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  • Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Broennimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergstrom, H.; Bhend, J.; Brazdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Reznckova, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X. (2015)
    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.
  • Ramage, Thibault; Martins-Simoes, Patricia; Mialdea, Gladys; Allemand, Roland; Duplouy, Anne; Rousse, Pascal; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K.; Charlat, Sylvain (2017)
    We report here on the taxonomic and molecular diversity of 10 929 terrestrial arthropod specimens, collected on four islands of the Society Archipelago, French Polynesia. The survey was part of the 'SymbioCode Project' that aims to establish the Society Islands as a natural laboratory in which to investigate the flux of bacterial symbionts (e.g., Wolbachia) and other genetic material among branches of the arthropod tree. The sample includes an estimated 1127 species, of which 1098 included at least one DNA-barcoded specimen and 29 were identified to species level using morphological traits only. Species counts based on molecular data emphasize that some groups have been understudied in this region and deserve more focused taxonomic effort, notably Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Some taxa that were also subjected to morphological scrutiny reveal a consistent match between DNA and morphology-based species boundaries in 90% of the cases, with a larger than expected genetic diversity in the remaining 10%. Many species from this sample are new to this region or are undescribed. Some are under description, but many await inspection by motivated experts, who can use the online images or request access to ethanol-stored specimens.
  • Oksanen, Otto; Zliobaite, Indre; Saarinen, Juha; Lawing, A. Michelle; Fortelius, Mikael (2019)
    Aim The links between geo- and biodiversity, postulated by Humboldt, can now be made quantitative. Species are adapted to their environments and interact with their environments by having pertinent functional traits. We aim to improve global ecometric models using functional traits for estimating palaeoclimate and apply models to Pleistocene fauna for palaeoclimate interpretation. Location Global at present day, Pleistocene of Europe for fossil data analysis. Taxa Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea and Primates. Methods We quantify functional traits of large mammal communities and develop statistical models linking trait distributions to local climate at present day. We apply these models to the fossil record, survey functional traits, and quantitatively estimate climates of the past. This approach to analysing functional relationships between faunal communities and their environments is called ecometrics. Results and main conclusions Here, we present new global ecometric models for estimating mean annual and minimum temperature from dental traits of present day mammalian communities. We also present refined models for predicting net primary productivity. Using dental ecometric models, we produce palaeoclimate estimates for 50 Pleistocene fossil localities in Europe and show that the estimates are consistent with trends derived from other proxies, especially for minimum temperatures, which we hypothesize to be ecologically limiting. Our new temperature models allow us to trace the distribution of freezing and non-freezing ecosystems in the recent past, opening new perspectives on the evolution of cold-adaptive biota as the Pleistocene cooling progressed.
  • Shang, Yuan; Prins, Maarten A.; Beets, Christiaan J.; Kaakinen, Anu; Lahaye, Yann; Dijkstra, Noortje; Rits, Daniel S.; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Hongbo; van Balen, Ronald T. (2018)
    The thick loess-palaeosol sequences in the Mangshan Loess Plateau (MLP; central China) along the south bank of the lower reach of the Yellow River provide high-resolution records of Quaternary climate change. In addition, substantial increases in grain-size and accumulation rate have been inferred in the upper part of the loess sequence, above palaeosol layer S2. This study investigates the sources of the long-term dust supply to the MLP and explores the mechanism behind the sudden increase in sediment delivery and coarsening of the loess deposits since S2 (similar to 240 ka) by using end member modelling of the loess grain-size dataset and single-grain zircon U-Pb dating. Our results indicate that the lower Yellow River floodplain, directly north of the MLP, served as a major dust supply for the plateau at least since the deposition of loess unit L9 and indirectly suggest that the integration of the Yellow River and the disappearance of the Sanmen palaeolake took place before L9 (similar to 900 ka). The sudden change in sedi-mentology of the Mangshan sequence above palaeosol unit S2 may result from an increased fluvial sediment flux being transported to the lower reaches of the Yellow River because of tectonic movements (initiated) in the Weihe Basin around 240 ka. Furthermore, sediment coarsening can be explained by the gradual southward migration of the lower Yellow River floodplain towards the MLP since the deposition of palaeosol S2. The migration is evidenced by the formation of an impressive scarp, and is likely caused by tectonic tilting of the floodplain area. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Luostarinen, Tiia; Ribeiro, Sofia; Weckstrom, Kaarina; Sejr, Mikael; Meire, Lorenz; Tallberg, Petra; Heikkila, Maija (2020)
