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  • Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Michallet, Mauricette; Craddock, Charles; Socie, Gerard; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan A.; Crawley, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Ljungman, Per T.; Cornelissen, Jan; Russell, Nigel; Baron, Frederic; Gorin, Norbert; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2017)
    ABO incompatibility is commonly observed in stem cell transplantation and its impact in this setting has been extensively investigated. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD) are often used as an alternative stem cell source but are associated with increased transplant related complications. Whether ABO incompatibility affects outcome in MMURD transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is unknown. We evaluated 1,013 AML patients who underwent MMURD transplantation between 2005 and 2014. Engraftment rates were comparable between ABO matched and mismatched patients, as were relapse incidence [34%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28-39; for ABO matched vs. 36%; 95% CI, 32-40; for ABO mismatched; P=.32], and nonrelapse mortality (28%; 95% CI, 23-33; for ABO matched vs. 25%; 95% CI, 21-29; for ABO mismatched; P=.2). Three year survival was 40% for ABO matched and 43% for ABO mismatched patients (P=.35), Leukemia free survival rates were also comparable between groups (37%; 95% CI, 32-43; for ABO matched vs. 38%; 95% CI, 33-42; for ABO mismatched; P=.87). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was marginally lower in patients with major ABO mismatching (Hazard ratio of 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5-1; P=.049]. ABO incompatibility probably has no significant clinical implications in MMURD transplantation.
  • Helanterä, Ilkka; Isola, Timo; Lehtonen, Taru K.; Åberg, Fredrik; Lempinen, Marko; Isoniemi, Helena (2019)
    Background: Kidney transplantation is reported to save costs compared to maintenance dialysis. We analyzed the current actual costs of kidney transplantation compared to dialysis, and analyzed risk factors for higher costs after transplantation. Material/Methods: Altogether, 338 kidney transplant recipients between 2009 and 2014 were included in this study. All individual-level cost data from specialized health care and data from all reimbursed medication and travel costs were acquired from official records. Cost data were compared before and after transplantation within the same patients starting from dialysis initiation and continued until the end of follow-up at the end of 2015. Results: Total annual costs were median 53 275 EUR per patient in dialysis, 59 583 EUR for the first post-transplantation year (P Conclusions: After the first posttransplant year the costs of a kidney transplant patient for the health care system are
  • Petersen, Bjorn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sorensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter (2015)
    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users.
  • Endén, Kira; Tainio, Juuso; Nikkilä, Atte; Helanterä, Ilkka; Nordin, Arno; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Jalanko, Hannu; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jahnukainen, Timo (2020)
    Background The prevalence of malignancies after pediatric solid organ transplantation was evaluated in a nationwide study. Methods All patients who had undergone kidney, liver, or heart transplantation during childhood between the years 1982 and 2015 in Finland were identified. The inclusion criteria were age under 16 years at transplantation and age over 18 years at the last follow-up day. A total of 233 (137 kidney, 53 liver, and 43 heart) transplant recipients were enrolled. Controls (n = 1157) matched by the year of birth, gender, and hometown were identified using the Population Register Center registry. The cancer diagnoses were searched using the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results Altogether 26 individuals diagnosed with cancer were found, including 18 transplant recipients. Cancer was diagnosed at a median of 12.0 (IQR 7.8-17.8) years after the transplantation. The transplant recipients' risk for cancer was significantly higher when compared with the controls (HR 14.7; 95% CI 6.4-33.9). There was no difference for different graft types. Sixty-one percent of cancers among the transplant recipients were diagnosed at age older than 18 years. Conclusion The risk for cancer is significantly higher among young adults having undergone solid organ transplantation during childhood in comparison with population controls. Careful follow-up and attention to prevent cancers throughout adulthood are warranted.
