Browsing by Subject "RECOVERY"

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  • Sajanti, Antti; Lyne, Sean B.; Girard, Romuald; Frantzen, Janek; Rantamaki, Tomi; Heino, Iiro; Cao, Ying; Diniz, Cassiano; Umemori, Juzoh; Li, Yan; Takala, Riikka; Posti, Jussi P.; Roine, Susanna; Koskimäki, Fredrika; Rahi, Melissa; Rinne, Jaakko; Castren, Eero; Koskimäki, Janne (2020)
    P75 neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR) is an important receptor for the role of neurotrophins in modulating brain plasticity and apoptosis. The current understanding of the role of p75NTR in cellular adaptation following pathological insults remains blurred, which makes p75NTR's related signaling networks an interesting and challenging initial point of investigation. We identified p75NTR and related genes through extensive data mining of a PubMed literature search including published works related to p75NTR from the past 20 years. Bioinformatic network and pathway analyses of identified genes (n=235) were performed using ReactomeFIViz in Cytoscape based on the highly reliable Reactome functional interaction network algorithm. This approach merges interactions extracted from human curated pathways with predicted interactions from machine learning. Genome-wide pathway analysis showed total of 16 enriched hierarchical clusters. A total of 278 enriched single pathways were also identified (p
  • Brown, Hugh C. A.; Berninger, Frank A.; Larjavaara, Markku; Appiah, Mark (2020)
    High deforestation rates, especially in the tropics, currently result in the annual emission of large amounts of carbon, contributing to global climate change. There is therefore an urgent need to take actions to mitigate climate change both by slowing down deforestation and by initiating new sinks. Tropical forest plantations are generally thought to sequester carbon rapidly during the initial years but there is limited knowledge on their long-term potential. In this study, we assessed the carbon sequestration in old (42-47 years) timber plantations of Aucoumea klaineana, Cedrela odorata, Tarrietia utilis, and Terminalia ivorensis, and secondary forests of similar ages, by comparing their basal areas and above-ground carbon stocks (AGC) to that of nearby primary forests. Additionally, we estimated and compared timber volume and stumpage value in the three forest types. Systematic random sampling of ninety-three 20 m x 20 m plots in eleven forest sites (2 secondary forests, 2 primary forests, and 7 timber plantations) was undertaken to determine the effect of forest type on AGC, basal area, timber volume, and stumpage value. After 42 years of growth, mean AGC of the timber plantations (159.7 +/- 14.3 Mg ha(-1)) was similar to that of primary forests (173.0 +/- 25.1 Mg ha(-1)) and both were significantly higher than the mean AGC of the secondary forests (103.6 +/- 12.3 Mg ha(-1)). Mean basal area and timber volume of the timber plantations and secondary forests were similar to that of the primary forests, though in each case the timber plantations had significantly higher values compared to the secondary forests. Mean timber value of the plantations ($8577 ha(-1)) was significantly higher than both secondary ($1870 ha(-1)) and primary forests ($3112 ha(-1)). Contrary to our expectations, naturally regenerated trees (woody recruits) within the timber plantations had similar AGC levels, basal area, timber volume, and value compared to the secondary forests. Long-rotation tropical forest plantations under low-intensity management could achieve higher AGC levels and thus have higher climate change mitigation potential and timber values compared to naturally regenerated secondary forests, and are able to reach values similar to primary forests. Monoculture timber plantations could facilitate the successful colonization of their understoreys by native woody recruits that contribute considerably to stand AGC and timber values. Long-rotation forest plantations in the tropics therefore have a critical role to play in forest rehabilitation and climate change mitigation while having the potential to provide modest financial returns to landowners through selective harvesting of timber and/or payments for carbon sequestration.