    We recorded diatom species succession over one full year (May 2017-May 2018) using automated sediment traps installed in two contrasting Greenlandic fjords: the seasonally ice-covered Young Sound in high-arctic Northeast Greenland and the nearly sea-ice free Godthabsfjord in subarctic Southwest Greenland. The traps were positioned at differing water depths (37m in Young Sound vs. 300m in Godthabsfjord). Distinct differences between the study sites were observed in both sediment and diatom fluxes. In Young Sound, total diatom flux was extremely seasonal and as high as 880 x 10(6) valves m(-2) d(-1) in the spring. In Godthabsfjord, total diatom flux was more stable throughout the year, with a maximum of 320 x 10(6) valves m(-2) d(-1) in the summer. The diatom assemblage in Young Sound was dominated by the sea-ice species Fragilariopsis oceanica, Fragilariopsis reginae-jahniae and Fossula arctica, which exhibited pulse-like deposition in the trap during and after the ice melt. In Godthabsfjord, the fluxes were dominated by Chaetoceros (resting spores), while the remaining assemblage was characterised by the cold-water indicator species Detonula confervacea (resting spores) and Thalassiosira antarctica var. borealis (resting spores) together with Fragilariopsis cylindrus. Our data show that, F. oceanica, F. reginae-jahniae and F. arctica exhibit similar seasonal behaviour and a clear link to sea ice. Fragilariopsis cylindrus seems to have a more flexible niche, and based on our study, cannot be considered an unequivocal ice indicator. Taking into account these ecological and seasonal preferences of individual diatom species is crucial when reconstructing past sea-ice conditions both qualitatively and quantitatively.
  • Salmela, Jouni; Saarni, Saija; Blafield, Linnea; Katainen, Markus; Kasvi, Elina; Alho, Petteri (2022)
    In this study, we investigated sedimentation differences between two distinctive cold seasons, in terms of hydmmeteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic Sea in 2018-2020. A combination of sediment trap data, hydmmeteorological data and hydrodynamic modelling provided a unique set-up to discover differences in sedimentation rates and compositions. Our study shows that the averaged sedimentation accumulation rate (SAR) was nearly three times higher during warmer cold season (30.9 g m(-2) day(-1)), characterised by higher precipitation, especially rain and discharge, as well as snowless and open water conditions, compared to regular cold season (10.6 g m(-2) day(-1)). While sedimentation was higher during the warmer season, the mean sediment grain size (D-50) was higher during the regular cold season with permanent snow and ice cover. Similarly, while sediments of the regular cold season were organically rich, the total amount of organic matter accumulation was larger during the warmer cold season. Sediments consisted mostly of elastic matter (85-89%), of which the mean grain size varied from clay to fine silt (0.3-3.0 mu m). Sedimentation differences between the cold seasons can be explained by differences in precipitation, river flow, wind-induced resuspension and a low air pressure system forcing sea level changes. Sedimentation differences along the study bay were found to be connected to channel cross-sectional area and flow conditions caused by river input and sea level changes.
  • Lohela, Terhi; Nesbitt, Robin Clark; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Kirkwood, Betty; Gabrysch, Sabine (2016)
    Objectives To assess health worker competence in emergency obstetric care using clinical vignettes, to link competence to availability of infrastructure in facilities, and to average annual delivery workload in facilities. Design Cross-sectional Health Facility Assessment linked to population-based surveillance data. Setting 7 districts in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. Participants Most experienced delivery care providers in all 64 delivery facilities in the 7 districts. Primary outcome measures Health worker competence in clinical vignette actions by cadre of delivery care provider and by type of facility. Competence was also compared with availability of relevant drugs and equipment, and to average annual workload per skilled birth attendant. Results Vignette scores were moderate overall, and differed significantly by respondent cadre ranging from a median of 70% correct among doctors, via 55% among midwives, to 25% among other cadres such as health assistants and health extension workers (p Conclusions Lack of competence might limit clinical practice even more than lack of relevant drugs and equipment. Cadres other than midwives and doctors might not be able to diagnose and manage delivery complications. Checking clinical competence through vignettes in addition to checklist items could contribute to a more comprehensive approach to evaluate quality of care.