  • Keronen, Satu; Martola, Leena; Finne, Patrik; Burton, Inari S.; Kröger, Heikki; Honkanen, Eero (2019)
    Background and objectives Over the past decade, the management of CKD-mineral and bone disorder has changed substantially, altering the pattern of bone disease in CKD. We aimed to evaluate the natural history of kidney bone disease in contemporary kidney transplant recipients and patients on dialysis. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Sixty one patients on dialysis who were referred to kidney transplantation participated in this prospective cohort study during November 2009 and December 2010. We performedbaseline bone biopsieswhile thepatientswere ondialysis andrepeatedthe procedure in 56 patients at 2 years after kidney transplantation or 2 years after baseline if transplantationwas not performed. Measurements of mineral metabolism and bone turnover, as well as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, were obtained concurrently. Results A total of 37 out of 56 participants received a kidney transplant, of which 27 underwent successful repeat bone biopsy. The proportion of patients with high bone turnover declined from 63% at baseline to 19% at 2 years after kidney transplantation, whereas the proportion of thosewith lowbone turnover increased from26% to 52%. Of 19 participants remaining on dialysis after 2 years, 13 underwent successful repeat biopsy. The proportion of patients remaining on dialysis with high bone turnover decreased from 69% to 31%, and low bone turnover increased from8% to 38%. Abnormal bonemineralization increased in transplant recipients from33% to 44%, but decreased in patients remaining on dialysis from 46% to 15%. Trabecular bone volume showed little change after transplantation, but low bone volume increased in patients remaining on dialysis. Bone mineral density did not correlate with histomorphometric findings. Conclusions Bone turnover decreased over time both in patients remaining on dialysis and in kidney transplant recipients. Bone mineral density and bone biomarkers were not associated with bone metabolism changes detected in bone biopsy specimens.
  • Rolfes, M. C.; Sriaroon, P.; Saldana, B. J. Davila; Dvorak, C. C.; Chapdelaine, H.; Ferdman, R. M.; Chen, K.; Jolles, S.; Patel, N. C.; Kim, Y. J.; Tarrant, T. K.; Martelius, T.; Seppanen, M.; Joshi, A. Y. (2019)
    Objective: Predictive factors associated with clinical outcomes of chronic norovirus infection (CNI) in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are lacking. Method: We sought to characterize CNI using a multi-institutional cohort of patients with PIDD and CNI using the Clinical Immunology Society's CIS-PIDD Listserv e-mail group. Results: Thirty-four subjects (21 males and 13 females) were reported from centers across North America, Europe, and Asia. All subjects were receiving high doses (median IgG dose: 1200 mg/kg/month) of supplemental immunoglobulin therapy. Fifty-three percent had a complete absence of B cells (median B-cell count 0; range 0-139 cells/mu L). Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) subjects manifested a unique phenotype with B-cell lymphopenia, non O+ blood type, and villous atrophy (logistic regression model, P = 0.01). Five subjects died, all of whom had no evidence of villous atrophy. Conclusion: While Norovirus (NoV) is thought to replicate in B cells, in this PIDD cohort of CNI, B-cell lymphopenia was common, indicating that the presence of B lymphocytes is not essential for CNI. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Helanterä, I.; Janes, R.; Anttila, V-J (2018)
    Background: Influenza A(H1N1) causes serious complications in immunocompromised patients. The efficacy of seasonal vaccination in these patients has been questioned. Aim: To describe two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) in immunocompromised patients. Methods: Two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) occurred in our institution: on the kidney transplant ward in 2014 including patients early after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, and on the oncology ward in 2016 including patients receiving chemotherapy for malignant tumours. Factors leading to these outbreaks and the clinical efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination were analysed. Findings: Altogether 86 patients were exposed to influenza A(H1N1) during the outbreaks, among whom the seasonal influenza vaccination status was unknown in 10. Only three out of 38 vaccinated patients were infected with influenza A(H1N1), compared with 20 out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.02). The death of one out of 38 vaccinated patients was associated with influenza, compared with seven out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.06). Shared factors behind the two outbreaks included outdated facilities not designed for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. Vaccination coverage among patients was low, between 40% and 70% despite vaccination being offered to all patients free of charge. Vaccination coverage of healthcare workers on the transplant ward was low (46%), but, despite high coverage on the oncology ward (92%), the outbreak occurred. Conclusion: Seasonal influenza vaccination was clinically effective with both a reduced risk of influenza infection and a trend towards reduced mortality in these immunocompromised patients. Several possible causes were identified behind these two outbreaks, requiring continuous awareness in healthcare professionals to prevent further outbreaks. (C) 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Przybyla, Beata; Pinomäki, Anne; Petäjä, Jari; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas; Öhlin, Ann-Kristin; Ruutu, Tapani; Volin, Liisa; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Background Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) enhances coagulation via endothelial perturbation and inflammation. Role of natural anticoagulants in interactions between coagulation and inflammation as well as in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are not well known. The purpose of this study was to define changes in natural anticoagulants over time in association with GVHD. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients who received grafts from siblings (n = 19) or unrelated donors (n = 11). Eight patients developed GVHD. Standard clinical assays were applied to measure natural anticoagulants, represented by protein C (PC), antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), complex of activated PC with its inhibitor (APC-PCI) and by markers of endothelial activation: Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII: C) and soluble thrombomodulin (s-TM) at 6-8 time points over three months. Results Overall, PC, AT and FVIII: C increased in parallel after engraftment. Significant correlations between PC and FVIII: C (r = 0.64-0.82, p Conclusion The coordinated activation of natural anticoagulants in our longitudinal study indicates the sustained ability of adaptation to endothelial and inflammatory activation during allogenic SCT treatment. The suboptimal control of coagulation by natural anticoagulants at early stage of SCT may contribute to onset of GVHD.
