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  • Raisanen, Sari; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Laine, Katariina; Kramer, Michael R.; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    ObjectiveTo examine the effect of pregnancy history on the risk of stillbirth. MethodsIn a population-based cross-sectional study, data were reviewed from all women aged at least 20years with singleton pregnancies in Finland between 2000 and 2010. The primary outcomestillbirthwas defined as fetal death after 22 gestational weeks or death of a fetus weighing at least 500g. ResultsAmong 604047 singleton pregnancies, the prevalence of stillbirth was 3.17 per 1000 deliveries. Prevalence was lowest for multiparous women without previous pregnancy loss after adjusting for major pregnancy complications associated with stillbirth (placenta previa, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia) and other confounders. Relative to these women, stillbirth prevalence was higher among multiparous women with previous spontaneous abortion and/or stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.36), nulliparous women with no previous pregnancy loss (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.38), and nulliparous women with prior spontaneous abortion (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.18-1.74). ConclusionPrevious pregnancy loss was found to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth, irrespective of the number of prior deliveries. Spontaneous abortion assessed as a part of pregnancy history was found to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth.
  • Rantanen, Pekka; Parkkari, Timo; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja; Lyles, Alan (2017)
    Purpose: We examined the safety profile and usability of an integrated advanced robotic device and telecare system to promote medication adherence for elderly home-care patients. Methods: There were two phases. Phase I aimed to verify under controlled conditions in a single nursing home (n = 17 patients) that no robotic malfunctions would hinder the device's safe use. Phase II involved home-care patients from 3 sites (n = 27) who were on long-term medication. On-time dispensing and missed doses were recorded by the robotic system. Patients' and nurses' experiences were assessed with structured interviews. Findings: The 17 nursing home patients had 457 total days using the device (Phase I; mean, 26.9 per patient). On-time sachet retrieval occurred with 97.7% of the alerts, and no medication doses were missed. At baseline, Phase II home-dwelling patients reported difficulty remembering to take their medicines (23%), and 18% missed at least 2 doses per week. Most Phase II patients (78%) lived alone. The device delivered and patients retrieved medicine sachets for 99% of the alerts. All patients and 96% of nurses reported the device was easy to use. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.
  • Mertsalmi, Tuomas H.; Pekkonen, Eero; Scheperjans, Filip (2020)
    Background Gut microbiota alterations have been found in prodromal and established Parkinson's disease (PD). Antibiotic exposure can have long-term effects on the composition of human intestinal microbiota, but a potential connection between antibiotic exposure and risk of PD has not been studied previously. Objective To evaluate the impact of antibiotic exposure on the risk of PD in a nationwide, register-based, case-control study. Methods We identified all patients who were diagnosed with PD in Finland during the years 1998 to 2014. Information was obtained on individual purchases of orally administered antibiotics during the years 1993 to 2014. We assessed the association between prior antibiotic exposure and PD using conditional logistic regression. Results The study population consisted of 13,976 PD cases and 40,697 controls. The strongest connection with PD risk was found for oral exposure to macrolides and lincosamides (adjusted odds ratio up to 1.416; 95% confidence interval, 1.053-1.904). After correction for multiple comparisons, exposure to antianaerobics and tetracyclines 10 to 15 years before the index date, sulfonamides and trimethoprim 1 to 5 years before the index date, and antifungal medications 1 to 5 years before the index date were positively associated with PD risk. In post hoc analyses, further positive associations were found for broad-spectrum antibiotics. Conclusions Exposure to certain types of oral antibiotics seems to be associated with an elevated risk of PD with a delay that is consistent with the proposed duration of a prodromal period. The pattern of associations supports the hypothesis that effects on gut microbiota could link antibiotics to PD, but further studies are needed to confirm this. (c) 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
  • Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskyla, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2014)
  • Mataix-Cols, David; Virtanen, Suvi; Sidorchuk, Anna; Fernandez de la Cruz, Lorena; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti (2022)
    IMPORTANCE Tic disorders are associated with multiple social adversities, but little is known about the experience of violent assault (including sexual assault) and criminality in this group. OBJECTIVE To establish if Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) are associated with an increased risk of experiencing violent assault and criminal convictions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this cohort study, all individuals living in Sweden at any time between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 2013, were identified from Swedish nationwide health and administrative registers. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the risk of violent assault and criminal convictions among people with TS or CTD, compared with the general population and unaffected full siblings. Data analyses were conducted between September 1 and October 22, 2021. EXPOSURES The Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision ( ICD-8 ), ICD-9 , and ICD-10 diagnoses of TS or CTD in the Swedish National Patient Register. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Records of sexual and nonsexual violent assault and death due to violent assaults were obtained from the National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register, respectively. Convictions for violent and nonviolent criminal offenses were obtained from the Crime Register. Covariates included sex and birth year. RESULTS The study cohort included 13 819 284 individuals living in Sweden between 1973 and 2013. A total of 7791 individuals with TS or CTD were identified (median [IQR] age at first diagnosis, 13.4 [10.0-21.8] years; 5944 [76%] male). Compared with unaffected individuals from the general population, people with TS or CTD had a 2-fold increased risk of experiencing any violent assault (sexual and nonsexual) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.21; 95% CI, 2.00-2.43), a 3-fold increased risk of violent convictions (aHR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.92-3.36), and a 1.6-fold increased risk of nonviolent crime convictions (aHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.54-1.71). Among people with TS or CTD, 37.0% (114 of 308; 95% CI, 31.6%-42.4%) of individuals who had experienced violent assault also had a violent crime conviction, compared with 17.9% (16 067 of 89 920; 95% CI, 17.6%-18.1%) in the general population. Exclusion of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders partially attenuated the associations. Similarly, within-sibling models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (any violent assault: aHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61; violent crime: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.86-2.67; nonviolent crime: aHR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.20-1.50). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Results of this cohort study suggest that most individuals with TS or CTD are not assaulted nor are perpetrators of crime. However, individuals with TS or CTD diagnosed in specialist settings were more likely to both experience violent assault and be perpetrators of violence compared with the general population. The risk was highest in individuals with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. The increased risk found in specialty clinics will need to be better understood in the general population.
