Browsing by Subject "RECESSIVE OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA"

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  • Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Costantini, Alice; Kämpe, Anders; Alm, Jessica J.; Mäkitie, Outi (2019)
    Osteoporosis, characterized by deteriorated bone microarchitecture and low bone mineral density, is a chronic skeletal disease with high worldwide prevalence. Osteoporosis related to aging is the most common form and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Rare, monogenic forms of osteoporosis have their onset usually in childhood or young adulthood and have specific phenotypic features and clinical course depending on the underlying cause. The most common form is osteogenesis imperfecta linked to mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2, the two genes encoding type I¬ collagen. However, in the past years, remarkable advancements in bone research have expanded our understanding of the intricacies behind bone metabolism and identified novel molecular mechanisms contributing to skeletal health and disease. Especially high-throughput sequencing techniques have made family-based studies an efficient way to identify single genes causative of rare monogenic forms of osteoporosis and these have yielded several novel genes that encode proteins partaking in type I collagen modification or regulating bone cell function directly. New forms of monogenic osteoporosis, such as autosomal dominant osteoporosis caused by WNT1 mutations or X-linked osteoporosis due to PLS3 mutations, have revealed previously unidentified bone-regulating proteins and clarified specific roles of bone cells, expanded our understanding of possible inheritance mechanisms and paces of disease progression, and highlighted the potential of monogenic bone diseases to extend beyond the skeletal tissue. The novel gene discoveries have introduced new challenges to the classification and diagnosis of monogenic osteoporosis, but also provided promising new molecular targets for development of pharmacotherapies. In this article we give an overview of the recent discoveries in the area of monogenic forms of osteoporosis, describing the key cellular mechanisms leading to skeletal fragility, the major recent research findings and the essential challenges and avenues in future diagnostics and treatments.
  • Makitie, Riikka E.; Kampe, Anders J.; Taylan, Fulya; Makitie, Outi (2017)
    Purpose of Review This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. Recent Findings Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function. Summary Primary osteoporosis can lead to severe skeletal morbidity, including abnormal longitudinal growth, compromised bone mass gain, and noticeable fracture tendency beginning at childhood. Early diagnosis and timely care are warranted to ensure the best achievable bone health. Future research will most likely broaden the spectrum of primary osteoporosis, hopefully provide more insight into the genetics governing bone health, and offer new targets for treatment.