  • Naegele, Klaudia; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Gosert, Rainer; Loginov, Raisa; Bir, Katia; Helanterä, Ilkka; Schaub, Stefan; Khanna, Nina; Hirsch, Hans H. (2018)
    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) management post-transplantation relies on quantification in blood, but inter-laboratory and inter-assay variability impairs commutability. An international multicenter study demonstrated that variability is mitigated by standardizing plasma volumes, automating DNA extraction and amplification, and calibration to the 1st-CMV-WHO-International-Standard as in the FDA-approved Roche-CAP/CTMCMV. However, Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV showed under-quantification and false-negative results in a quality assurance program (UK-NEQAS-2014). Objectives: To evaluate factors contributing to quantification variability of CMV viral load and to develop optimized CMV-UL54-QNAT. Study design: The UL54 target of the UK-NEQAS-2014 variant was sequenced and compared to 329 available CMV GenBank sequences. Four Basel-CMV-UL54-QNAT assays of 361 bp, 254 bp, 151 bp, and 95 bp amplicons were developed that only differed in reverse primer positions. The assays were validated using plasmid dilutions, UK-NEQAS-2014 sample, as well as 107 frozen and 69 prospectively collected plasma samples from transplant patients submitted for CMV QNAT, with and without DNase-digestion prior to nucleic acid extraction. Results: Eight of 43 mutations were identified as relevant in the UK-NEQAS-2014 target. All Basel-CMV-UL54 QNATs quantified the UK-NEQAS-2014 but revealed 10-fold increasing CMV loads as amplicon size decreased. The inverse correlation of amplicon size and viral loads was confirmed using 1st-WHO-International-Standard and patient samples. DNase pre-treatment reduced plasma CMV loads by > 90% indicating the presence of unprotected CMV genomic DNA. Conclusions: Sequence variability, amplicon length, and non-encapsidated genomes obstruct standardization and commutability of CMV loads needed to develop thresholds for clinical research and management. Besides regular sequence surveys, matrix and extraction standardization, we propose developing reference calibrators using 100 bp amplicons.
  • Bekker, Vincent; Zwittink, Romy D.; Knetsch, Cornelis W.; Sanders, Ingrid M. J. G.; Berghuis, Dagmar; Heidt, Peter J.; Vossen, Jaak M. J. J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara; Bredius, Robbert G. M.; van't Hof, Peter J.; Lankester, Arjan C.; Kuijper, Ed J. (2019)
    Bloodstream infections and graft-versus-host disease are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota that acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, because studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remains subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these with the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single center study fecal samples were longitudinally collected from 19 children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD, n=12; SGD, n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 3 family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, whereas it showed high inter- and intraindividual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving an SCT did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated. (C) 2019 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • Räihä, Juulia; Helanterä, Ilkka; Ekstrand, Agneta; Nordin, Arno; Sallinen, Ville; Lempinen, Marko (2019)
    Background: Pretransplant dialysis modality may affect outcome after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT), and it has been suspected that peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with more postoperative complications compared to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pretransplant dialysis modality affects the risk for postoperative complications in SPKT recipients. Material/ Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of all patients undergoing SPKT from 2010 to 2017, during which 99 simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations were performed. Three pre-emptive transplantations were excluded. Patient groups receiving PD (n=59) or HD (n=37) were similar regarding baseline characteristics. All complications occurring during the first 3 months after transplantation, as well as patient and graft survival, were analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences in postoperative complications between groups, with similar rates of intraabdominal infections (8% in HD vs. 10% in PD), pancreatitis (16% in HD vs. 17% in PD), gastrointestinal bleedings (22% in HD vs. 10% in PD), and relaparotomies (27% in HD vs. 24% in PD). None of the patients had venous graft thrombosis. Past peritonitis was not associated with increased risk for postoperative complications in PD patients. Patient and graft survival were similar between PD and HD groups. Conclusions: Peritoneal dialysis is not a risk factor for postoperative complications after SPKT.
