Browsing by Subject "REGIME"

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  • Candolin, Ulrika; Bertell, Elina; Kallio, Jarkko (2018)
    1. Alien species are altering ecosystems around the globe. To predict and manage their impacts, the underlying mechanisms need to be understood. This is challenging in ecosystems undergoing multiple disturbances as unexpected interactions can alter the impact of individual disturbances. Such interactions are likely to be common in disturbed ecosystems, but have so far received little attention. 2. We investigated whether interactions between an invading shrimp Palaemon elegans and another human-induced disturbance, the population growth of a native mesopredator, the threespine stickleback, influences a third human-induced disturbance, the increase in biomass of filamentous algae. Increases in both the native mesopredator population and algal biomass have been promoted by eutrophication and a trophic cascade triggered by declining predatory fish stocks. 3. We used mesocosm and field enclosure experiments, combined with analyses of long-term trends in the abundance of the invader and the native mesopredator, to dissect the influence of the two species on algal biomass when alone and when co-occurring. 4. The impact of the invader on algal biomass depended on the native mesopredator; shrimp on their own had no effect on algal growth, but mitigated algae accumulation when competing with the stickleback for resources. Competition caused the shrimp to shift its diet from grazers to algae, and its habitat choice from open to vegetated habitats. The native mesopredator, in contrast, increased algal biomass irrespective of the presence of the invader, by preying on grazers and inducing a trophic cascade. 5. Our results show that the presence of a native mesopredator causes an invader to alter its behaviour and thereby its ecological impact. This demonstrates that interactions between invaders and other anthropogenic disturbances can alter the ecological impact of invaders, and, notably, that the impact of invaders can be positive and stabilize disturbed ecosystems. These results stress the importance of considering interactions among disturbances when investigating the ecological impact of alien species.
  • Matschoss, Kaisa Johanna; Repo, Juha Petteri (2018)
    Climate targets call for novel policy measures to facilitate widespread adoption of low-carbon solutions and innovations. The literature on socio-technical systems argues that experimentation has a prominent role in enabling sustainability transition. Experiments represent ways of testing new ideas and methods across a wide range of policy fields. Governance experiments in particular can support accelerated diffusion of new solutions, because they integrate policy with innovations. Here, types of success factors in the implementation of governance experiments to mitigate climate change are examined. Statistical analysis of sustainability innovations in the 28 European Union countries indicates that the types of success factors in governance experiments differ from those of product and social experiments. Governance experimentation is more positioned within socio-technical regimes than in strategic niches. These results suggest that governance experiments may indeed provide new transition opportunities towards low-carbon societies.
  • Kettunen, Henrik; Lassas, Matti; Ola, Petri (2018)
    This paper considers transmission problems for the Helmholtz equation with bodies that have negative material parameters. Such material parameters are used to model metals on optical frequencies and so-called metamaterials. As the absorption of the materials in the model tends to zero, the fields may blow up. When the speed of the blow up is suitable, this is called the anomalous localized resonance (ALR). In this paper we study this phenomenon and formulate a new condition, the weak anomalous resonance (w-AR), where the speed of the blow up of fields may be slower. Using this concept, we can study the blow up of fields in the presence of negative material parameters without the commonly used quasi-static approximation. We give simple geometric conditions under which w-AR or ALR may or may not appear. In particular, we show that in a case of a curved layer of negative material with a strictly convex boundary, neither ALR nor w-AR appears with nonzero frequencies (i.e., in the dynamic range) in dimensions d >= 3. In the case when the boundary of the negative material contains a flat subset, we show that w-AR always happens with some point sources in dimensions d >= 2.
  • Eskelinen, Teppo; Ylonen, Matti (2017)
    Tax havens and tax flight have lately received increasing attention, while interest toward multilateral trade policies has somewhat diminished. We argue that more attention needs to be paid exactly to the interrelations between trade and tax policies. Drawing from two case studies on Panama's trade disputes, we show how World Trade Organization (WTO) rules can be used both to resist attempts to sanction secrecy structures and to promote measures against tax flight. The theory of new constitutionalism can help to explain how trade treaties can 'lock in' tax policies. However, our case studies show that trade policy not only 'locks in' democratic policy-making, but also enables tax havens to use their commercialized sovereignty to resists anti-secrecy measures. What is being 'locked in' are the policy tools, not necessarily the policies. The changing relationship between trade and tax policies can also create new and unexpected tools for tackling tax evasion, underlining the importance of epistemic arbitrage in the context of new constitutionalism. In principle, political actors with sufficient technical and juridical knowledge can shape global tax governance to various directions regardless of their formal position in the world political hierarchies. This should be taken into account when trade treaties are being negotiated or revised.
