Browsing by Subject "REFLECTION"

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  • Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Salonen, Visajaani; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Schneider, Barbara; Krajcik, Joseph (2021)
    We present teacher-researcher partnership (TRP) as a way of fostering teachers' professional learning. Teachers' participation as research group members is an essential aspect of the partnership. Teachers and researchers share the same goal, which is to improve their understanding of and enhance students' engagement in science. Project-based learning (PBL) was selected as a means of enhancing student engagement. The activities of the partnership focused on the co-design and enactment of and co-reflection on PBL units. Teachers participated in the design of the data collection process and the interpretation of initial findings. As an indicator of teachers' professional learning, we examined students' engagement during different implementations of the PBL units. Student engagement was measured using a situational experience sampling questionnaire delivered via mobile phones. The students' experiences of scientific practices and engagement in actual learning situations were measured in the first and second years of the teachers' implementation of the teaching units. An analysis of the students' responses showed that the students were 20% more engaged in the second year than in the first year. We argue that TRP has the potential to enhance teachers' professional learning.
  • Toijala, H.; Eimre, K.; Kyritsakis, A.; Zadin, Vahur; Djurabekova, F. (2019)
    In this work we combine density functional theory and quantum transport calculations to study the influence of atomic-scale defects on the work function and field emission characteristics of metal surfaces. We develop a general methodology for the calculation of the field emitted current density from nanofeatured surfaces, which is then used to study specific defects on a Cu(111) surface. Our results show that the inclusion of a defect can significantly locally enhance the field emitted current density. However, this increase is attributed solely to the decrease of the work function due to the defect, with the effective field enhancement being minute. Finally, the Fowler-Nordheim equation is found to be valid when the modified value for the work function is used, with only an approximately constant factor separating the computed currents from those predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim equation.
  • Kallio, Galina; Houtbeckers, Eeva (2020)
    We have seen an emergence of transformative food studies as part of sustainability transitions. While some scholars have successfully opened up their experiences of pursuing transformation through scholar-activism, assumptions underlying researchers' choices and how scholars orient to and go about their work often remain implicit. In this article, we bring forth a practice theoretical understanding of knowledge production and advocate that researchers turn to examining their own research practice. We ask how to make our own academic knowledge production/research practice more explicit, and why it is important to do so in the context of transformative food studies. To help scholars to reflect on their own research practice, we mobilize the framework of practical activity (FPA). We draw on our own experiences in academia and use our ethnographic studies on self-reliant food production and procurement to illustrate academic knowledge production. Thus, this article provides conceptual and methodological tools for reflection on academic research practice and knowledge production. We argue that it is important for researchers to turn to and improve their own academic practice because it advances academic knowledge production in the domain of transformative food studies and beyond. While we position ourselves within the qualitative research tradition, we believe that the insights of this article can be applied more broadly in different research fields and across various methodological approaches.
  • Da Col, Federico; Papadopoulou, M.; Koivisto, Emilia; Sito, Lukasz; Savolainen, Mikko; Socco, L. Valentina (2020)
    In order to assess the feasibility and validity of surface-wave tomography as a tool for mineral exploration, we present an active seismic three-dimensional case study from the Siilinjarvi mine in Eastern Finland. The aim of the survey is to identify the formation carrying the mineralization in an area south of the main pit, which will be mined in the future. Before acquiring the data, we performed an accurate survey design to maximize data coverage and minimize the time for deployment and recollection of the equipment. We extract path-averaged Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves by means of a two-station method. We invert them using a computationally efficient tomographic code which does not require the computation of phase-velocity maps and inverts directly for one-dimensional S-wave velocity models. The retrieved velocities are in good agreement with the data from a borehole in the vicinity, and the pseudo three-dimensional S-wave velocity volume allows us to identify the geological contact between the formation hosting most of the mineralization and the surrounding rock. We conclude that the proposed method is a valid tool, given the small amount of equipment used and the acceptable amount of time required to process the data.
