Browsing by Subject "RECOMMENDATIONS"

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  • Vikke, Heidi Storm; Vittinghus, Svend; Betzer, Martin; Giebner, Matthias; Kolmos, Hans Jorn; Smith, Karen; Castren, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica; Mäkinen, Marja; Harve, Heini; Mogensen, Christian Backer (2019)
    BackgroundHand hygiene (HH), a cornerstone in infection prevention and control, lacks quality in emergency medical services (EMS). HH improvement includes both individual and institutional aspects, but little is known about EMS providers' HH perception and motivations related to HH quality. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HH perception and assess potential factors related to self-reported HH compliance among the EMS cohort.MethodsA cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 24 items (developed from the WHOs Perception Survey for Health-Care Workers) provided information on demographics, HH perceptions and self-reported HH compliance among EMS providers from Denmark.ResultsOverall, 457 questionnaires were answered (response rate 52%). Most respondents were advanced-care providers, males, had >5years of experience, and had received HH training
  • Dohner, Hartmut; Symeonidis, Argiris; Deeren, Dries; Demeter, Judit; Sanz, Miguel A.; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Esteve, Jordi; Fiedler, Walter; Porkka, Kimmo; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Je-Hwan; Usuki, Kensuke; D'Ardia, Stefano; Won Jung, Chul; Salamero, Olga; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Rousselot, Philippe; Sandhu, Irwindeep; Theunissen, Koen; Thol, Felicitas; Dohner, Konstanze; Teleanu, Veronica; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Naoe, Tomoki; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Belsack, Valerie; Ge, Miaomiao; Taube, Tillmann; Ottmann, Oliver G. (2021)
    In this phase 3 trial, older patients with acute myeloid leukemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to receive the polo-like kinase inhibitor, volasertib (V; 350 mg intravenous on days 1 and 15 in 4-wk cycles), combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC; 20 mg subcutaneous, twice daily, days 1-10; n = 444), or LDAC plus placebo (P; n = 222). Primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); key secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Primary ORR analysis at recruitment completion included patients randomized >= 5 months beforehand; ORR was 25.2% for V+LDAC and 16.8% for P+LDAC (n = 371; odds ratio 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-2.89]; P = 0.071). At final analysis (>= 574 OS events), median OS was 5.6 months for V+LDAC and 6.5 months for P+LDAC (n = 666; hazard ratio 0.97 [95% CI, 0.8-1.2]; P = 0.757). The most common adverse events (AEs) were infections/infestations (grouped term; V+LDAC, 81.3%; P+LDAC, 63.5%) and febrile neutropenia (V+LDAC, 60.4%; P+LDAC, 29.3%). Fatal AEs occurred in 31.2% with V+LDAC versus 18.0% with P+LDAC, most commonly infections/infestations (V+LDAC, 17.1%; P+LDAC, 6.3%). Lack of OS benefit with V+LDAC versus P+LDAC may reflect increased early mortality with V+LDAC from myelosuppression and infections.
  • Varga, Zsuzsanna; Lebeau, Annette; Bu, Hong; Hartmann, Arndt; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Schraml, Peter; Symmans, Fraser; Stoehr, Robert; Teng, Xiaodong; Turzynski, Andreas; von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Guertler, Claudia; Laible, Mark; Schlombs, Kornelia; Joensuu, Heikki; Keller, Thomas; Sinn, Peter; Sahin, Ugur; Bartlett, John; Viale, Giuseppe (2017)
    Background: Accurate determination of the predictive markers human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ERBB2), estrogen receptor (ER/ESR1), progesterone receptor (PgR/PGR), and marker of proliferation Ki67 (MKI67) is indispensable for therapeutic decision making in early breast cancer. In this multicenter prospective study, we addressed the issue of inter- and intrasite reproducibility using the recently developed reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based MammaTyper (R) test. Methods: Ten international pathology institutions participated in this study and determined messenger RNA expression levels of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR, and MKI67 in both centrally and locally extracted RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens with the MammaTyper (R) test. Samples were measured repeatedly on different days within the local laboratories, and reproducibility was assessed by means of variance component analysis, Fleiss' kappa statistics, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results: Total variations in measurements of centrally and locally prepared RNA extracts were comparable; therefore, statistical analyses were performed on the complete dataset. Intersite reproducibility showed total SDs between 0.21 and 0.44 for the quantitative single-marker assessments, resulting in ICC values of 0.980-0.998, demonstrating excellent agreement of quantitative measurements. Also, the reproducibility of binary single-marker results (positive/negative), as well as the molecular subtype agreement, was almost perfect with kappa values ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Conclusions: On the basis of these data, the MammaTyper (R) has the potential to substantially improve the current standards of breast cancer diagnostics by providing a highly precise and reproducible quantitative assessment of the established breast cancer biomarkers and molecular subtypes in a decentralized workup.
  • Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Marttila, Timo; Jekunen, Antti; Hervonen, Petteri; Klintrup, Katariina; Kataja, Vesa; Utriainen, Tapio; Luukkaa, Marjaana; Leskinen, Markku; Pulkkanen, Kalevi; Kautio, Anna-Liisa; Huttunen, Teppo (2020)
    Background/Aim: Our phase III trial showed that biweekly docetaxel (D) is better tolerated than triweekly D in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The safety of biweekly cabazitaxel (CBZ) post-docetaxel was studied in mCRPC. Patients and Methods: Altogether, 60 patients received CBZ 16 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 and day 14 of a 4-week cycle. The mean serum PSA levels were 305 ng/ml, and the mean age 67 years. The primary endpoint was safety according to CTCAEv4.0. Results: A total of 255 4-week cycles of CBZ were administered. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (16.7%), pain (13.3%), fatigue (10.0%), anemia (5.0%) and non-neutropenic infection (10.0%). PSA responses occurred in 10 patients (16.7%). Clinical benefit rate was 38.3% and median survival 10 months. Conclusion: Biweekly CBZ is a well-tolerated treatment resulting in meaningful benefits for heavily pretreated mCRPC patients.
  • Slik, Khadija; Turkki, Riku; Carpen, Olli; Kurki, Samu; Korkeila, Eija; Sundström, Jari; Pellinen, Teijo (2019)
    Current risk factors in stage II colorectal carcinoma are insufficient to guide treatment decisions. Loss of CDX2 has been shown to associate with poor clinical outcome and predict benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma. The prognostic relevance of CDX2 in stage II disease has not been sufficiently validated, especially in relation to clinical risk factors, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) status, BRAF mutation status, and tumor budding. In this study, we evaluated the protein expression of CDX2 in tumor center and front areas in a tissue microarrays material of stage II colorectal carcinoma patients (n=232). CDX2 expression showed a partial or total loss in respective areas in 8.6% and 10.9% of patient cases. Patients with loss of CDX2 had shorter disease-specific survival when scored independently either in tumor center or tumor front areas (log rank P=0.012; P=0.012). Loss of CDX2 predicted survival independently of other stage II risk factors, such as MSI status and BRAF mutation status, pT class, and tumor budding (hazard ratio=5.96, 95% confidence interval=1.55-22.95; hazard ratio=3.70, 95% confidence interval=1.30-10.56). Importantly, CDX2 loss predicted inferior survival only in patients with microsatellite stable, but not with MSI-high phenotype. Interestingly, CDX2 loss associated with low E-cadherin expression, tight junction disruption, and high expression of ezrin protein. The work demonstrates that loss of CDX2 is an independent risk factor of poor disease-specific survival in stage II colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, the study suggests that CDX2 loss is linked with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition independently of tumor budding.
  • Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araujo-Soares, Vera (2020)
    Background:School-based interventions that increase physical activity (PA) in a sustainable way are lacking. Systematic and participatory, theory and evidence-based intervention development may enhance the effectiveness of complex behavioural interventions in the long term. However, detailed descriptions of the intervention development process are rarely openly published, hindering transparency and progress in the field. Aims:To illustrate a stepwise process to develop intervention targeting PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) among older adolescents, and to describe the final, optimised version of the intervention, detailing content of sessions by theoretical determinants and techniques. Methods:Two established intervention development frameworks (Intervention Mapping and Behaviour Change Wheel) were integrated, leading to a comprehensive evidence and theory-based process. It was informed by empirical studies, literature reviews, expert and stakeholder consultation, including scenario evaluation and component pre-testing. In all steps, contextual fit and potential for sustainability were ensured by stakeholder engagement. Results:As a large majority of youth opposed decreasing screen time, increasing PA and decreasing SB were defined as target behaviours, with peers and the school context including classroom practices as key social environments in influencing youth PA (problem specification, step 1). Behavioural diagnosis (step 2) identified a variety of determinants in the domains of capability (e.g. self-regulation skills), motivation (e.g. outcome expectations) and environmental opportunities. These were organised into an intervention theory integrating several formal theories, including Self-Determination Theory. Theory-aligned principles guided material design (Step 3). Feasibility RCT allowed optimisation into a final intervention protocol (step 4). Conclusions:Intervention elements target students directly, and indirectly by changing teacher behaviour and the school and wider environment. A systematic development and optimisation led to a high potential for sustainability. The detailed intervention content, with specification of the hypothesised mechanisms, allows for other researchers to replicate, adapt or refine parts or the whole intervention, considering specific target groups and (sub-)cultures.
  • Heikkinen, T.; Silvennoinen, H.; Heinonen, S.; Vuorinen, T. (2016)
    Some studies have assessed the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children separately for moderate-to-severe and any influenza, but the definition used for identifying children with moderate-to-severe illness has not been validated. We analyzed clinical and socioeconomic data from two prospective cohort studies of respiratory infections among children aged
  • TRISP Collaboration (2018)
    Purpose The ThRombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration aims to address clinically relevant questions about safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular thrombectomy. The findings can provide observational information on treatment of patients derived from everyday clinical practice. Participants TRISP is an open, investigator-driven collaborative research initiative of European stroke centres with expertise in treatment with revascularisation therapies and maintenance of hospital-based registries. All participating centres made a commitment to prospectively collect data on consecutive patients with stroke treated with IVT using standardised definitions of variables and outcomes, to assure accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt their local databases to answer novel research questions. Findings to date Currently, TRISP comprises 18 centres and registers >10000IVT-treated patients. Prior TRISP projects provided evidence on the safety and functional outcome in relevant subgroups of patients who were excluded, under-represented or not specifically addressed in randomised controlled trials (ie, pre-existing disability, cervical artery dissections, stroke mimics, prior statin use), demonstrated deficits in organisation of acute stroke care (ie, IVT during non-working hours, effects of onset-to-door time on onset-to-needle time), evaluated the association between laboratory findings on outcome after IVT and served to develop risk estimation tools for prediction of haemorrhagic complications and functional outcome after IVT. Future plans Further TRISP projects to increase knowledge of the effect and safety of revascularisation therapies in acute stroke are ongoing. TRISP welcomes participation and project proposals of further centres fulfilling the outlined requirements. In the future, TRISP will be extended to include patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy.
  • Slik, Khadija; Blom, Sami; Turkki, Riku; Välimäki, Katja; Kurki, Samu; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Carpén, Olli; Kallioniemi, Olli; Korkeila, Eija; Sundström, Jari; Pellinen, Teijo (2019)