  • Repo, Juha Petteri; Timonen, Auli Päivi Tellervo (2017)
    The Single Market of the European Union has progressed during recent decades to encompass more than 500 million consumers in 28 EU Member States and adjoining countries. During the same period, consumer issues have received growing policy interest and policy measures have been put in place to harmonize the Single Market, that is, to make national markets more alike. Yet, in order to provide policy measures that promote desirable market outcomes, the considerable challenge of understanding differences in the market performances of participating countries and the relationships between national markets and the Single Market need to be addressed. Consequently, this article proposes the consideration of differences in terms of regimes, that is, between groups of similar countries, when assessing the performances of markets. Differences in market performances are analysed with the Kruskal–Wallis test using survey data from the European Commission, and results were reviewed against market studies carried out by the Commission. Findings show that regime differences in market performance can indeed be observed and that the regime approach can draw policy attention to commonalities in market arrangements in addition to the consumer issues conventionally examined, such as price differences and consumer awareness.
  • Hurri, Karoliina (2020)
    Developed countries, defined in the global climate negotiations as the Annex I countries, have been expected to take the lead in tackling climate change. However, given the severity of climate change, reducing China’s emissions is critical. China is a developing country with world’s highest emissions and a leader in the renewable sector. Hence, outside expectations for China’s climate action have been growing. Through constructivist role theory, the article researched what external expectations there are for China’s potential climate leadership role. The leadership ex-pectations of developed countries were examined from the UN climate conference high-level segment statements from 2016 to 2018. Results of the discourse analysis explain the expecta-tions in six storylines: 1) all parties are placed on the same line, 2) the dichotomy of developing and developed countries is deconstructed, 3) the position of developing countries is highlighted, 4) China has a greater responsibility than non-Annex or a regular party, 5) China is recognized as a climate actor, and 6) China is excluded as a major player. The expectations recognize China’s structural climate leadership but acknowledging China as a global climate leader might pose a role conflict for the developed countries. The conclusion suggests that this acknowledgement would require developed countries to rethink their own climate leadership and assign the role with China
  • Huang, Wengfeng; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Zhijun; Leppäranta, Matti; Arvola, Lauri; Song, Shuang; Huotari, Jussi; Lin, Zhanju (2021)
    Interaction of under-ice physical, chemical, and biological processes with lake ice/snow cover is examined to better understand how changing winter climate may affect lake ecosystems. We derived under-ice dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics from high-frequency observations and modified a widely used lake metabolism model by including the effect of freezing and thawing on DO concentration. Estimates were produced for the production and respiration in a shallow lake on the Mongolian Plateau in three winters. Diel, synoptic, and seasonal variations in DO concentration were detected as responses to solar radiation, episodic snowfall events, and occasional convective mixing. Based on the observations and a radiative transfer model, incident solar radiation was partitioned into reflectance, absorbance, and transmittance by the snow and ice cover. For bare ice, the contributions of these three parts were 35%, 39%, and 26%, respectively, while under a new 4.5 cm thick snow cover, the corresponding values were 79%, 17%, and 3%. This points out the critical role of snow and ice on under-ice light conditions, which is the primary forcing for the temperature and the rate of photosynthesis under ice. The results showed three principal factors, which influenced under-ice DO and metabolism: (1) thickness and optical properties of ice and snow, which affected the light transfer and depth of the euphotic zone, (2) mediated radiation and ice-water heat transfer which controlled water temperature, and (3) DO exclusion during freezing and dilution by melt water. This study highlights the ecosystem characteristics in shallow ice-covered lakes in arid temperate regions and promotes our understanding of the response of the cold aquatic environment to climate change.