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina; Holm, Minna; Jokela, Markus; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    Background: The aims of this study were to (1) compare differences in psychiatric comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders between immigrants and native Finns and to (2) compare differences in the intensity of psychiatric care received by different immigrant groups and Finnish-born controls with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: The study uses registered-based data, which includes all immigrants living in Finland at the end of 2010 and matched Finnish-born controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of depression and/or an anxiety disorder during the follow-up (2011?2015) (immigrants n = 6542, Finnish-born controls n = 9281). We compared differences in comorbidity between the immigrants and the Finnish-born controls using chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict psychiatric treatment intensity by immigrant status, region of origin, and other background factors. Results: In both diagnosis groups, Finnish-born participants exhibited greater comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Immigrants more often received lower intensity treatment and less often higher intensity treatment. These differences were most striking among those from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Limitations: We did not have the information on the perceived need for the services, which limits us from drawing further conclusions about the mechanisms behind the observed patterns. Conclusions: Immigrants in Finland receive less intensive treatment for depression and anxiety disorders compared to the Finnish-born population. Since lower symptom levels can unlikely alone explain these differences, they could reflect a need for improvement in the psychiatric services for immigrants.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2013)
  • Lindqvist, U.; Gudbjornsson, B.; Iversen, L.; Laasonen, L.; Ejstrup, L.; Ternowitz, T.; Stahle, M. (2017)
    Objective: To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.Method: Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM.Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (3314years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 +/- 12years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group.Conclusion: PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.
  • Launonen, Antti P.; Huttunen, Tuomas T.; Lepola, Vesa; Niemi, Seppo T.; Kannus, Pekka; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Berg, Hans E.; Laitinen, Minna K.; Mattila, Ville M. (2020)
    Purpose Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury usually occurring with excess external extension force applied to a flexed elbow. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery in the Finnish and Swedish adult population between the years 1997 and 2016. A secondary aim was to investigate the distal biceps rupture incidence in the Swedish population in 2001 to 2016. Methods We assessed the number and rate of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery using the Finnish and Swedish Hospital Discharge Register as databases. The study included the entire Finnish and Swedish adult population aged 18 years and older between January 1, 1997 and of December 31, 2016. Results During the study period, 2,029 patients had a distal biceps tendon rupture in Finland, and the corresponding figure was 2,000 in Sweden. The rate of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery increased steeply, but equally, in both countries, in Finnish men from 1.3 per 100,000 person-years in 1997 to 9.6 in 2016, and in Swedish men from 0.2 in 1997 to 5.6 in 2016. The incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture in Sweden increased in men from 1.6 to 10.0 per 100,000 person-years from 2001 to 2016. Conclusions There was a 7-fold and a 28-fold increase in the incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery in Finnish and Swedish men during 1997 to 2016. The incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture rose 6-fold in Swedish men in 2001 to 2016. Copyright (C) 2020 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Karalis, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Ulander, Veli-Matti (2016)
    Objective: To evaluate the influence of delivery unit size and on-call staffing in the performance of low-risk deliveries in Finland. Study design: A population-based study of hospital size and level based on Medical Birth Register data. Population was all hospital births in Finland in 2005-2009. Inclusion criteria were singleton births (birth weight 2500 g or more) without major congenital anomalies or birth defects. Additionally, only intrapartum stillbirths were included. Birthweights and maternal background characteristics were adjusted for by logistic regression. Main outcome measures were intrapartum or early neonatal mortality, neonatal asphyxia and newborns' need for intensive care or transfer to other hospital and longer duration of care. On-call arrangements were asked from each of the hospitals. Results: Intrapartum mortality was higher in units