    Tumour budding predicts survival of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been suggested to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying molecular changes of tumour budding remain poorly understood. Here, we performed multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to phenotypically profile tumours using known EMT-associated markers: E-cadherin (adherence junctions), integrin beta 4 (ITGB4; basement membrane), ZO-1 (tight junctions), and pan-cytokeratin. A subpopulation of patients showed high ITGB4 expression in tumour buds, and this coincided with a switch of ITGB4 localisation from the basal membrane of intact epithelium to the cytoplasm of budding cells. Digital image analysis demonstrated that tumour budding with high ITGB4 expression in tissue microarray (TMA) cores correlated with tumour budding assessed from haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) whole sections and independently predicted poor disease-specific survival in two independent stage II CRC cohorts (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-13.5), n = 232; HR = 3.52 (95% CI = 1.30-9.53), n = 72). Furthermore, digitally obtained ITGB4-high bud count in random TMA cores was better associated with survival outcome than visual tumour bud count in corresponding H&E-stained samples. In summary, the mIHC-based phenotypic profiling of human tumour tissue shows strong potential for the molecular characterisation of tumour biology and for the discovery of novel prognostic biomarkers.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Elfving, P.; Puolakka, K.; Kautiainen, H.; Virta, L. J.; Pohjolainen, T.; Kaipiainen-Seppanen, O. (2016)
    The objectives of the study were to examine the initial, first-year anti-rheumatic outpatient therapy in patients with incident SLE, as well as the concomitant use of drugs for certain comorbidities, compared to the use in the general population. The Finnish nationwide register data on special reimbursements for medication costs was screened to identify the inception cohort of 566 adult SLE patients (87% females, mean age 46.5 +/- 15.9 years) over the years 2000-2007. The patients were linked to the national Drug Purchase Register. Of those, 90% had purchased at least once some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) during the first year. Hydroxychloroquine was the most common (76%), followed by azathioprine (15%) and methotrexate (13%). With the exception of increase in mycophenolate mofetil, the proportions remained stable over the whole study period 2000-2007. Drugs for cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and obstructive pulmonary disease were more frequently purchased than in the sex- and age-adjusted population, with rate ratios ranging from 1.6 to 7.8. Over the years 2000-2007, almost all the patients with incident SLE in Finland started with a DMARD. Higher percentages of SLE patients were on medication for several common chronic diseases than in the population as a whole.
  • El Missiry, Mohamed; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Richter, Johan; Olson-Stromberg, Ulla; Stenke, Leif; Porkka, Kimmo; Kreutzman, Anna; Mustjoki, Satu (2017)
    In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), early treatment prediction is important to identify patients with inferior overall outcomes. We examined the feasibility of using reductions in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment to predict therapy response. Fifty-two first-line TKI-treated CML patients were included (imatinib n = 26, dasatinib n = 21, nilotinib n = 5), and BCR-ABL1 transcript levels were measured at diagnosis (dg) and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. The fold change of the BCR-ABL1 transcripts at 1 month compared to initial BCR-ABL1 transcript levels was used to indicate early therapy response. In our cohort, 21% of patients had no decrease in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month and were classified as poor responders. Surprisingly, these patients had lower BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at dg compared to responders (31% vs. 48%, p = 0.0083). Poor responders also significantly more often had enlarged spleen (55% vs. 15%; p<0.01) and a higher percentage of Ph+ CD34+CD38- cells in the bone marrow (91% vs. 75%, p<0.05). The major molecular response rates were inferior in the poor responders (at 12m 18% vs. 64%, p<0.01; 18m 27% vs. 75%, p<0.01; 24m 55% vs. 87%, p<0.01). In conclusion, early treatment response analysis defines a biologically distinct patient subgroup with inferior long-term outcomes.
  • Venermo, M.; Wang, G.; Sedrakyan, A.; Mao, J.; Eldrup, N.; DeMartino, R.; Mani, K.; Altreuther, M.; Beiles, B.; Menyhei, G.; Danielsson, G.; Thomson, I.; Heller, G.; Setacci, C.; Bjorck, M.; Cronenwett, J. (2017)
