and especially fishes, this liability is approximated by growth and body condition. However, environmental vs. genetic contributions either directly or via growth and body condition to maturation timing remain unclear. Uncertainty exists also because the maturation process can reverse this causality and itself affect growth and body condition. In addition, disentangling the contributions of polygenic and major loci can be important. In many fishes, males mature before females, enabling the study of associations between male maturation and maturation-unbiased female liability traits. Using 40 Atlantic salmon families, longitudinal common-garden experimentation, and quantitative genetic analyses, we disentangled environmental from polygenic and major locus (vgll3) effects on male maturation, and sex-specific growth and condition. We detected polygenic heritabilities for maturation, growth, and body condition, and vgll3 effects on maturation and body condition but not on growth. Longitudinal patterns for sex-specific phenotypic liability, and for genetic variances and correlations between sexes suggested that early growth and condition indeed positively affected maturation initiation. However, towards spawning time, causality appeared reversed for males whereby maturation affected growth negatively and condition positively via both the environmental and genetic effects. Altogether, the results indicate that growth and condition are useful traits to study liability for maturation initiation, but only until maturation alters their expression, and that vgll3 contributes to maturation initiation via condition.
  • Almeida, Diana Abondano; Mappes, Johanna; Gordon, Swanne (2021)
    Predator-induced plasticity in life-history and antipredator traits during the larval period has been extensively studied in organisms with complex life-histories. However, it is unclear whether different levels of predation could induce warning signals in aposematic organisms. Here, we investigated whether predator-simulated handling affects warning coloration and life-history traits in the aposematic wood tiger moth larva, Arctia plantaginis. As juveniles, a larger orange patch on an otherwise black body signifies a more efficient warning signal against predators but this comes at the costs of conspicuousness and thermoregulation. Given this, one would expect that an increase in predation risk would induce flexible expression of the orange patch. Prior research in this system points to plastic effects being important as a response to environmental changes for life history traits, but we had yet to assess whether this was the case for predation risk, a key driver of this species evolution. Using a full-sib rearing design, in which individuals were reared in the presence and absence of a non-lethal simulated bird attack, we evaluated flexible responses of warning signal size (number of orange segments), growth, molting events, and development time in wood tiger moths. All measured traits except development time showed a significant response to predation. Larvae from the predation treatment developed a more melanized warning signal (smaller orange patch), reached a smaller body size, and molted more often. Our results suggest plasticity is indeed important in aposematic organisms, but in this case may be complicated by the trade-off between costly pigmentation and other life-history traits.
  • Brommer, Jon E.; Kontiainen, Pekka; Pietiäinen, Hannu (2012)
  • Rosa, Elena; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2017)
    Organisms with complex life-cycles acquire essential nutrients as juveniles, and hence even a short-term food stress during development can impose serious fitness costs apparent in adults. We used the Glanville fritillary butterfly to investigate the effects of larval food stress on adult performance under semi-natural conditions in a population enclosure. We were specifically interested in whether the negative effects observed were due to body mass reduction only or whether additional effects unrelated to pupal mass were evident. The two sexes responded differently to the larval food stress. In females, larval food stress reduced pupal mass and reproductive performance. The reduced reproductive performance was partially mediated by pupal mass reduction. Food stressed females also had reduced within-patch mobility, and this effect was not dependent on pupal mass. Conversely, food stress had no effect on male pupal mass, suggesting a full compensation via prolonged development time. Nonetheless, food stressed males were less likely to sire any eggs, potentially due to changes in their territorial behavior, as indicated by food stress also increasing male within-patch mobility (i.e., patrolling behavior). When males did sire eggs, the offspring number and viability were unaffected by male food stress treatment. Viability was in general higher for offspring sired by lighter males. Our study highlights how compensatory mechanisms after larval food stress can act in a sex-specific manner and that the alteration in body mass is only partially responsible for the reduced adult performance observed.
  • Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Kuparinen, Anna; Matsumura, Shuichi; Venturelli, Paul A.; Wolter, Christian; Slate, Jon; Primmer, Craig R.; Meinelt, Thomas; Killen, Shaun S.; Bierbach, David; Polverino, Giovanni; Ludwig, Arne; Arlinghaus, Robert (2015)
    Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of wild-origin zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish adapted to high positively size selective fishing pressure invested more in reproduction, reached a smaller adult body size, and were less explorative and bold. Phenotypic changes seemed subtle but were accompanied by genetic changes in functional loci. Thus, our results provided unambiguous evidence for rapid, harvest-induced phenotypic and evolutionary change when harvesting is intensive and size selective. According to a life-history model, the observed life-history changes elevated population growth rate in harvested conditions, but slowed population recovery under a simulated moratorium. Hence, the evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting includes populations that are productive under exploited conditions, but selectively disadvantaged to cope with natural selection pressures that often favor large body size.