Browsing by Subject "RECRUITMENT"

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  • Clement, Cristina C.; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Chalmers, Samantha; Furtado, Raquel; Spada, Sheila; Mondanelli, Giada; Ianni, Federica; Gehrke, Sarah; Gargaro, Marco; Manni, Giorgia; Lopez Cara, Luisa Carlota; Runge, Peter; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Karaman, Sinem; Arasa, Jorge; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ruben; Beck, Amanda; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gadina, Massimo; Halin, Cornelia; Fallarino, Francesca; Skobe, Mihaela; Veldhoen, Marc; Moretti, Simone; Formenti, Silvia; Demaria, Sandra; Soni, Rajesh K.; Galarini, Roberta; Sardella, Roccaldo; Lauvau, Gregoire; Putterman, Chaim; Alitalo, Kari; Grohmann, Ursula; Santambrogio, Laura (2021)
    Tryptophan catabolism is a major metabolic pathway utilized by several professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells to maintain immunological tolerance. Here we report that 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenamine (3-HKA) is a biogenic amine produced via an alternative pathway of tryptophan metabolism. In vitro, 3-HKA has an anti-inflammatory profile by inhibiting the IFN-gamma mediated STAT1/NF-kappa Beta pathway in both mouse and human dendritic cells (DCs) with a consequent decrease in the release of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, most notably TNF, IL-6, and IL12p70. 3-HKA has protective effects in an experimental mouse model of psoriasis by decreasing skin thickness, erythema, scaling and fissuring, reducing TNF, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-17 production, and inhibiting generation of effector CD8(+) T cells. Similarly, in a mouse model of nephrotoxic nephritis, besides reducing inflammatory cytokines, 3-HKA improves proteinuria and serum urea nitrogen, overall ameliorating immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and renal dysfunction. Overall, we propose that this biogenic amine is a crucial component of tryptophan-mediated immune tolerance. 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenamine (3-HKA) is a metabolite deriving from a lateral pathway of tryptophan catabolism. Here the authors identify 3-HKA as a biogenic amine and show it has anti-inflammatory properties that can protect mice against psoriasis and nephrotoxic nephritis.
  • Holmgren, Noel Michael Andre; Norrstrom, Niclas; Aps, Robert; Kuikka, Sakari (2014)
  • EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; GRIN Consortium; Helbig, Ingo; Lopez-Hernandez, Tania; Shor, Oded; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Linnankivi, Tarja; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are heterogeneous disorders with a strong genetic contribution, but the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in a significant proportion of individuals. To explore whether statistical support for genetic etiologies can be generated on the basis of phenotypic features, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data and phenotypic similarities by using Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) in 314 individuals with DEEs. We identified a de novo c.508C>T (p.Arg170Trp) variant in AP2M1 in two individuals with a phenotypic similarity that was higher than expected by chance (p = 0.003) and a phenotype related to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. We subsequently found the same de novo variant in two individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and generalized epilepsy in a cohort of 2,310 individuals who underwent diagnostic whole-exome sequencing. AP2M1 encodes the mu-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and synaptic vesicle recycling. Modeling of protein dynamics indicated that the p.Arg170Trp variant impairs the conformational activation and thermodynamic entropy of the AP-2 complex. Functional complementation of both the mu-subunit carrying the p.Arg170Trp variant in human cells and astrocytes derived from AP-2 mu conditional knockout mice revealed a significant impairment of CME of transferrin. In contrast, stability, expression levels, membrane recruitment, and localization were not impaired, suggesting a functional alteration of the AP-2 complex as the underlying disease mechanism. We establish a recurrent pathogenic variant in AP2M1 as a cause of DEEs with distinct phenotypic features, and we implicate dysfunction of the early steps of endocytosis as a disease mechanism in epilepsy.
  • Sahu, Biswajyoti; Pihlajamaa, Paivi; Dubois, Vanessa; Kerkhofs, Stefanie; Claessens, Frank; Jänne, Olli A. (2014)
  • Jiu, Yaming; Lehtimaki, Jaakko; Tojkander, Sari; Cheng, Fang; Jäälinoja, Harri; Liu, Xiaonan; Varjosalo, Markku; Eriksson, John E.; Lappalainen, Pekka (2015)
    The actin cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments contribute to cell migration and morphogenesis, but the interplay between these two central cytoskeletal elements has remained elusive. Here, we find that specific actin stress fiber structures, transverse arcs, interact with vimentin intermediate filaments and promote their retrograde flow. Consequently, myosin-II-containing arcs are important for perinuclear localization of the vimentin network in cells. The vimentin network reciprocally restricts retrograde movement of arcs and hence controls the width of flat lamellum at the leading edge of the cell. Depletion of plectin recapitulates the vimentin organization phenotype of arc-deficient cells without affecting the integrity of vimentin filaments or stress fibers, demonstrating that this cytoskeletal crosslinker is required for productive interactions between vimentin and arcs. Collectively, our results reveal that plectin-mediated interplay between contractile actomyosin arcs and vimentin intermediate filaments controls the localization and dynamics of these two cytoskeletal systems and is consequently important for cell morphogenesis.