  • Hölttä, Tuula; Gordin, Daniel; Rahkonen, Otto; Turanlahti, Maila; Holmström, Miia; Tainio, Juuso; Rönnholm, Kai; Jalanko, Hannu (2020)
    Over the past 30 years, there has been an improvement in both patient and graft survival after pediatric renal transplantation (RTX). Despite this success, these patients still carry an elevated risk for untimely death, partly through premature aging of the vasculature. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the long-term outcome of individuals with RTX in childhood, as well as to explore the cardiovascular health of these adults more than a decade later. We studied 131 individuals who had undergone a RTX between the years 1979 and 2005. Furthermore, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcifications (CAC), and related metabolic factors were investigated in a cross-sectional study including 52 individuals as part of the initial cohort. The mortality rate (n = 131) was 12.2%. The median estimated graft survival was 17.5 years (95% CI 13.6-21.3), being significantly better in children transplanted below the age of 5 years (18.6 vs. 14.3 years, P <0.01) compared with older ones. CAC were found in 9.8% and LVH in 13% of the patients. Those with cardiac calcifications had longer dialysis vintage and higher values of parathyroid hormone (PTH) during dialysis. Left ventricular mass correlated positively with systolic blood pressure, PTH, and phosphate measured at the time of the study.
  • Phan, Tuan L.; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Razonable, Raymund R.; Munoz, Flor M. (2018)
    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) can cause primary infection or reactivate from latency in liver transplant recipients, which can result in a variety of clinical syndromes, including fever, hepatitis, encephalitis and higher rates of graft dysfunction as well as indirect effects including increased risks of mortality, CMV disease, hepatitis C progression and greater fibrosis scores. Although HHV-6 infection is currently diagnosed by quantifying viral DNA in plasma or blood, biopsy to demonstrate histopathological effects of HHV-6 remains the gold standard for diagnosis of end-organ disease. HHV-6 reactivation may be restricted to the infected organ with no evidence of active infection in the blood. HHV-6 infections in liver transplant patients are mostly asymptomatic, but clinically significant tissue-invasive infections have been treated successfully with ganciclovir, foscarnet or cidofovir. Inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6), in either the recipient or the donor organ, may create confusion about systemic HHV-6 infection. Recipients with inherited ciHHV-6 may have an increased risk of opportunistic infection and graft rejection. This article reviews the current scientific data on the clinical effects, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of HHV-6 infections in liver transplant recipients.
  • Helanterä, Ilkka; Hirsch, Hans H.; Auvinen, Eeva; Mannonen, Laura; Nummi, Maaret; Wernli, Marion; Ortiz, Fernanda; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Lempinen, Marko; Lautenschlager, Irmeli (2016)
    Background:The significance of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) after kidney transplantation ranges from irrelevant to full-blown nephropathy or PML. Objectives: To investigate the clinical significance of high-level JCPyV viruria and JCPyV primary infections after kidney transplantation. Study design: JCPyV viruria was detected in routine screening by quantitative real-time PCR in 40/238 kidney transplant recipients and was high-level (> 10(7)copies/ml) in 17 patients. A protocol biopsy at the time of JCPyV viruria was available from 10 patients. Results: Peak urine viral loads were 1.0 x 10(7)-2.5 x 10(9)copies/ml in the 17 high-level viruria patients. 6/15 (40%) patients with high-level JCPyV viruria with pretransplant sera available were JCPyV IgG negative suggesting that JCPyV viruria resulted from the donor graft in most cases. No acute graft dysfunction was associated with JCPyV viruria. No positive SV40 staining was detected in protocol biopsies, and nospecific histopathology was associated with high-level viruria; JCPyV nephropathy was not found. No differences were seen in histopathology or graft function at 3 years in patients with high-level viruria compared to non-JCPyV viruric patients transplanted during the same time period, and outcome was similar in patients with presumably primary and reactivated JCPyV. The mean estimated GFR at last follow-up was 44 ml/min (range 12-60 ml/min). One graft with high-level viruria was lost 9 years posttransplant due to recurrent IgA nephropathy Conclusions: High-level JCPyV viruria seems to be associated with primary JCPyV infection reflecting the average seroprevalence of 60%, but is not stringently associated with inferior graft function or survival, or histopathological changes. c 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Limnell, Niko; Schramko, Alexey A. (2018)