  • Erlandsson, Rasmus; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Finne, Eirik A.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Virtanen, Tarmo; Rasanen, Aleksi; Kumpula, Timo; Kolari, Tiina H. M.; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Tommervik, Hans (2022)
    Although generally given little attention in vegetation studies, ground-dwelling (terricolous) lichens are major contributors to overall carbon and nitrogen cycling, albedo, biodiversity and biomass in many high-latitude ecosystems. Changes in biomass of mat-forming pale lichens have the potential to affect vegetation, fauna, climate and human activities including reindeer husbandry. Lichens have a complex spectral signature and terricolous lichens have limited growth height, often growing in mixtures with taller vegetation. This has, so far, prevented the development of remote sensing techniques to accurately assess lichen biomass, which would be a powerful tool in ecosystem and ecological research and rangeland management. We present a Landsat based remote sensing model developed using deep neural networks, trained with 8914 field records of lichen volume collected for > 20 years. In contrast to earlier proposed machine learning and regression methods for lichens, our model exploited the ability of neural networks to handle mixed spatial resolution input. We trained candidate models using input of 1 x 1 (30 x 30 m) and 3 x 3 Landsat pixels based on 7 reflective bands and 3 indices, combined with a 10 m spatial resolution digital elevation model. We normalised elevation data locally for each plot to remove the region-specific variation, while maintaining informative local variation in topography. The final model predicted lichen volume in an evaluation set (n = 159) reaching an R2 of 0.57. NDVI and elevation were the most important predictors, followed by the green band. Even with moderate tree cover density, the model was efficient, offering a considerable improvement compared to earlier methods based on specific reflectance. The model was in principle trained on data from Scandinavia, but when applied to sites in North America and Russia, the predictions of the model corresponded well with our visual interpretations of lichen abundance. We also accurately quantified a recent historic (35 years) change in lichen abundance in northern Norway. This new method enables further spatial and temporal studies of variation and changes in lichen biomass related to multiple research questions as well as rangeland management and economic and cultural ecosystem services. Combined with information on changes in drivers such as climate, land use and management, and air pollution, our model can be used to provide accurate estimates of ecosystem changes and to improve vegetation-climate models by including pale lichens.
  • Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Saxen, Harri; Nikkonen, Anne; Peltola, Ville; Jaakkola, Tytti; de Vos, Willem; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2020)
    BACKGROUND The effects of antibiotics on infant gut microbiota are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of common antibiotics results in long-term aberration in gut microbiota. METHODS Antibiotic-naive infants were prospectively recruited when hospitalized because of a respiratory syncytial virus infection. Composition of fecal microbiota was compared between those receiving antibiotics during follow-up (prescribed at clinicians' discretion because of complications such as otitis media) and those with no antibiotic exposure. Fecal sampling started on day 1, then continued at 2-day intervals during the hospital stay, and at 1, 3 and 6 months at home. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-three fecal samples from 40 patients (median age 2.3 months at baseline; 22 exposed to antibiotics) were available for microbiota analyses. A single course of amoxicillin or macrolide resulted in aberration of infant microbiota characterized by variation in the abundance of bifidobacteria, enterobacteria and clostridia, lasting for several months. Recovery from the antibiotics was associated with an increase in clostridia. Occasionally, antibiotic use resulted in microbiota profiles associated with inflammatory conditions. CONCLUSIONS Antibiotic use in infants modifies especially bifidobacterial levels. Further studies are warranted whether administration of bifidobacteria will provide health benefits by normalizing the microbiota in infants receiving antibiotics.
  • McFadyen, Charles A.; Zeiler, Frederick A.; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese; Steyerberg, Ewout; Gruen, Russel L.; Rosand, Jonathan; Palotie, Aarno; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K. (2021)
    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been largely static despite advances in monitoring and imaging techniques. Substantial variance exists in outcome, not fully accounted for by baseline characteristics or injury severity, and genetic factors likely play a role in this variance. The aims of this systematic review were to examine the evidence for a link between the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) polymorphism and TBI outcomes and where possible, to quantify the effect size via meta-analysis. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and gray literature in December 2017. We included studies of APOE genotype in relation to functional adult TBI outcomes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies Risk of Bias Assessment Instrument and the prognostic studies adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool. In addition, we contacted investigators and included an additional 160 patients whose data had not been made available for previous analyses, giving a total sample size of 2593 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated higher odds of a favorable outcome following TBI in those not possessing an ApoE e4 allele compared with e4 carriers and homozygotes (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.84; p = 0.02). The influence of APOE4 on neuropsychological functioning following TBI remained uncertain, with multiple conflicting studies. We conclude that the ApoE e4 allele confers a small risk of poor outcome following TBI, with analysis by TBI severity not possible based on the currently available published data. Further research into the long-term neuropsychological impact and risk of dementia is warranted.