  • Karaman, Sinem; Hollmen, Maija; Robciuc, Marius R.; Alitalo, Annamari; Nurmi, Harri; Morf, Bettina; Buschle, Dorina; Alkan, H. Furkan; Ochsenbein, Alexandra M.; Alitalo, Kari; Wolfrum, Christian; Detmar, Michael (2015)
    Objective: Elevated serum levels of the lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and -D have been observed in obese individuals but their relevance for the metabolic syndrome has remained unknown. Methods: K14-VEGFR-3-Ig (sR3) mice that constitutively express soluble-VEGFR-3eIg in the skin, scavenging VEGF-C and -D, and wildtype (WT) mice were fed either chow or high-fat diet for 20 weeks. To assess the effect of VEGFR-3 blockage on adipose tissue growth and insulin sensitivity, we evaluated weight gain, adipocyte size and hepatic lipid accumulation. These results were complemented with insulin tolerance tests, FACS analysis of adipose tissue macrophages, in vitro 3T3-L1 differentiation assays and in vivo blocking antibody treatment experiments. Results: We show here that sR3 mice are protected from obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation. This protection is associated with enhanced subcutaneous adipose tissue hyperplasia and an increased number of alternatively-activated (M2) macrophages in adipose tissue. We also show that VEGF-C and -D are chemotactic for murine macrophages and that this effect is mediated by VEGFR-3, which is upregulated on M1 polarized macrophages. Systemic antibody blockage of VEGFR-3 in db/db mice reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and hepatic lipid accumulation, and improves insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: These results reveal an unanticipated role of the lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and -D in the mediation of metabolic syndrome-associated adipose tissue inflammation. Blockage of these lymphangiogenic factors might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity-associated insulin resistance. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
  • Lai, Tin-Yu; Salminen, Jani; Jäppinen, Jukka-Pekka; Koljonen, Saija; Mononen, Laura; Nieminen, Emmi; Vihervaara, Petteri; Oinonen, Soile (2018)
    In this paper, we examine how progress on ecosystem service indicators could contribute to ecosystem accounting within the scope of environmental-economic accounting in Finland. We propose an integration framework and examine the integration of ecosystem service indicators into environmental-economic accounting with two case studies relevant for Finland: (1) water-related ecosystem services and (2) the ecosystem services of fish provisioning in marine ecosystems. In light of these case studies, we evaluate the relevance of existing Finnish ecosystem service indicators, the data availability for ecosystem accounting in Finland, and the applicability of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting o Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) framework to integrate Finnish ecosystem service indicators and other relevant data into environmental-economic accounts. The results indicate that the present ecosystem service indicators can assist in creating a basis for ecosystem accounting, but the indicators require further elaboration to be more compatible with the existing environmental-economic accounting system.
  • Tanenbaum, Marvin E.; Vallenius, Tea Kaarina; Geers, Erica F.; Greene, Lois; Mäkelä, Tomi; Medema, Rene H. (2010)
  • Saulamo, Kari; Heikinheimo, Outi; Lappalainen, Jyrki (2020)
    In the Archipelago Sea, pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is an important species in both commercial and recreational fisheries. Pikeperch is caught mainly with small mesh size gillnets, and annual fishing mortality is high. The possible effects of such fisheries, as well as temperature or density on pikeperch growth have not been studied earlier. The first hypothesis of this study was that the effect of temperature on growth is positive and that of density is negative. The second hypothesis was that size selectivity of gillnets causes the fast-growing individuals to be caught at younger ages than the slow growing ones. The results showed that temperature had a significant positive effect on growth, and this was greater than the negative effect of year-class density, which was also significant. The gillnet selectivity caused a difference of up to 60mm in back-calculated lengths in the fully recruited age groups within the same year class, between pikeperch caught at age 6+ and age 9+. Thus, the Rosa Lee phenomenon caused by gillnet size-selectivity led to the removal of faster growing specimens from the population at younger ages. This can potentially cause underestimation of real growth, and thus, poor fishery management.