  • Salminen, Johanna; Hanson, Richard; Evans, David A. D.; Gong, Zheng; Larson, Tierney; Walker, Olivia; Gumsley, Ashley; Soderlund, Ulf; Ernst, Richard (2018)
  • Ramos-Roman, Maria J.; De Jonge, Cindy; Magyari, Eniko; Veres, Daniel; Ilvonen, Liisa; Develle, Anne-Lise; Seppä, Heikki (2022)
    To reconstruct changes in vegetation, temperature, and sediment geochemistry through the last 6.5 cal ka BP, in the Subcarpathian belt of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania), pollen, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and X-ray fluorescence analyses have been integrated. Pollen and brGDGTs (a bacterial lipid biomarker proxy) are used as paleothermometers for reconstructing the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and mean temperature above freezing (MAF), respectively. Both proxies show roughly consistent records. The highest MAAT and MAF occurs during the oldest part of the record (from 6.5 to 4.2 cal ka BP), and the Middle to the Late Holocene shift is marked by a prominent decrease in temperature between 5.4 and 4.2 cal ka BP, coinciding with Bond event 4 and 3. This transition is coeval with a decrease in summer insolation, shift from consistent NAO-conditions to a predominance of NAO+ phase and coincides with the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling in northern latitudes. The warm bias in the MAF reconstruction during the Late Holocene is explained as a change in the lipid provenance or in the composition of the brGDGT producers after 4.2 cal ka BP.
  • Mueller, Daniela; Tjallingii, Rik; Plociennik, Mateusz; Luoto, Tomi P.; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plessen, Birgit; Ramisch, Arne; Schwab, Markus J.; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw; Slowinski, Michal; Brauer, Achim (2021)
    The sediment profile from Lake Goscia(z) over dot in central Poland comprises a continuous, seasonally resolved and exceptionally well-preserved archive of the Younger Dryas (YD) climate variation. This provides a unique opportunity for detailed investigation of lake system responses during periods of rapid climate cooling (YD onset) and warming (YD termination). The new varve record of Lake Goscia(z) over dot presented here spans 1662 years from the late Allerod (AL) to the early Preboreal (PB). Microscopic varve counting provides an independent chronology with a YD duration of 1149+14/-22 years, which confirms previous results of 1140 +/- 40 years. We link stable oxygen isotopes and chironomid-based air temperature reconstructions with the response of various geochemical and varve microfacies proxies especially focusing on the onset and termination of the YD. Cooling at the YD onset lasted similar to 180 years, which is about a century longer than the terminal warming that was completed in similar to 70 years. During the AL/YD transition, environmental proxy data lagged the onset of cooling by similar to 90 years and revealed an increase of lake productivity and internal lake re-suspension as well as slightly higher detrital sediment input. In contrast, rapid warming and environmental changes during the YD/PB transition occurred simultaneously. However, initial changes such as declining diatom deposition and detrital input occurred already a few centuries before the rapid warming at the YD/PB transition. These environmental changes likely reflect a gradual increase in summer air temperatures already during the YD. Our data indicate complex and differing environmental responses to the major climate changes related to the YD, which involve different proxy sensitivities and threshold processes.
  • Goebeler, Norman; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna (2022)
    Long term coastal surface and sub-surface monitoring reveals that warm temperature extremes have intensified and cold extremes nearly vanished in the last decades, increasing baseline water temperature on the southwest coast of Finland. Global marine heatwave assessments often rely on satellite-derived sea surface temperature. However, these data have low accuracy in coastal areas, are unable to measure sub-surface temperatures and have only been available since the 1980s. Here, we analyse 90 years of in situ surface and bottom (30 m) water temperature data from a Finnish coastal monitoring site. Water temperatures were significantly higher between 1991-2020 than 1931-1960 and 1961-1990. We find strong differences between satellite-derived and in situ temperatures, with in situ temperatures being lower in autumn and winter and higher in spring. Measurements at the seafloor indicate marine heatwaves occurred during all seasons between 2016 and 2020, with intensities and durations exceeding previous records. Since the 1990s, we find an upward shift of the baseline temperature and increasingly frequent occurrence of temperatures previously considered as an extreme. Our findings highlight the importance of long-term in situ data and choice of climatological reference periods for assessing change.