  • Harma, Mikko; Karhula, Kati; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajarvi, Anneli; Hakola, Tarja; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in work shifts and shift intensity are related to changes in difficulties to fall asleep, fatigue, and sleep length. Methods Questionnaire responses of hospital employees (N=7727, 93% women) in 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were linked to daily-based records of working hours during three months preceding each survey. We used conditional logistic regression and longitudinal fixed-effects analyses to investigate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each 25% within-individual change in the proportion of working hour characteristics in relation to changes in fatigue, difficulties to fall asleep, and 24-hour sleep length. Results Change in night but not in morning or evening shifts was associated with parallel changes in odds for longer sleep length (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64) and fatigue during free days (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.64). Similarly, short shift intervals and having >2 but not >4 consecutive night shifts were associated with increased odds of fatigue during work and difficulties to fall asleep (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.72 and OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.19, respectively). Among workers aged >= 50 years, the associations were the strongest between night shifts and longer sleep (OR 2.24,95% CI 1.52-3.81) and between higher proportion of short shift intervals and fatigue during free days (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.10-2.54). Conclusions Among shift workers with fatigue or sleep problems, decreasing the proportion of night shifts and quick returns and giving preference to quickly forward-rotating shift systems may reduce fatigue.
  • Karhula, Kati; Harma, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa (2016)
    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and -amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers.
  • Söderholm, John J.; Socada, J. Lumikukka; Rosenström, Tom; Ekelund, Jesper; Isometsä, Erkki (2022)
    Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive (MDD) or bipolar disorders (BD) are frequently complicated by features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mixed features are a hallmark of BD and affective lability of BPD, and both may markedly influence illness course. However, direct comparisons of outcome of depression in MDD, BD, and BPD are scarce.Methods: In a cohort study based on stratified sampling, we diagnosed psychiatric MDE patients with SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews and examined mixed symptoms using the Mix-MDE scale and borderline symptoms using the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index. During a six-month prospective follow-up, the MDE patients with MDD (n = 39), BD (n = 33), or BPD (n = 23) completed biweekly online assessments. Using life chart methodology, we divided the follow-up period into qualitatively different mood state periods. We investigated durations of mood episodes, times to first full symptomatic remission, and their predictors.Results: Remission rates were similar in MDD, MDE/BD, and MDE/BPD patients. MDE/BD patients experienced more numerous and shorter distinct mood state periods during follow-up than the others. MDE/BD was associated with shorter (HR = 2.44, 95 % CI = 1.27-4.67) and dimensionally assessed BPD severity with longer time to first remission (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.91-1.00). Limitations: Moderate sample size and follow-up duration.Conclusions: Course of illness over six months differs between the three depressive groups. Bipolar depressive patients have the most alternating course and the shortest time to first period of remission. Dimensionally assessed severity of BPD may predict longer time to remission from depression.
  • Majander, Anna; Bowman, Richard; Poulton, Joanna; Antcliff, Richard J.; Reddy, M. Ashwin; Michaelides, Michel; Webster, Andrew R.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Votruba, Marcela; Moore, Anthony T.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick (2017)
    Background The onset of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is relatively rare in childhood. This study describes the clinical and molecular genetic features observed in this specific LHON subgroup. Methods Our retrospective study consisted of a UK paediatric LHON cohort of 27 patients and 69 additional cases identified from a systematic review of the literature. Patients were included if visual loss occurred at the age of 12 years or younger with a confirmed pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation: m. 3460G>A, m. 11778G>A or m. 14484T>C. Results In the UK paediatric LHON cohort, three patterns of visual loss and progression were observed: (1) classical acute (17/27, 63%); (2) slowly progressive (4/27, 15%); and (3) insidious or subclinical (6/27, 22%). Diagnostic delays of 3-15 years occurred in children with an insidious mode of onset. Spontaneous visual recovery was more common in patients carrying the m. 3460G>A and m. 14484T>C mutations compared with the m. 11778G>A mutation. Based a meta-analysis of 67 patients with available visual acuity data, 26 (39%) patients achieved a final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >= 0.5 Snellen decimal in at least one eye, whereas 13 (19%) patients had a final BCVA Conclusions Although childhood-onset LHON carries a relatively better visual prognosis, approximately 1 in 5 patients will remain within the visual acuity criteria for legal blindness in the UK. The clinical presentation can be insidious and LHON should be considered in the differential diagnosis when faced with a child with unexplained subnormal vision and optic disc pallor.