    Objectives: The aim was to determine current practice for the treatment of carotid stenosis among 12 countries participating in the International Consortium of Vascular Registries (ICVR). Methods: Data from the United States Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) and the Vascunet registry collaboration (including 10 registries in Europe and Australasia) were used. Variation in treatment modality of asymptomatic versus symptomatic patients was analysed between countries and among centres within each country. Results: Among 58,607 procedures, octogenarians represented 18% of all patients, ranging from 8% (Hungary) to 22% (New Zealand and Australia). Women represented 36%, ranging from 29% (Switzerland) to 40% (USA). The proportion of carotid artery stenting (CAS) among asymptomatic patients ranged from 0% (Finland) to 26% (Sweden) and among symptomatic patients from 0% (Denmark) to 19% (USA). Variation among centres within countries for CAS was highest in the United States and Australia (from 0% to 80%). The overall proportion of asymptomatic patients was 48%, but varied from 0% (Denmark) to 73% (Italy). There was also substantial centre level variation within each country in the proportion of asymptomatic patients, most pronounced in Australia (0-72%), Hungary (5-55%), and the United States (0-100%). Countries with fee for service reimbursement had higher rates of treatment in asymptomatic patients than countries with population based reimbursement (OR 5.8, 95% CI 4.4-7.7). Conclusions: Despite evidence about treatment options for carotid artery disease, the proportion of asymptomatic patients, treatment modality, and the proportion of women and octogenarians vary considerably among and within countries. There was a significant association of treating more asymptomatic patients in countries with fee for service reimbursement. The findings reflect the inconsistency of the existing guidelines and a need for cooperation among guideline committees all over the world. (C) 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Peltonen, Reetta; Gramkow, Mathias H.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Osterlund, Pia J.; Johansen, Julia S.; Isoniemi, Helena (2020)
    Background The inflammatory biomarkers, YKL-40 and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We examined their associations with relapse-free survival and overall survival in combination with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19-9) in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Methods Altogether 441 consecutive patients undergoing liver resection at Helsinki University Hospital between 1998 and 2013 were included in the study. Pre- and postoperative YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined from serum samples with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, and CRP, CEA, and CA19-9 by routine methods. Associations between these biomarkers and relapse-free and overall survival were examined using Cox regression analysis. Results Patients with 2–5 elevated biomarkers were at an increased risk of relapse compared to those with 0–1 elevated biomarkers, preoperatively (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.1–1.72) or postoperatively (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.23–1.92). Patients with 2–5 elevated biomarkers were also at an increased risk of death compared to those with 0–1 elevated biomarkers, preoperatively (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.39–2.24) or postoperatively (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.44–2.33). Conclusion The results suggest that a protein panel of the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40, IL-6, and CRP, and the cancer biomarkers CEA and CA19-9 might identify patients that benefit from more aggressive treatment and surveillance, although the additional value of IL-6 and CRP in this aspect is limited.
  • Zanca, F.; Hernandez-Giron, I.; Avanzo, M.; Guidi, G.; Crijns, W.; Diaz, O.; Kagadis, G. C.; Rampado, O.; Lonne, P.; Ken, S.; Colgan, N.; Zaidi, H.; Zakaria, G. A.; Kortesniemi, M. (2021)
    Purpose: To provide a guideline curriculum related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), for the education and training of European Medical Physicists (MPs). Materials and methods: The proposed curriculum consists of two levels: Basic (introducing MPs to the pillars of knowledge, development and applications of AI, in the context of medical imaging and radiation therapy) and Advanced. Both are common to the subspecialties (diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology). The learning outcomes of the training are presented as knowledge, skills and competences (KSC approach). Results: For the Basic section, KSCs were stratified in four subsections: (1) Medical imaging analysis and AI Basics; (2) Implementation of AI applications in clinical practice; (3) Big data and enterprise imaging, and (4) Quality, Regulatory and Ethical Issues of AI processes. For the Advanced section instead, a common block was proposed to be further elaborated by each subspecialty core curriculum. The learning outcomes were also translated into a syllabus of a more traditional format, including practical applications. Conclusions: This AI curriculum is the first attempt to create a guideline expanding the current educational framework for Medical Physicists in Europe. It should be considered as a document to top the sub-specialties' curriculums and adapted by national training and regulatory bodies. The proposed educational program can be implemented via the European School of Medical Physics Expert (ESMPE) course modules and - to some extent - also by the national competent EFOMP organizations, to reach widely the medical physicist community in Europe.
