Browsing by Subject "REDISTRIBUTION"

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  • Smedowski, Adrian; Akhtar, Saeed; Liu, Xiaonan; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Podracka, Lucia; Toropainen, Elisa; Alkanaan, Aljoharah; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Varjosalo, Markku; Kaarniranta, Kai; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna (2020)
    Abstract Purpose To characterize newly discovered electrical synapses, formed by connexin (Cx) 36 and 45, between neighbouring axons within the optic nerve head. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were killed by CO2 inhalation. Proximal and distal optic nerve (ON) stumps were collected and processed for immunostainings, electron microscopy (EM) with immunogold labelling, PCR and Western blots (WB). Additional 15 animals were deeply anaesthetized, and flash visual evoked potentials (fVEP) after retrobulbar injection of saline (negative control) or 100 ?m meclofenamic acid solution (gap junctions? blocker) were recorded. Human paraffin cross-sections of eyeballs for immunostainings were obtained from the Human Eye Biobank for Research. Results Immunostainings of both rat and human ON revealed the presence of Cx45 and 36 colocalizing with ?3-tubulin, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In WB, Cx36 content in optic nerve was approximately halved when compared with retina (0.58 ± 0.005 in proximal stump and 0.44 ± 0.02 in distal stump), Cx45 showed higher levels (0.68 ± 0.01 in proximal stump and 0.9 ± 0.07 in distal stump). In immunogold-EM of optic nerve sections, we found electric synapses (formed mostly by Cx45) directly coupling neighbouring axons. In fVEP, blocking of gap junctions with meclofenamic acid resulted in significant prolongation of the latency of P1 wave up to 160% after 30 min (p