  • Lesnikova, Angelina; Casarotto, Plinio; Fred, Senem Merve; Voipio, Mikko; Winkel, Frederike; Stenizeig, Anna; Antila, Hanna; Umemori, Juzoh; Biojone, Caroline; Castrén, Eero (2021)
    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are an extracellular matrix structure rich in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which preferentially encase parvalbumin-containing (PV+) interneurons. PNNs restrict cortical network plasticity but the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We found that reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex induced by chondroitinase ABC (chABC)-mediated PNN removal requires intact signaling by the neurotrophin receptor TRKB in PV+ neurons. Additionally, we demonstrate that chABC increases TRKB phosphorylation (pTRKB), while PNN component aggrecan attenuates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced pTRKB in cortical neurons in culture. We further found that protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP sigma, PTPRS), receptor for CSPGs, interacts with TRKB and restricts TRKB phosphorylation. PTP sigma deletion increases phosphorylation of TRKB in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice, and juvenile-like plasticity is retained in the visual cortex of adult PTP sigma-deficient mice (PTP sigma(+/-)). The antidepressant drug fluoxetine, which is known to promote TRKB phosphorylation and reopen critical period-like plasticity in the adult brain, disrupts the interaction between TRKB and PTP sigma by binding to the transmembrane domain of TRKB. We propose that both chABC and fluoxetine reopen critical period-like plasticity in the adult visual cortex by promoting TRKB signaling in PV+ neurons through inhibition of TRKB dephosphorylation by the PTP sigma-CSPG complex.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Patients with post-stroke impairments present often significant variation in response to therapeutic interventions. Recent studies have shown that daily music listening can aid post-stroke recovery of language and memory, but reliable predictors of treatment response are unknown. Utilizing data from the music intervention arms of a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) on stroke patients (N = 31), we built regression models to predict the treatment response of a two-month music listening intervention on language skills and verbal memory with baseline demographic, clinical and musical data as well as fMRI data from a music listening task. Clinically, greater improvement in verbal memory and language skills after the music listening intervention were predicted by the severity of the initial deficit and educational level. Neurally, greater baseline fMRI activation during vocal music listening in the left parietal cortical and medial frontal areas predicted greater treatment-induced improvement in language skills and greater baseline engagement of the auditory network during instrumental music listening predicted improvement in both verbal memory and language skills. Our results suggest that clinical, demographic, and neuroimaging data predicts music listening treatment response. This data could be used clinically to target music-based treatments.
  • Heikkinen, Paula H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kujala, Teija; Manninen, Riitta-Leena; Ahvenainen, Antti; Klippi, Anu (2019)
    Neuromodulation technologies, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are promising tools for neurorehabilitation, aphasia therapy included, but not yet in common clinical use. Combined with behavioral techniques, in particular treatment-efficient Intensive Language-Action Therapy (ILAT, previously CIAT or CILT), TMS could substantially amplify the beneficial effect of such behavioral therapy alone (Thiel et al., 2013; Martin et al., 2014; Mendoza et al., 2016; Kapoor, 2017). In this randomized study of 17 subjects with post-stroke aphasia in the chronic stage, we studied the combined effect of ILAT and 1-Hz placebo-controlled navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS) to the right-hemispheric inferior frontal cortex-that is, to the anterior part of the non-dominant hemisphere's homolog Broca's area (pars triangularis). Patients were randomized to groups A and B. Patients in group A received a 2-week period of rTMS during naming training where they named pictures displayed on the screen once every 10 s, followed by 2 weeks of rTMS and naming combined with ILAT. Patients in group B received the same behavioral therapy but TMS was replaced by sham stimulation. The primary outcome measures for changes in language performance were the Western Aphasia Battery's aphasia quotient AQ; the secondary outcome measures were the Boston naming test (BNT) and the Action naming test (Action BNT, ANT). All subjects completed the study. At baseline, no statistically significant group differences were discovered for age, post-stroke time or diagnosis. ILAT was associated with significant improvement across groups, as documented by both primary and secondary outcome measures. No significant effect of rTMS could be documented. Our results agree with previous results proving ILAT's ability to improve language in patients with chronic aphasia. In contrast with earlier claims, however, a beneficial effect of rTMS in chronic post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation was not detected in this study.
  • Boström, Anna; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna; Chang, Yu-Mei; Weller, Renate; Davies, Emma (2014)
  • Danquah, Jones Abrefa; Appiah, Mark; Ari, Pappinen (2011)
  • Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Lukkari, Kaarina; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Alf (2012)
    Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota) effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface) by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days) in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential), gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH4 + and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO4 were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO4 sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress) explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbancedriven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the benthic habitat matters, and that the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function is likely to be affected by a range of factors in complex, natural environments.