  • Gouya, Laurent; Ventura, Paolo; Balwani, Manisha; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Rees, David C.; Stölzel, Ulrich; Phillips, John D.; Kauppinen, Raili; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Desnick, Robert J.; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Parker, Charles; Naik, Hetanshi; Badminton, Michael; Stein, Penelope E.; Minder, Elisabeth; Windyga, Jerzy; Bruha, Radan; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Sardh, Eliane; Harper, Pauline; Sandberg, Sverre; Aarsand, Aasne K.; Andersen, Janice; Alegre, Félix; Ivanova, Aneta; Talbi, Neila; Chan, Amy; Querbes, William; Ko, John; Penz, Craig; Liu, Shangbin; Lin, Tim; Simon, Amy; Anderson, Karl E. (2020)
    Abstract Acute hepatic porphyria comprises a group of rare, genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes involved in heme biosynthesis. Patients can experience acute neurovisceral attacks, debilitating chronic symptoms, and long-term complications. There is a lack of multinational, prospective data characterizing the disease and current treatment practices in severely affected patients. EXPLORE is a prospective, multinational, natural history study characterizing disease activity and clinical management in patients with acute hepatic porphyria who experience recurrent attacks. Eligible patients had a confirmed acute hepatic porphyria diagnosis and had experienced ≥3 attacks in the prior 12 months or were receiving prophylactic treatment. A total of 112 patients were enrolled and followed for at least 6 months. In the 12 months prior to the study, patients reported a median (range) of 6 (0-52) acute attacks, with 52 (46%) patients receiving hemin prophylaxis. Chronic symptoms were reported by 73 (65%) patients, with 52 (46%) patients experiencing these daily. During the study, 98 (88%) patients experienced a total of 483 attacks, 77% of which required treatment at a healthcare facility and/or hemin administration (median [range] annualized attack rate 2.0 [0.0-37.0]). Elevated levels of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 messenger ribonucleic acid levels, δ-aminolevulinic acid, and porphobilinogen compared with the upper limit of normal in healthy individuals were observed at baseline and increased further during attacks. Patients had impaired quality of life and increased healthcare utilization. Conclusions: Patients experienced attacks often requiring treatment in a healthcare facility and/or with hemin, as well as chronic symptoms that adversely influence day-to-day functioning. In this patient group, the high disease burden and diminished quality of life highlight the need for novel therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Juvonen, Eeva; Heiskanen, Jouni; Lindstrom, Vesa; Nihtinen, Anne; Sahlstedt, Leila; Volin, Liisa (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Steroid-refractory acute graft-versushost disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The long-term outcome of the patients is poor. Various immunosuppressive agents have been proposed as the second-line therapy but none of them has turned out more effective than the others. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a treatment option that does not predispose the patients to severe side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the treatment results of ECP in 52 patients with steroidrefractory or steroid-dependent aGVHD. Eighty-one percent of the patients suffered from a severe, Grade III or IV, aGVHD. ECP was started alone as the second-line treatment in 23 patients and in combination with an immunosuppressive drug in 18 patients. Eleven patients received ECP as the third-line or later treatment. RESULTS: A total of 62% of the patients responded, with 48% achieving complete response. In the patients with complete or partial response, the probabilities of survival at 4 years were 54 and 17%, respectively. The outcome of nonresponders was poor. The 1-year overall survivals of the patients with ECP as the second-line treatment either alone or in combination with an immunosuppressive drug or as the third-line treatment were 51, 28, and 18%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, starting ECP no later than 10 days after the start of the first-line treatment correlated with a good response and a consequent survival benefit. CONCLUSION: Extracorporeal photopheresis is an effective and well-tolerated treatment that should be considered as a second-line treatment for aGVHD.
  • Ameratunga, Malaka; Brana, Irene; Bono, Petri; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Plummer, Ruth; Aspegren, John; Korjamo, Timo; Snapir, Amir; de Bono, Johann S. (2020)
    Background Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are reported to be epigenetic anti-cancer drug targets. This first-in-human study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary anti-tumour activity of the BET inhibitor ODM-207 in patients with selected solid tumours. Methods This was an open-label Phase 1 study comprised of a dose escalation part, and evaluation of the effect of food on pharmacokinetics. ODM-207 was administered orally once daily. The dose escalation part was initiated with a dose titration in the initial cohort, followed by a 3 + 3 design. Results Thirty-five patients were treated with ODM-207, of whom 12 (34%) had castrate-resistant prostate cancer. One dose-limiting toxicity of intolerable fatigue was observed. The highest studied dose achieved was 2 mg/kg due to cumulative toxicity observed beyond the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) treatment window. Common AEs included thrombocytopenia, asthenia, nausea, anorexia, diarrhoea, fatigue, and vomiting. Platelet count decreased proportionally to exposure with rapid recovery upon treatment discontinuation. No partial or complete responses were observed. Conclusions ODM-207 shows increasing exposure in dose escalation and was safe at doses up to 2 mg/kg but had a narrow therapeutic window.
