Browsing by Subject "REASSESSMENT"

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  • Holmlund, Maria (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2008)
  • Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Tiina, Nokireki; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli; Sihvonen, Liisa; Anita, Huovilainen (2015)
    Among other Lyssaviruses, Daubenton's and pond-bat-related European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can cause human rabies. To investigate the diversity and evolutionary trends of EBLV-2, complete genome sequences of two Finnish isolates were analysed. One originated from a human case in 1985, and the other originated from a bat in 2009. The overall nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity of the two Finnish isolates were high, as well as the similarity to fully sequenced EBLV-2 strains originating from the UK and the Netherlands. In phylogenetic analysis, the EBLV-2 strains formed a monophyletic group that was separate from other bat-type lyssaviruses, with significant support. EBLV-2 shared the most recent common ancestry with Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) and Khujan virus (KHUV). EBLV-2 showed limited diversity compared to RABV and appears to be well adapted to its host bat species. The slow tempo of viral evolution was evident in the estimations of divergence times for EBLV-2: the current diversity was estimated to have built up during the last 2000 years, and EBLV-2 diverged from KHUV about 8000 years ago. In a phylogenetic tree of partial N gene sequences, the Finnish EBLV-2 strains clustered with strains from Central Europe, supporting the hypothesis that EBLV-2 circulating in Finland might have a Central European origin. The Finnish EBLV-2 strains and a Swiss strain were estimated to have diverged from other EBLV-2 strains during the last 1000 years, and the two Finnish strains appear to have evolved from a common ancestor during the last 200 years.
  • Remes, Satu M.; Leijon, Helena L.; Vesterinen, Tiina J.; Arola, Johanna T.; Haglund, Caj H. (2019)
    Neuroendocrine neoplasias (NENs) are known to express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 1-5, which are G-protein-coupled cell membrane receptors. Somatostatin receptor imaging and therapy utilizes the SSTR expression. Synthetic somatostatin analogs with radioligands are used to detect primary tumors, metastases, and recurrent disease. Receptor analogs are also used for treating NENs. Furthermore, commercially available SSTR antibodies can be used for the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of SSTRs. We investigated different SSTR antibody clones applying diverse IHC protocol settings to identify reliable clones and feasible protocols for NENs. A tissue microarray including NENs from 12 different primary sites were stained. Only UMB clones were able to localize SSTR on the cell membranes of NENs. SSTR2 (UMB1) emerged as the most common subtype followed by SSTR5 (UMB4) and SSTR1 (UMB7). SSTR3 (UMB5) expression was mainly cytoplasmic. Yet, SSTR4 expression was weak and located primarily in the cytoplasm. Thus, appropriate IHC protocols, including proper positive and negative controls, represent requirements for high-quality NEN diagnostics and for planning personalized therapy.
  • Miettinen, Otto; Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Rivoire, Bernard; Stenroos, Soili; Hibbett, David (2016)
    We explored whether DNA-phylogeny-based and morphology-based genus concepts can be reconciled in the basidiomycete family Phanerochaetaceae. Our results show that macromorphology of fruiting bodies and hymenophore construction do not reflect monophyletic groups. However, by integrating micromorphology and re-defining genera, harmonization of DNA phylogeny and morphological genus concepts is possible in most cases. In the case of one genus (Phlebiopsis), our genetic markers could not resolve genus limits satisfactorily and a clear morphological definition could not be identified. We combine extended species sampling, microscopic studies of fruiting bodies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS, nLSU and rpb1 to revise genus concepts. Three new polypore genera are ascribed to the Phanerochaetaceae: Oxychaete gen. nov. (type Oxyporus cervinogilvus), Phanerina gen. nov. (type Ceriporia mellea), and Riopa (including Ceriporia metamorphosa and Riopa pudens sp. nov.). Phlebiopsis is extended to include Dentocorticium pilatii, further species of Hjortstamia and the monotypic polypore genus Castanoporus. The polypore Ceriporia inflata is combined into Phanerochaete. The identity of the type species of the genus Riopa, R. davidii, has been misinterpreted in the current literature. The species has been included in Ceriporia as a species of its own or placed in synonymy with Ceriporia camaresiana. The effort to properly define R. davidii forced us to study Ceriporia more widely. In the process we identified five closely related Ceriporia species that belong to the true Ceriporia clade (Irpicaceae). We describe those species here, and introduce the Ceriporia pierii group. We also select a lectotype and an epitype for Riopa metamorphosa and neotypes for Sporotrichum aurantiacum and S. aurantium, the type species of the anamorphic genus Sporotrichum, and recommend that teleomorphic Riopa is conserved against it.
  • Storvall, Sara; Leijon, Helena; Ryhänen, Eeva; Louhimo, Johanna; Haglund, Caj; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Arola, Johanna (2019)
    Introduction: Parathyroid carcinoma represents a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Distinguishing carcinoma from the benign tumors underlying primary hyperparathyroidism remains challenging. The diagnostic criteria for parathyroid carcinoma are local and/or metastatic spreading. Atypical parathyroid adenomas share other histological features with carcinomas but lack invasive growth. Somatostatin receptors are commonly expressed in different neuro endocrine tumors, but whether this also holds for parathyroid tumors remains unknown. Aim: Our aim is to examine the immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin receptor 1-5 in parathyroid typical adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas. Methods: We used a tissue microarray construct from a nationwide cohort of parathyroid carcinomas (n = 32), age- and gender-matched typical parathyroid adenomas (n = 72) and atypical parathyroid adenomas (n = 27) for immunohistochemistry of somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5. We separately assessed cytoplasmic, membrane and nuclear expression and also investigated the associations with histological, biochemical and clinical characteristics. Results: All parathyroid tumor subgroups expressed somatostatin receptors, although membrane expression appeared negligible. Except for somatostatin receptor 1, expression patterns differed between the three tumor types. Adenomas exhibited the weakest and carcinomas the strongest expression of somatostatin receptor 2, 3, 4 and 5. We observed the largest difference for cytoplasmic somatostatin receptor 5 expression. Conclusions: Parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas all express somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5. Somatostatin receptor 5 may serve as a potential tumor marker for malignancy. Studies exploring the role of somatostatin receptor imaging and receptor-specific therapies in patients with parathyroid car cinomas are needed.