  • Kirpichnikova, Anna; Korpela, Jussi; Lassas, Matti J.; Oksanen, Lauri (2021)
    We study the wave equation on a bounded domain of Rm and on a compact Riemannian manifold M with boundary. We assume that the coefficients of the wave equation are unknown but that we are given the hyperbolic Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. that corresponds to the physical measurements on the boundary. Using the knowledge of. we construct a sequence of Neumann boundary values so that at a time T the corresponding waves converge to zero while the time derivative of the waves converge to a delta distribution. The limit of such waves can be considered as a wave produced by an artificial point source. The convergence of the wave takes place in the function spaces naturally related to the energy of the wave. We apply the results for inverse problems and demonstrate the focusing of the waves numerically in the one-dimensional case.
  • Poganitsch-Korhonen, M.; Masliukaite, I.; Nurmio, M.; Lahteenmaki, P.; van Wely, M.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Jahnukainen, K.; Stukenborg, J-B (2017)
  • Lassas, Matti; Saksala, Teemu (2019)
    Let (N, g) be a Riemannian manifold with the distance function d(x, y) and an open subset M subset of N. For x is an element of M we denote by D-x the distance difference function D-x:F x F -> R, given by D-x(z(1), z(2)) = d(x, z(1)) - d(x, z(2)), z(1), z(2) is an element of F = N \ M. We consider the inverse problem of determining the topological and the differentiable structure of the manifold M and the metric g vertical bar M on it when we are given the distance difference data, that is, the set F, the metric g vertical bar F, and the collection D(M) = {D-x; x is an element of M}. Moreover, we consider the embedded image D(M) of the manifold M, in the vector space C(F x F), as a representation of manifold M. The inverse problem of determining (M, g) from D(M) arises e.g. in the study of the wave equation on R x N when we observe in F the waves produced by spontaneous point sources at unknown points (t, x) is an element of R x M. Then D-x (z(1), z(2)) is the difference of the times when one observes at points z(1) and z(2) the wave produced by a point source at x that goes off at an unknown time. The problem has applications in hybrid inverse problems and in geophysical imaging.
  • Boström, Anna Fredrika; Hyytiäinen, Heli Katariina; Koho, Petteri; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Hielm-Björkman, Anna Katrina (2018)
    Background: The Finnish neurological function testing battery for dogs (FINFUN) was developed to meet the increasing demand for objective outcome measures in veterinary physiotherapy. The testing battery should provide consistent, reproducible results and have established face and content validity. Internal consistency and intra-and inter-rater reliability of the FINFUN were also investigated. Results: The FINFUN comprised 11 tasks: lying, standing up from lying, sitting, standing up from sitting, standing, proprioceptive positioning, starting to walk, walking, trotting, walking turns and walking stairs. A score from 0 to 4, (0: unable to perform task, 4: performing task with normal motor function) was given for each task, the maximum score being 44. Twenty-six dogs were filmed when performing the FINFUN. Seven observers scored the performances from the video recordings. The FINFUN was considered to have appropriate face and content validity based on a pilot study, clinical experience and critical reflection of the development process. Its internal consistency was excellent, with no Cronbach's alpha values below 0.922. The intra-rater reliability for total score of experienced observers was almost perfect: 0.999 (observer 1) and 0.994 (observer 2). The inter-rater reliability for both experienced and novice observers' total scores was also almost perfect (0.919-0.993). Analysis of each individual task showed substantial intra-rater and inter-rater agreement for the tasks "lying" and "sitting". Conclusions: The FINFUN is an objective, valid and reliable tool with standardized scoring criteria for evaluation of motor function in dogs recovering from spinal cord injury.
  • Korpela, Jussi; Lassas, Matti; Oksanen, Lauri (2019)
    An inverse boundary value problem for the 1+1 dimensional wave equation (partial derivative(2)(t) - c(x)(2)partial derivative(2)(x))u(x,t) = 0, x is an element of R+ is considered. We give a discrete regularization strategy to recover wave speed c(x) when we are given the boundary value of the wave, u(0,t), that is produced by a single pulse-like source. The regularization strategy gives an approximative wave speed (c) over tilde, satisfying a Holder type estimate parallel to (c) over tilde - c parallel to