  • Marsman, Floor; Nystuen, Kristin O.; Opedal, Oystein H.; Foest, Jessie J.; Sorensen, Mia Vedel; De Frenne, Pieter; Graae, Bente Jessen; Limpens, Juul (2021)
    Questions Changes in climate and herbivory pressure affect northern alpine ecosystems through woody plant encroachment, altering their composition, structure and functioning. The encroachment often occurs at unequal rates across heterogeneous landscapes, hinting at the importance of habitat-specific drivers that either hamper or facilitate woody plant establishment. Here, we assess: (1) the invasibility of three distinct alpine plant community types (heath, meadow andSalixshrubland) byPinus sylvestris(Scots pine); and (2) the relative importance of biotic (above-ground interactions with current vegetation, herbivory and shrub encroachment) and microclimate-related abiotic (soil temperature, moisture and light availability) drivers of pine seedling establishment success. Location Dovrefjell, Central Norway. Methods We conducted a pine seed sowing experiment, testing how factorial combinations of above-ground removal of co-occurring vegetation, herbivore exclusion and willow transplantation (simulated shrub encroachment) affect pine emergence, survival and performance (new stem growth, stem height and fraction of healthy needles) in three plant communities, characteristic of alpine tundra, over a period of five years. Results Pine seedling emergence and survival were similar across plant community types. Herbivore exclusion and vegetation removal generally increased pine seedling establishment and seedling performance. Within our study, microclimate had minimal effects on pine seedling establishment and performance. These results illustrate the importance of biotic resistance to seedling establishment. Conclusion Pine seedlings can easily establish in alpine tundra, and biotic factors (above-ground plant interactions and herbivory) are more important drivers of pine establishment in alpine tundra than abiotic, microclimate-related, factors. Studies aiming to predict future vegetation changes should thus consider local-scale biotic interactions in addition to abiotic factors.
  • Teixidó, Joaquin; Hidalgo, Andres; Fagerholm, Susanna (2019)
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja; Suutari, Timo (2020)
    The workforce potential offered by immigrants is perceived as one solution for the sustainable operation of many rural companies. Still, diversifying the workforce and recruiting immigrant employees represents not only a significant organizational change for rural small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) but can also reflect on their legitimacy in the eyes of the local community. In this study, we examine the legitimation strategies rural SMEs use in order to justify the decision to employ immigrant workers as socially accepted. The theoretical framework builds on the discussion concerning legitimacy and legitimation. By analysing the interviews with the representatives of 35 rural SMEs, we identified three legitimation strategies used to justify the decision to recruit immigrants, based on owner-managerial values, immigrants as good workers and the economic, demographic and social context consequent upon rural location. The aim of the legitimacy strategies is to convince rural community members in perceiving the recruitment of immigrant employees as favourable and preferable. Our study demonstrates that for rural SMEs, recruiting immigrant workers is not just an economic or bureaucratic procedure but entails social aspects as well. These social aspects need to be taken into consideration in order to maintain the business legitimacy.
  • van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B. (2015)
    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.
  • Soininen, Paivi; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Korkeila, Jyrki; Valimaki, Maritta (2014)
  • Eguiluz-Gracia, Ibon; Malmström, Kristiina; Dheyauldeen, Sinan Ahmed; Lohi, Jouko; Sajantila, Antti; Aalokken, Ragnhild; Sundaram, Arvind Y. M.; Gilfillan, Gregor D.; Makela, Mika; Baekkevold, Espen S.; Jahnsen, Frode L. (2018)
    Background: Activated T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are believed to play a pivotal role in allergic airway inflammation, but which cells attract and activate Th2 cells locally have not been fully determined. Recently, it was shown in an experimental human model of allergic rhinitis (AR) that activated monocytes rapidly accumulate in the nasal mucosa after local allergen challenge, where they promote recruitment of Th2 cells and eosinophils. Objective: To investigate whether monocytes are recruited to the lungs in paediatric asthma. Methods: Tissue samples obtained from children and adolescents with fatal asthma attack (n = 12), age-matched non-atopic controls (n = 9) and allergen-challenged AR patients (n = 8) were subjected to in situ immunostaining. Results: Monocytes, identified as CD68+S100A8/A9+ cells, were significantly increased in the lower airway mucosa and in the alveoli of fatal asthma patients compared with control individuals. Interestingly, cellular aggregates containing CD68+S100A8/A9+ monocytes obstructing the lumen of bronchioles were found in asthmatics (8 out of 12) but not in controls. Analysing tissue specimens from challenged AR patients, we confirmed that co-staining with CD68 and S100A8/A9 was a valid method to identify recently recruited monocytes. We also showed that the vast majority of accumulating monocytes both in the lungs and in the nasal mucosa expressed matrix metalloproteinase 10, suggesting that this protein may be involved in their migration within the tissue. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Monocytes accumulated in the lungs of children and adolescents with fatal asthma attack. This finding strongly suggests that monocytes are directly involved in the immunopathology of asthma and that these pro-inflammatory cells are potential targets for therapy.