  • Helin, Henrik O.; Tuominen, Vilppu J.; Ylinen, Onni; Helin, Heikki; Isola, Jorma (2016)
    Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is subject to interobserver variation and lack of reproducibility. Digital image analysis (DIA) has been shown to improve the consistency and accuracy of the evaluation and its use is encouraged in current testing guidelines. We studied whether digital image analysis using a free software application (ImmunoMembrane) can assist in interpreting HER2 IHC in equivocal 2+ cases. We also compared digital photomicrographs with whole-slide images (WSI) as material for ImmunoMembrane DIA. We stained 750 surgical resection specimens of invasive breast cancers immunohistochemically for HER2 and analysed staining with ImmunoMembrane. The ImmunoMembrane DIA scores were compared with the originally responsible pathologists' visual scores, a researcher's visual scores and in situ hybridisation (ISH) results. The originally responsible pathologists reported 9.1 % positive 3+ IHC scores, for the researcher this was 8.4 % and for ImmunoMembrane 9.5 %. Equivocal 2+ scores were 34 % for the pathologists, 43.7 % for the researcher and 10.1 % for ImmunoMembrane. Negative 0/1+ scores were 57.6 % for the pathologists, 46.8 % for the researcher and 80.8 % for ImmunoMembrane. There were six false positive cases, which were classified as 3+ by ImmunoMembrane and negative by ISH. Six cases were false negative defined as 0/1+ by IHC and positive by ISH. ImmunoMembrane DIA using digital photomicrographs and WSI showed almost perfect agreement. In conclusion, digital image analysis by ImmunoMembrane can help to resolve a majority of equivocal 2+ cases in HER2 IHC, which reduces the need for ISH testing.
  • Akinrinade, Oyediran; Ollila, Laura; Vattulainen, Sanna; Tallila, Jonna; Gentile, Massimiliano; Salmenpera, Pertteli; Koillinen, Hannele; Kaartinen, Maija; Nieminen, Markku S.; Myllykangas, Samuel; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Helio, Tiina (2015)
    Aims Genetic analysis among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is becoming an important part of clinical assessment, as it is in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The genetics of DCM is complex and therefore next-generation sequencing strategies are essential when providing genetic diagnostics. To achieve maximum yield, the diagnostic approach should include comprehensive clinical phenotyping combined with high-quality, high-coverage deep sequencing of DCM-associated genes and clinical variant classification as a basis for defining true yield in genetic testing. Our study has combined a novel sequencing strategy and clinical interpretation to analyse the yield and genotype-phenotype correlations among well-phenotyped Finnish DCM patients.Despite our increased understanding of the genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the clinical utility and yield of clinically meaningful findings of comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based genetic diagnostics in DCM has been poorly described. We utilized a high-quality oligonucleotide-selective sequencing (OS-Seq)-based targeted sequencing panel to investigate the genetic landscape of DCM in Finnish population and to evaluate the utility of OS-Seq technology as a novel comprehensive diagnostic tool. Methods and results Using OS-Seq, we targeted and sequenced the coding regions and splice junctions of 101 genes associated with cardiomyopathies in 145 unrelated Finnish patients with DCM. We developed effective bioinformatic variant filtering strategy and implemented strict variant classification scheme to reveal diagnostic yield and genotype-phenotype correlations. Implemented OS-Seq technology provided high coverage of the target region (median coverage 410x and 99.42% of the nucleotides were sequenced at least 15x read depth). Diagnostic yield was 35.2% (familial 47.6% and sporadic 25.6%, P = 0.004) when both pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants are considered as disease causing. Of these, 20 (53%) were titin (TTN) truncations (non-sense and frameshift) affecting all TTN transcripts. TTN truncations accounted for 20.6% and 14.6% of the familial and sporadic DCM cases, respectively. Conclusion Panel-based, high-quality NGS enables high diagnostic yield especially in the familial form of DCM, and bioinformatic variant filtering is a reliable step in the process of interpretation of genomic data in a clinical setting.