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  • Rossen, Noortje G.; MacDonald, John K.; de Vries, Elisabeth M.; D'Haens, Geert R.; de Vos, Willem M.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y. (2015)
    AIM: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We systematically reviewed FMT used as clinical therapy. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Conference proceedings from inception to July, 2013. Treatment effect of FMT was calculated as the percentage of patients who achieved clinical improvement per patient category, on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: We included 45 studies; 34 on Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI), 7 on inflammatory bowel disease, 1 on metabolic syndrome, 1 on constipation, 1 on pouchitis and 1 on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In CDI 90% resolution of diarrhea in 33 case series (n = 867) was reported, and 94% resolution of diarrhea after repeated FMT in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n = 16). In ulcerative colitis (UC) remission rates of 0% to 68% were found (n = 106). In Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 6), no benefit was observed. In IBS, 70% improvement of symptoms was found (n = 13). 100% Reversal of symptoms was observed in constipation (n = 3). In pouchitis, none of the patients (n = 8) achieved remission. One RCT showed significant improvement of insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome (n = 10). Serious adverse events were rare. CONCLUSION: FMT is highly effective in CDI, and holds promise in UC. As for CD, chronic constipation, pouchitis and IBS data are too limited to draw conclusions. FMT increases insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome.
  • Kootte, Ruud S.; Levin, Evgeni; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Smits, Loek P.; Hartstra, Annick V.; Udayappan, Shanti D.; Hermes, Gerben; Bouter, Kristien E.; Koopen, Annefleur M.; Holst, Jens J.; Knop, Filip K.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Zhao, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Harms, Amy C.; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Romijn, Hans A.; Schaap, Frank G.; Damink, Steven W. M. Olde; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Zoetendal, Erwin; de Vos, Willem M.; Serlie, Mireille J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max (2017)
    The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism are associated with changes in intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites and can be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition.
  • Hiippala, Kaisa; Kainulainen, Veera; Kalliomaki, Marko; Arkkila, Perttu; Satokari, Reetta (2016)
    Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro. We also studied the relative abundance and prevalence of the genus Sutterella and Sutterella wadsworthensis in intestinal biopsies of healthy individuals and patients with celiac disease (CeD) or IBD. Our results show that Sutterella spp. are abundant in the duodenum of healthy adults with a decreasing gradient toward the colon. No difference was detected in the prevalence of Sutterella between the pediatric IBD or CeD patients and the healthy controls. Sutterella parvirubra adhered better than the two other Sutterella spp. to differentiated Caco-2 cells and was capable of decreasing the adherence of S. wadsworthensis, which preferably bound to mucus and human extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, only S. wadsworthensis induced an interleukin-8 production in enterocytes, which could be due to different lipopolysaccharide structures between the species. However, its pro-inflammatory activity was modest as compared to non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Sutterella spp. had no effect on the enterocyte monolayer integrity in vitro. Our findings indicate that the members of genus Sutterella are widely prevalent commensals with mild pro-inflammatory capacity in the human gastrointestinal tract and do not contribute significantly to the disrupted epithelial homeostasis associated with microbiota dysbiosis and increase of Proteobacteria. The ability of Sutterella spp. to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells indicate that they may have an immunomodulatory role.