where physicians were at home when on-call (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02-1.52). A tendency to a higher mortality was also recorded in non-university hospitals (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.99-1.40). Early neonatal mortality was twofold in units with less than 1000 births annually (OR 2.11; 95% CI 0.97-4.56) and in units where physicians were at home when on-call (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.91-3.76). These results did not reach statistical significance. No differences between the units were found regarding Apgar scores or umbilical cord pH. Conclusion: The differences in mortality rates between different level hospitals suggest that adverse outcomes during delivery should be studied in detail in relation to hospital characteristics, such as size or level, and more international studies determining obstetric patient safety indicators are required. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jukarainen, Sakari; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Kuitunen, Sara; Havulinna, Aki S.; Karjalainen, Juha; Cordioli, Mattia; Rämö, Joel T.; Mars, Nina; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Ollila, Hanna M.; Pirinen, Matti; Ganna, Andrea (2022)
    The impact of genetic variation on overall disease burden has not been comprehensively evaluated. We introduce an approach to estimate the effect of genetic risk factors on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; 'lost healthy life years'). We use genetic information from 735,748 individuals and consider 80 diseases. Rare variants had the highest effect on DALYs at the individual level. Among common variants, rs3798220 (LPA) had the strongest individual-level effect, with 1.18 DALYs from carrying 1 versus 0 copies. Being in the top 10% versus the bottom 90% of a polygenic score for multisite chronic pain had an effect of 3.63 DALYs. Some common variants had a population-level effect comparable to modifiable risk factors such as high sodium intake and low physical activity. Attributable DALYs vary between males and females for some genetic exposures. Genetic risk factors can explain a sizable number of healthy life years lost both at the individual and population level.
  • Syvänen, J.; Helenius, I.; Koskimies-Virta, E.; Ritvanen, A.; Hurme, S.; Nietosvaara, Y. (2019)
    Background and Aims: There are no population-based studies about hospital admissions and need for surgical treatment of congenital lower-limb deficiencies. The aim is to assess the impact children with lower-limb deficiencies pose to national hospital level health-care system. Materials and Methods: A population-based study was conducted using the national Register of Congenital Malformations and Care Register for Health Care. All 185 live births with lower-limb deficiency (1993-2008) were included. Data on hospital care were collected until 31 December 2009 and compared to data on the whole pediatric population (0.9 million) live born in 1993-2008. Results: The whole pediatric population had annually on average 0.10 hospital admissions and the mean length of in-patient care of 0.3 days per child. The respective figures were 1.5 and 5.6 in terminal lower-limb amputations (n = 7), 1.1 and 3.9 in long-bone deficiencies (n = 53), 0.6 and 1.9 in foot deficiencies (n = 26) and 0.4 and 2.6 in toe deficiencies (n = 101). Orthopedic surgery was performed in 72% (5/7) of patients with terminal amputations, in 62% (33/53) of patients with long bone, in 58% (14/24) of patients with foot and in 25% (25/101) of patients in toe deficiencies. Half (54%) of all procedures were orthopedic operations. Conclusion: In congenital lower-limb deficiencies the need of hospital care and the number of orthopedic procedures is multiple-fold compared to whole pediatric population. The burden to the patient and to the families is markedly increased, especially in children with terminal amputations and long-bone deficiencies of lower limbs.
  • Genetics of DNA Methylation Consortium; BIOS Consortium; van Dongen, Jenny; Lundgren, Sara; Ollikainen, Miina; Kaprio, Jaakko (2021)
    The mechanisms underlying how monozygotic (or identical) twins arise are yet to be determined. Here, the authors investigate this in an epigenome-wide association study, showing that monozygotic twinning has a characteristic DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. Monozygotic (MZ) twins and higher-order multiples arise when a zygote splits during pre-implantation stages of development. The mechanisms underpinning this event have remained a mystery. Because MZ twinning rarely runs in families, the leading hypothesis is that it occurs at random. Here, we show that MZ twinning is strongly associated with a stable DNA methylation signature in adult somatic tissues. This signature spans regions near telomeres and centromeres, Polycomb-repressed regions and heterochromatin, genes involved in cell-adhesion, WNT signaling, cell fate, and putative human metastable epialleles. Our study also demonstrates a never-anticipated corollary: because identical twins keep a lifelong molecular signature, we can retrospectively diagnose if a person was conceived as monozygotic twin.