    Objectives: Fluid therapy is required to maintain perfusion to donor organs. Recent reviews on the choices of fluids have emphasized the safety of using crystalloids, as opposed to fluid therapy with colloids, which has been reported to be either unequivocally or potentially harmful in a number of studies on various patient populations. We aimed to analyze whether the type of fluid administered to donors is connected with kidney transplant outcomes. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 consecutive brain-dead multiorgan donors and their respective 181 kidney recipients were studied retrospectively. Data concerning donor fluid therapy, the characteristics of the donors and the recipients, and outcomes after kidney transplant were extracted from organ retrieval and patient records. Cases with early graft function were compared with cases with delayed graft function. Results: Donors had received both crystalloids and colloids in most cases (84%). Fluid therapy with crystalloids alone was more common among the 40 recipients with delayed (30%) than in the 103 recipients with early graft function (11%) (P = .005). Donor age, time on renal replacement therapy before transplant, and donor fluid therapy with crystalloids alone were independent risk factors for delayed graft function in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our results suggest that donor fluid therapy including colloids could be beneficial instead of harmful compared with treatment with crystalloids alone. This finding needs to be evaluated in prospective studies.
  • Ortiz, Fernanda; Harjutsalo, Valma; Helanterä, Ilkka; Lempinen, Marko; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    OBJECTIVE To examine time trends inmortality rates and causes of death in patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease on dialysis and after kidney transplantation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a nationwide retrospective cohort analysis, all patients with type 1 diabetes in Finland who received a kidney transplant alone were compared with patients who remained on dialysis. The main outcome was patient survival after starting dialysis. The cohort was divided into dialysis, functioning kidney transplant, and dialysis after transplant loss. Causes of death were retrieved and standardized mortality ratios calculated. RESULTS We studied 2,383 patients. Patients survived a median of 15.9 years after a successful transplant, 11.2 years if transplant function was lost, and 2.9 years if they remained on chronic dialysis. Standardized mortality ratio decreased in all subgroups during the past four decades: from 2005 onwards, it was 3.9 in patients receiving a kidney transplant, 11.5 in patients with graft loss, and 32.5 in patients on dialysis. The most common cause of death in all patients was ischemic heart disease (45%) followed by infection (18%), which was more common in patients on dialysis. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease because it substantially reduces the excess death risk when compared with dialysis. Even when kidney graft function is lost, the excess death risk is still considerably lower. Although overall mortality has decreased over the years, premature death due to ischemic heart disease remains high.
  • Perasaari, Juha P.; Kyllonen, Lauri E.; Salmela, Kaija T.; Merenmies, Jussi M. (2016)
    Sensitive screening methods have revealed that many patients have donor-specific human leucocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) prior to transplantation, regardless of negative crossmatch results. The clinical significance of pre-transplant (pre-Tx) DSAs for early graft function has remained unclear. Our aim was to examine the association of DSAs with delayed graft function (DGF). Pre-Tx sera of 771 patients who received kidney transplants in our single-centre study were retrospectively screened. All transplantations were performed after negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch. DSAs were detected in 13% of the patients. The overall DGF rate in our study was 29%. Patients with DSAs had a higher incidence of DGF when compared with non-sensitized patients (48 and 26%, respectively; P <0.0001). Third-party antibodies had no effect for DGF incidence (28%; P = 0.6098). The relative risk (RR) of DGF for patients with DSAs in the multivariate analysis was 2.039 (95% CI 1.246-3.335; P = 0.0046). Analyses of the cumulative mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) value of the DSAs revealed a rate of DGF more than two times higher in patients with a cumulative value of 3000-5000 MFI compared with a cumulative value of 1000-3000 (65 versus 31%; P = 0.0351). DSAs against any loci showed an elevated DGF incidence of 44-69% when compared with patients without DSA (27%). The risk of DGF is twice as high in patients having pre-formed DSAs. Pre-Tx DSAs is a modifiable risk factor that can be obviated with careful organ allocation relying on careful pre-Tx analysis of non-accepted mismatches determined with sensitive solid phase methods.