  • Saarinen, Auli; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2019)
    The present researchers studied elementary school students’ use of electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) in their craft education over a three-year period. The data consisted of the textual and the visual content of the students’ (n= 38) ePortfolios. The students’ productions were analyzed and conceptualized through the qualitative analysis of content. Atlas.ti and SPSS programs were used to analyze, organize and visualize the data. The results indicate that the most emphasized areas in the textual content of students’ ePortfolios were a combination of the process and the free learning reflection. The process aspects of the work were also clearly dominant in the documented visual images in the ePortfolios. The results confirmed that if ePortfolios are used in a flexible way with appropriate, open assignments, variations on use and the end-product are self-evident. The ePortfolio method enables an individual, rich, and versatile learning reflection, which could be used as evidence of learning or as support for learning – including the required elements for each function.
  • Härkki, Tellervo; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2021)
    Co-teaching is regularly paired with school improvements and educational reforms, yet research does not clearly separate the challenges of co-teaching for teacher professional development, course improvement and for wider reforms. We explored how co-teaching emerged and what barriers teachers experienced as meaningful for their co-teaching after a national core curriculum reform. Two cross-sectional data sets were collected. Three qualitatively different co-teaching profiles emerged: highly collaborative, collaborative, and imbalanced co-operative co-teaching. However, teachers’ experiences of the meaningful barriers varied. Finally, we propose a model of contextualised co- teaching that supports implementing and researching co-teaching as a part of second-order educational changes.
  • Riskila, Elina; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Muinonen, Karri (2021)
    Atmospheric ice crystals scatter sunlight, affecting Earth's climate through the radiation properties of cirrus clouds. Naturally occurring surface roughness and its effect on the scattering properties of ice crystals remain largely unknown. Scattering by ice crystals with rough surfaces is studied by placing a finite, thin surface-roughness element on an infinitely large, planar vacuum-ice boundary. The elements are generated using a statistical model based on fractional Brownian motion. The horizontal roughness scale is described by the Hurst exponent Hand the vertical roughness scale with the root-mean-square roughness parameter R-q. The computations are performed with the surface mode of the Discrete Dipole Approximation software ADDA (version 1.34b). Several incident directions for wavelength of 0.5 mu m from both above and below the planar surface are studied. A refractive index for ice m = 1.313 + i5.889 x10(-10) is used throughout the computations. Results are averaged over ten rough surface realizations for a specific H, R-q-pair. Scattering by the rough elements is compared to that by the corresponding smooth elements. The rougher the element is, the more of the scattered intensity is transmitted through the surface. The rough elements have distinctively smoother angular distributions for the degree of linear polarization than their smooth counterparts. Also, it is found that while roughness itself affects polarization, the exact surface morphology does not seem to have a significant effect. The vertical roughness scale R-q has a larger effect on the light scattering results than the horizontal scale H. Enhanced angular scattering is detected in directions nearly parallel to the vacuum-ice boundary within the ice medium. The phenomenon is explained with a strong internal reflection mechanism. The model for surface roughness, along with the light scattering methodology used here, could be incorporated into geometric optics ray-tracing computations for large ice crystals and other particles. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Turc, Lucile; Brito, Thiago; Grandin, Maxime; Koskela, Tuomas; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    We study the interaction of solar wind protons with Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock using a hybrid-Vlasov simulation. We employ the global hybrid model Vlasiator to include effects due to bow shock curvature, tenuous upstream populations, and foreshock waves. We investigate the uncertainty of the position of the quasi-parallel bow shock as a function of several plasma properties and find that regions of non-locality or uncertainty of the shock position form and propagate away from the shock nose. Our results support the notion of upstream structures causing the patchwork reconstruction of the quasi-parallel shock front in a non-uniform manner. We propose a novel method for spacecraft data to be used to analyse this quasi-parallel reformation. We combine our hybrid-Vlasov results with test-particle studies and show that proton energization, which is required for injection, takes place throughout a larger shock transition zone. The energization of particles is found regardless of the instantaneous non-locality of the shock front, in agreement with it taking place over a larger region. Distortion of magnetic fields in front of and at the shock is shown to have a significant effect on proton injection. We additionally show that the density of suprathermal reflected particles upstream of the shock may not be a useful metric for the probability of injection at the shock, as foreshock dynamics and particle trapping appear to have a significant effect on energetic-particle accumulation at a given position in space. Our results have implications for statistical and spacecraft studies of the shock injection problem.