  • Liu, Zehua; Li, Yunzhan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Chen; Liu, Dongfei; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Ming; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kemell, Marianna; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Dawang; Deng, Xianming; Santos, Helder A. (2018)
    Herein, a novel nanohybrid based on porous silicon, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and acetalated dextran (DPSi/DAu@AcDEX) is reported to encapsulate and deliver one drug and increase the computer tomography (CT) signal for acute-liver-failure (ALF) theranostics. A microfluidic-assisted method is used to co-encapsulate different NPs in a single step. By alternating the surface properties of different NPs and by modulating the composition of the organic phase, both PSi and Au NPs are effectively encapsulated into the polymer matrix simultaneously, thus further achieving a multifunctional application. This system can be used to identify pathologically changes in the tissues and selectively deliver drugs to these sites. The loading of a therapeutic compound (XMU-MP-1) improves the drug solubility, precise, in situ drug delivery, and the drug-functioning time. In vivo results confirm a superior treatment effect and better compliance of this newly developed nanoformulation than free compound. This nanosystem plays a crucial role in targeting the lesion area, thus increasing the local drug concentration important for ALF reverse-effect. Moreover, the residence of Au NPs within the matrix further endows our system for CT-imaging. Altogether, these results support that this nanohybrid is a potential theranostic platform for ALF.
  • Westerbom, Mats; Koivisto, Maria (2022)
    Understanding the influence of biogenic habitats on species assemblage structure and ecosystem productivity is crucial for successful conservation of natural systems. Brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus, and blue mussels, Mytilus trossulus, coexist on sheltered and moderately wave exposed shallow rocky reefs of the northern Baltic Proper. Here, they function as important biogenic structures for an abundant associated macroinvertebrate fauna. Despite their dominance and space sympatry, there is little understanding of how they differ in their role as provisioners of biodiversity in this system. While Fucus has been recognized as an important habitat provider for decades, the similar role of blue mussels has been seriously understudied in the northern Baltic Proper, leading to pressing knowledge gaps and an underestimation of their role for overall biodiversity. In this study, we compared macroinvertebrate species assemblages within 40 rocky reefs where Fucus and Mytilus co-occur in either intermixed or adjacent assemblages. We show that both habitats represent a species rich and abundant community that are comparable regarding diversity. However, abundance and biomass of the associated community is much higher in the Mytilus habitat in relation to the Fucus habitat, implying a far higher secondary production in the former habitat. Recognizing key habitats and understanding how they differ in their ability to support biodiversity and ecosystem productivity is necessary for predicting community responses to human pressures, including an altered climate, and for implementing efficient mitigation actions to minimize loss of biodiversity.