  • Miettinen, Otto; Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Rivoire, Bernard; Stenroos, Soili; Hibbett, David (2016)
    We explored whether DNA-phylogeny-based and morphology-based genus concepts can be reconciled in the basidiomycete family Phanerochaetaceae. Our results show that macromorphology of fruiting bodies and hymenophore construction do not reflect monophyletic groups. However, by integrating micromorphology and re-defining genera, harmonization of DNA phylogeny and morphological genus concepts is possible in most cases. In the case of one genus (Phlebiopsis), our genetic markers could not resolve genus limits satisfactorily and a clear morphological definition could not be identified. We combine extended species sampling, microscopic studies of fruiting bodies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS, nLSU and rpb1 to revise genus concepts. Three new polypore genera are ascribed to the Phanerochaetaceae: Oxychaete gen. nov. (type Oxyporus cervinogilvus), Phanerina gen. nov. (type Ceriporia mellea), and Riopa (including Ceriporia metamorphosa and Riopa pudens sp. nov.). Phlebiopsis is extended to include Dentocorticium pilatii, further species of Hjortstamia and the monotypic polypore genus Castanoporus. The polypore Ceriporia inflata is combined into Phanerochaete. The identity of the type species of the genus Riopa, R. davidii, has been misinterpreted in the current literature. The species has been included in Ceriporia as a species of its own or placed in synonymy with Ceriporia camaresiana. The effort to properly define R. davidii forced us to study Ceriporia more widely. In the process we identified five closely related Ceriporia species that belong to the true Ceriporia clade (Irpicaceae). We describe those species here, and introduce the Ceriporia pierii group. We also select a lectotype and an epitype for Riopa metamorphosa and neotypes for Sporotrichum aurantiacum and S. aurantium, the type species of the anamorphic genus Sporotrichum, and recommend that teleomorphic Riopa is conserved against it.
  • Katrantsiotis, Christos; Norström, Elin; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Salonen, J. Sakari; Plikk, Anna; Helmens, Karin (2021)
    The Last Interglacial warm period, the Eemian (ca. 130-116 thousand years ago), serves as a reference for projected future climate in a warmer world. However, there is a limited understanding of the seasonal characteristics of interglacial climate dynamics, especially in high latitude regions. In this study, we aim to provide new insights into seasonal trends in temperature and moisture source location, linked to shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, for northern Fennoscandia during the Eemian. Our study is based on the distribution and stable hydrogen isotope composition (delta D) of n-alkanes in a lake sediment sequence from the Sokli paleolake in NE Finland, placed in a multi-proxy framework. The delta D values of predominantly macrophyte-derived mid-chain n-alkanes are interpreted to reflect lake water delta D variability influenced by winter precipitation delta D (delta Dprec), ice cover duration and deuterium (D)-depleted meltwater. The delta D values of terrestrial plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes primarily reflect soil water delta D variability modulated by summer delta Dprec and by the evaporative enrichment of soil and leaf water. The delta Dprec variability in our study area is mostly attributed to the temperature effect and the moisture source location linked to the relative dominance between D-depleted continental and polar air masses and D-enriched North Atlantic air masses. The biomarker signal further corroborates earlier diatom-based studies and pollen-inferred January and July temperature reconstructions from the same sediment sequence. Three phases of climatic changes can be identified that generally follow the secular variations in seasonal insolation: (i) an early warming trend succeeded by a period of strong seasonality (ii) a mid-optimum phase with gradually decreased seasonality and cooler summers, and (iii) a late climatic instability with a cooling trend. Superimposed on this trend, two abrupt cooling events occur in the early and late Eemian. The Sokli delta D variability is generally in good agreement with other North Atlantic and Siberian records, reflecting major changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns during the Eemian as a response to orbital and oceanic forcings. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Oksman, Mimmi; Juggins, Stephen; Miettinen, Arto Ilmari; Witkowski, Andrzej; Weckström, Kaarina (2019)
    Sound knowledge of present-day diatom species and their environments is crucial when attempting to reconstruct past climate and environmental changes based on fossil assemblages. For the North Atlantic region, the biogeography and ecology of many diatom taxa that are used as indicator-species in paleoceanographic studies are still not well known. Using information contained in large diatom-environment calibration datasets can greatly increase our knowledge on diatom taxa and improve the accuracy of paleoenvironmental reconstructions. A diatom calibration dataset including 183 surface sediment samples from the northern North Atlantic was used to explore the distribution and ecology of 21 common Northern Hemisphere diatom taxa. We define the ecological responses of these species to April sea ice concentrations and August sea surface temperatures (aSSTs) using Huisman-Olff-Fresco (HOF)-response curves, provide distribution maps, temperature optima and ranges, and high-quality light microscope images. Based on the results, we find species clearly associated with cold, warm and temperate waters. All species have a statistically significant relationship with aSST, and 15 species with sea ice. Of these, Actinocyclus curvatulus, Fragilariopsis oceanica and Porosira glacialis are most abundant at high sea ice concentrations, whereas Coscinodiscus radiants, Shionodiscus oestrupii, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira angulata, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii and Thalassiosira pacifica are associated with low sea ice concentrations/ice-free conditions. Interestingly, some species frequently used as sea ice indicators, such as Fragilariopsis cylindrus, show similar abundances at high and low sea ice concentrations with no statistically significant relationship to sea ice.