  • Mattila, Osmo; Korhonen, Arto; Pöyry, Essi; Hauru, Kaisa; Holopainen, Jani; Parvinen, Petri (2020)
    The focus in this research was on the effects of restorative experiences in an immersive virtual reality (VR) forest environment. For 5 min one hundred participants used a VR application depicting a forest via a head-mounted display and headphones. The extent of the restorative effect on the participants was measured in terms of perceived restorative outcomes, vitality, and mood before and after using the VR application. After finding out that using the VR application improved the perceived restoration outcomes, vitality and mood of the participants, the perceived restoration of the VR environment was compared with experiences in physical forests. According to the results, the VR environment was generally perceived as restorative as the physical forest environments, and more fascinating and coherent. The results imply that VR technology could have an effective restorative function during a school or work day when there is no access to highly restorative natural environments. Knowledge about the restorative qualities of physical and virtual natural environments could be applied to develop both the virtual and physical environments that are currently available and where people have access to.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari (Springer, 2018)
    Contributions from Science Education Research
    This chapter describes inquiry-based science teaching and learning (IBST/L) pilots designed by teachers during a professional development programme. There is research-based evidence that IBSL/T may promote students’ learning and their motivation to learn science, and therefore it is beneficial to familiarise the teachers with this approach. Building on teachers’ existing expertise in designing their teaching, the programme introduced theoretical aspects of the IBST/L approach and its research-based benefits for students’ motivation, interest and science learning. The course aimed to support teachers as educational innovators in the process of designing and testing IBST/L pilots, during which they collaboratively reflected on and revised their existing practices. The data of this piece of research consists of the teachers’ poster presentations of their IBST/L pilots and a video recording of the reflection session. The content analysis revealed that the pilots’ structure seemed traditional but encompassed some IBST/L features. It is concluded that teacher educators need to understand teachers’ views of IBST/L in order to more effectively support planning and reflection.
  • Fuller, Richard; Goddard, Viktoria C. T.; Nadarajah, Vishna D.; Treasure-Jones, Tamsin; Yeates, Peter; Scott, Karen; Webb, Alexandra; Valter, Krisztina; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    INTRODUCTION In 2011, a consensus report was produced on technology-enhanced assessment (TEA), its good practices, and future perspectives. Since then, technological advances have enabled innovative practices and tools that have revolutionised how learners are assessed. In this updated consensus, we bring together the potential of technology and the ultimate goals of assessment on learner attainment, faculty development, and improved healthcare practices. METHODS As a material for the report, we used the scholarly publications on TEA in both HPE and general higher education, feedback from 2020 Ottawa Conference workshops, and scholarly publications on assessment technology practices during the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The group identified areas of consensus that remained to be resolved and issues that arose in the evolution of TEA. We adopted a three-stage approach (readiness to adopt technology, application of assessment technology, and evaluation/dissemination). The application stage adopted an assessment ‘lifecycle’ approach and targeted five key foci: (1) Advancing authenticity of assessment, (2) Engaging learners with assessment, (3) Enhancing design and scheduling, (4) Optimising assessment delivery and recording learner achievement, and (5) Tracking learner progress and faculty activity and thereby supporting longitudinal learning and continuous assessment.
  • Robson, T. Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2019)
    Sunlight is strongly attenuated by the snowpack, causing irradiance to decrease exponentially with depth. The strength of attenuation is wavelength dependent across the spectrum. Changes in received irradiance and its spectral composition are used by plants as cues for the timing of phenology, and it is known that at shallow depths in the snowpack there is sufficient light for plants to photosynthesize if conditions are otherwise favourable. The spectral composition of solar radiation under snow in the visible region was already determined in the 1970s using scanning spectroradiometers, but spectral attenuation within the ultraviolet region (UV-B 280-315 nm, UV-A 315-400 nm) has not been well characterised because it is difficult to measure. We measured vertical transects of spectral irradiance (290-900 nm) transmitted through a settled seasonal snowpack. The peak transmission of radiation was in the UV-A region in the upper centimetres of the snowpack and transmittance generally declined at longer wavelengths. Given the known action spectra of plant photoreceptors, these results illustrate the possibility that changing UV-A:visible and red:far-red radiation ratios under the snowpack may serve as spectral cues for plants; potentially priming plants for the less stable environment they experience following snowmelt. Array spectrometers open opportunities for rapid and continuous measurement of irradiance in challenging environments, e.g. beneath the snowpack, and capturing changing light conditions for plants. Future research is needed to couple the spectral transmittance of snowpacks differing in their longevity and crystal structure with measurements of the perception and response to radiation by plants under snow.