  • Khatun, Masuma; Sorjamaa, Anna; Kangasniemi, Marika; Sutinen, Meeri; Saio, Tuuia; Liakka, Annikki; Lehenkari, Petri; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Chen, Joseph C.; Lehtonen, Siri; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2017)
    Objective Intrinsic inflammatory characteristics play a pivotal role in stem cell recruitment and homing through migration where the subsequent change in niche has been shown to alter these characteristics. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been demonstrated to migrate to the endometrium contributing to the stem cell reservoir and regeneration of endometrial tissue. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the inflammation-driven migration and cytokine secretion profile of human bmMSCs to endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) and endometrial fibroblasts (eSFs). Materials and methods The bmMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates through culturing, whereas eMSCs and eSFs were FACS-isolated. All cell types were tested for their surface marker, proliferation profiles and migration properties towards serum and inflammatory attractants. The cytokine/chemokine secretion profile of 35 targets was analysed in each cell type at basal level along with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced state. Results Both stem cell types, bmMSCs and eMSCs, presented with similar stem cell surface marker profiles as well as possessed high proliferation and migration potential compared to eSFs. In multiplex assays, the secretion of 16 cytokine targets was detected and LPS stimulation expanded the cytokine secretion pattern by triggering the secretion of several targets. The bmMSCs exhibited higher cytokine secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF)-1 alpha, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha and RANTES compared to eMSCs and/or eSFs after stimulation with LPS. The basal IL-8 secretion was higher in both endometrial cell types compared to bmMSCs. Conclusion Our results highlight that similar to bmMSCs, the eMSCs possess high migration activity while the differentiation process towards stromal fibroblasts seemed to result in loss of stem cell surface markers, minimal migration activity and a subtler cytokine profile likely contributing to normal endometrial function
  • Gondane, Aishwarya; Girmay, Samuel; Helevä, Alma; Pallasaho, Satu; Loda, Massimo; Itkonen, Harri M. (2022)
    Background: Transcription, metabolism and DNA damage response are tightly regulated to preserve the genomic integrity, and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is positioned to connect the three. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and androgen-ablation therapy halts disease progression. However, a significant number of prostate cancer patients develop resistance against anti-androgens, and this incurable disease is termed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We have shown that combined inhibition of OGT and the transcription elongation kinase CDK9 induce CRPC-selective anti-proliferative effects. Here, we explain the functional basis for these combinatorial effects. Methods: We used comprehensive mass spectrometry profiling of short-term CDK9 inhibitor effects on O-GlcNAcylated proteins in an isogenic cell line system that models transition from PC to CRPC. In addition, we used both ChIP-seq and RNA-seq profiling, and pulldown experiments in multiple CRPC models. Finally, we validated our findings in prostate cancer patient samples. Results: Inhibition of CDK9 results in an OGT-dependent remodeling of the proteome in prostate cancer cells. More specifically, the activity of the DNA damage repair protein MRE11 is regulated in response to CDK9 inhibition in an OGT-dependent manner. MRE11 is enriched at the O-GlcNAc-marked loci. CDK9 inhibition does not decrease the expression of mRNAs whose genes are bound by both O-GlcNAc and MRE11. Combined inhibition of CDK9 and OGT or MRE11 further decreases RNA polymerase II activity, induces DNA damage signaling, and blocks the survival of prostate cancer cells. These effects are seen in CRPC cells but not in normal prostate cells. Mechanistically, OGT activity is required for MRE11 chromatin-loading in cells treated with CDK9 inhibitor. Finally, we show that MRE11 and O-GlcNAc are enriched at the prostate cancer-specific small nucleotide polymorphic sites, and the loss of MRE11 activity results in a hyper-mutator phenotype in patient tumors. Conclusions: Both OGT and MRE11 are essential for the repair of CDK9 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Our study raises the possibility of targeting CDK9 to elicit DNA damage in CRPC setting as an adjuvant to other treatments.
  • Lopes, Alessandra; Feola, Sara; Ligot, Sophie; Fusciello, Manlio; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2019)
    Background: DNA vaccines against cancer held great promises due to the generation of a specific and long lasting immune response. However, when used as a single therapy, they are not able to drive the generated immune response into the tumor, because of the immunosuppressive microenvironment, thus limiting their use in humans. To enhance DNA vaccine efficacy, we combined a new poly-epitope DNA vaccine encoding melanoma tumor associated antigens and B16F1-specific neoantigens with an oncolytic virus administered intratumorally. Methods: Genomic analysis were performed to find specific mutations in B16F1 melanoma cells. The antigen gene sequences were designed according to these mutations prior to the insertion in the plasmid vector. Mice were injected with B16F1 tumor cells (n = 7-9) and therapeutically vaccinated 2, 9 and 16 days after the tumor injection. The virus was administered intratumorally at day 10, 12 and 14. Immune cell infiltration analysis and cytokine production were performed by flow cytometry, PCR and ELISPOT in the tumor site and in the spleen of animals, 17 days after the tumor injection. Results: The combination of DNA vaccine and oncolytic virus significantly increased the immune activity into the tumor. In particular, the local intratumoral viral therapy increased the NK infiltration, thus increasing the production of different cytokines, chemokines and enzymes involved in the adaptive immune system recruitment and cytotoxic activity. On the other side, the DNA vaccine generated antigen-specific T cells in the spleen, which migrated into the tumor when recalled by the local viral therapy. The complementarity between these strategies explains the dramatic tumor regression observed only in the combination group compared to all the other control groups. Conclusions: This study explores the immunological mechanism of the combination between an oncolytic adenovirus and a DNA vaccine against melanoma. It demonstrates that the use of a rational combination therapy involving DNA vaccination could overcome its poor immunogenicity. In this way, it will be possible to exploit the great potential of DNA vaccination, thus allowing a larger use in the clinic.