  • Ameel, Maria; Leino, Hanna; Kontio, Raija; van Achterberg, Theo; Junttila, Kristiina (2020)
    Aims and objectives To identify and describe nursing interventions in patient documentation in adult psychiatric outpatient setting and to explore the potential for using the Nursing Interventions Classification in documentation in this setting. Background Documentation is an important part of nurses' work, and in the psychiatric outpatient care setting, it can be time-consuming. Only very few research reports are available on nursing documentation in this care setting. Methods A qualitative analysis of secondary data consisting of nursing documentation for 79 patients in four outpatient units (years 2016-2017). The data consisted of 1,150 free-text entries describing a contact or an attempted contact with 79 patients, their family members or supporting networks and 17 nursing care summaries. Deductive and inductive content analysis was used. SRQR guideline was used for reporting. Results We identified 71 different nursing interventions, 64 of which are described in the Nursing Interventions Classification. Surveillance and Care Coordination were the most common interventions. The analysis revealed two perspectives which challenge the use of the classification: the problem of overlapping interventions and the difficulty of naming group-based interventions. Conclusion There is an urgent need to improve patient documentation in the adult psychiatric outpatient care setting, and standardised nursing terminologies such as the Nursing Interventions Classification could be a solution to this. However, the problems of overlapping interventions and naming group-based interventions suggest that the classification needs to be further developed before it can fully support the systematic documentation of nursing interventions in the psychiatric outpatient care setting. Relevance to clinical practice This study describes possibilities of using a systematic nursing language to describe the interventions nurses use in the adult psychiatric outpatient setting. It also describes problems in the current free text-based documentation.
  • Helama, Samuli; Arppe, Laura; Uusitalo, Joonas; Holopainen, Jari; Mäkelä, Hanna; Mäkinen, Harri; Mielikäinen, Kari; Nöjd, Pekka; Sutinen, Raimo; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Timonen, Mauri; Oinonen, Markku (2018)
  • Ribeiro, Sofia; Limoges, Audrey; Masse, Guillaume; Johansen, Kasper L.; Colgan, William; Weckstrom, Kaarina; Jackson, Rebecca; Georgiadis, Eleanor; Mikkelsen, Naja; Kuijpers, Antoon; Olsen, Jesper; Olsen, Steffen M.; Nissen, Martin; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Strunk, Astrid; Wetterich, Sebastian; Syvaranta, Jari; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; Mackay, Helen; Taipale, Sami; Jeppesen, Erik; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Crosta, Xavier; Giraudeau, Jacques; Wengrat, Simone; Nuttall, Mark; Gronnow, Bjarne; Mosbech, Anders; Davidson, Thomas A. (2021)
    High Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihoods are tightly linked and exposed to climate change, yet assessing their sensitivity requires a long-term perspective. Here, we assess the vulnerability of the North Water polynya, a unique seaice ecosystem that sustains the world's northernmost Inuit communities and several keystone Arctic species. We reconstruct mid-to-late Holocene changes in sea ice, marine primary production, and little auk colony dynamics through multi-proxy analysis of marine and lake sediment cores. Our results suggest a productive ecosystem by 4400-4200 cal yrs b2k coincident with the arrival of the first humans in Greenland. Climate forcing during the late Holocene, leading to periods of polynya instability and marine productivity decline, is strikingly coeval with the human abandonment of Greenland from c. 2200-1200 cal yrs b2k. Our long-term perspective highlights the future decline of the North Water ecosystem, due to climate warming and changing sea-ice conditions, as an important climate change risk. The North Water polynya is a unique but vulnerable ecosystem, home to Indigenous people and Arctic keystone species. New palaeoecological records from Greenland suggest human abandonment c. 2200-1200 cal yrs BP occurred during climate-forced polynya instability, foreshadowing future ecosystem declines.