  • Päivärinta, Johanna; Oikonen, Vesa; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Tolvanen, Tuula; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hidehiro, Iida; Nuutila, Pirjo; Metsärinne, Kaj; Koivuviita, Niina (2019)
    Background Despite improvement in short-term outcome of kidney transplants, the long-term survival of kidney transplants has not changed over past decades. Kidney biopsy is the gold standard of transplant pathology but it's invasive. Quantification of transplant blood flow could provide a novel non-invasive method to evaluate transplant pathology. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to measure kidney transplant perfusion and find out if there is correlation between transplant perfusion and histopathology. Methods Renal cortical perfusion of 19 kidney transplantation patients [average time from transplantation 33 (17-54) months; eGFR 55 (47-69) ml/min] and 10 healthy controls were studied by [(15) O]H2O PET. Perfusion and Doppler resistance index (RI) of transplants were compared with histology of one-year protocol transplant biopsy. Results Renal cortical perfusion of healthy control subjects and transplant patients were 2.7 (2.4-4.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1) and 2.2 (2.0-3.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1), respectively (p = 0.1). Renal vascular resistance (RVR) of the patients was 47.0 (36.7-51.4) mmHg mL(- 1)min(- 1)g(- 1) and that of the healthy 32.4 (24.6-39.6) mmHg mL(- 1)min(-1)g(-1) (p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant correlation between Doppler RI and perfusion of transplants (r = - 0.51, p = 0.026). Transplant Doppler RI of the group of mild fibrotic changes [0.73 (0.70-0.76)] and the group of no fibrotic changes [0.66 (0.61-0.72)] differed statistically significantly (p = 0.03). No statistically significant correlation was found between cortical perfusion and fibrosis of transplants (p = 0.56). Conclusions [(15) O]H2O PET showed its capability as a method in measuring perfusion of kidney transplants. RVR of transplant patients with stage 2-3 chronic kidney disease was higher than that of the healthy, although kidney perfusion values didn't differ between the groups. Doppler based RI correlated with perfusion and fibrosis of transplants.
  • Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Buechner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittforth, Matthias (2014)
  • Bonthuis, Marjolein; Cuperus, Liz; Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Akman, Sema; Melgar, Angel Alonso; Baiko, Sergey; Bouts, Antonia H.; Boyer, Olivia; Dimitrova, Kremena; Carmo, Carmen do; Grenda, Ryszard; Heaf, James; Jahnukainen, Timo; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Kaltenegger, Lukas; Kostic, Mirjana; Marks, Stephen D.; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Novljan, Gregor; Palsson, Runolfur; Parvex, Paloma; Podracka, Ludmila; Bjerre, Anna; Seeman, Tomas; Slavicek, Jasna; Szabo, Tamas; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Torres, Diletta D.; Van Hoeck, Koen J.; Ladfors, Susanne Westphal; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Jager, Kitty J. (2020)
    One of the main objectives of the European health policy framework is to ensure equitable access to high-quality health services across Europe. Here we examined country-specific kidney transplantation and graft failure rates in children and explore their country- and patient-level determinants. Patients under 20 years of age initiating kidney replacement therapy from January 2007 through December 2015 in 37 European countries participating in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry were included in the analyses. Countries were categorized as low-, middle-, and high-income based on gross domestic product. At five-years of follow-up, 4326 of 6909 children on kidney replacement therapy received their first kidney transplant. Overall median time from kidney replacement therapy start to first kidney transplantation was 1.4 (inter quartile range 0.3-4.3) years. The five-year kidney transplantation probability was 48.8% (95% confidence interval: 45.9-51.7%) in low-income, 76.3% (72.8-79.5%) in middle-income and 92.3% (91.0-93.4%) in high-income countries and was strongly associated with macro-economic factors. Gross domestic product alone explained 66% of the international variation in transplantation rates. Compared with high-income countries, kidney transplantation was 76% less likely to be performed in low-income and 58% less likely in middle-income countries. Overall five-year graft survival in Europe was 88% and showed little variation across countries. Thus, despite large disparities transplantation access across Europe, graft failure rates were relatively similar. Hence, graft survival in low-risk transplant recipients from lower-income countries seems as good as graft survival among all (low, medium, and high risk) graft recipients from high-income countries.