  • Kerola, Anne M.; Sexton, Joseph; Wibetoe, Grunde; Rollefstad, Silvia; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Mars, Nina; Kazemi, Amirhossein; Haavardsholm, Espen A.; Kvien, Tore K.; Semb, Anne Grete (2021)
    ABSTR A C T Objectives: To evaluate nationwide incidence, sociodemographic associations and treatment penetration of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in Norway. Methods: The study combined data from nationwide registries on the total Norwegian adult population (age > 18). From the Norwegian Patient Registry, incident RA and PsA cases during 2011-2015 were identified with records of first and second healthcare episodes listing RA/PsA diagnostic codes, and > 1 episode in an internal medicine or rheumatology unit with RA/PsA code during the two-year period after the first episode. Dispensed DMARD prescriptions were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Persons with dis-pensed DMARD prescriptions or biologic DMARDs given in hospitals > 12 months before the index date were excluded. Results: Incidence of RA/PsA in Norway was 42/26 per 100,000 person-years (55/28 among women and 28/23 among men). RA peak incidence was observed at ages 70-79 in both sexes, whereas the peak incidence of PsA occurred at ages 50-59. Age-and sex-standardized incidences of RA and PsA were lower among persons with higher education levels. Within a year from the index date, 82.4/57.4% of RA/PsA patients used synthetic DMARDs while 9.4/9.5% used biologic DMARDs. Conclusions: Register-based incidence estimates for RA and PsA in Norway are similar to other Nordic countries, but slightly higher than in previous Norwegian studies. Furthermore, we found that higher socioeconomic status was associated with lower incidence of both RA and PsA. Although conventional synthetic DMARDs were less often used in early PsA than RA, frequency of biologic DMARD prescriptions was comparable. (c) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Skytta, Eerik T.; Leskinen , Jarkko; Antti, Eskelinen; Huhtala, Heini; Ville, Remes (2011)
  • Miettinen, S. S. A.; Mäkinen, T. J.; Mäkelä, K.; Huhtala, H.; Kettunen, J. S.; Remes, V. (2018)
    Background and Aims: Large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing arthroplasty were popular in Finland from 2000 to 2012 for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the mid-term survival of large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty patients operated on in three university hospitals and to compare these results to the survival of hip resurfacing arthroplasty patients. Material and Methods: A total of 3860 hip arthroplasties (3029 large-diameter head total hip arthroplasties in 2734 patients and 831 hip resurfacing arthroplasties in 757 patients) were operated on between January 2004 and December 2009. The mean follow-up was 4.3years (range: 0.3-8.0years) in the total hip arthroplasty group and 5.1years (range: 1.7-7.9years) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group. Cox multiple regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to study the survival of the total hip arthroplasties and the hip resurfacing arthroplasties. Intraoperative complications and reasons for revisions were also evaluated. Results: In Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio for revision of hip resurfacing arthroplasty was 1.5 compared with large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.2) (p=0.029). The cumulative Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 90.7% at 7.7years for the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 86.8-94.6) and 92.2% at 7.6years for hip resurfacing arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 89.9-94.6). There were a total of 166/3029 (5.5%) intraoperative complications in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group and 20/831 (2.4%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group (p=0.001). Revision for any reason was performed on 137/3029 (4.5%) of the arthroplasties in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group and 52/831 (6.3%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group (p=0.04). Conclusion: The mid-term survival of both of these devices was poor, and revisions due to adverse reactions to metal debris will most likely rise at longer follow-up. There were more intraoperative complications in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group than in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group.
  • Heikkila, K.; Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Fransson, E. I.; Westerlund, H.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Theorell, T.; Suominen, S. B.; Shipley, M. J.; Salo, P.; Rugulies, R.; Pentti, J.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Oksanen, T.; Nordin, M.; Nielsen, M. L.; Kouvonen, A.; Koskinen, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Knutsson, A.; Ferrie, J. E.; Dragano, N.; Burr, H.; Borritz, M.; Bjorner, J. B.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD Work Consortium (2014)
  • Licht, Sofie de Fine; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Holmqvist, Anna Sallfors; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Hasle, Henrik; Winther, Jeanette F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; ALiCCS Study Grp (2017)
    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer. Methods and findings From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden) from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs), absolute excess risks (AERs), and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs) based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years), childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included), when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97). The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156) per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous system (19.1% of all excess hospitalisations), endocrine system (11.1%), digestive organs (10.5%), and respiratory system (10.0%). Survivors of all types of childhood cancer were at increased, persistent risk for subsequent hospitalisation, the highest risks being those of survivors of neuroblastoma (RR: 2.6 [2.4-2.8]; n = 876), hepatic tumours (RR: 2.5 [2.0-3.1]; n = 92), central nervous system tumours (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 6,175), and Hodgkin lymphoma (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 2,027). Survivors spent on average five times as many days in hospital as comparison individuals (SBDR: 4.96 [4.94-4.98]; n = 422,218). The analyses of bed days in hospital included new primary cancers and recurrences. Of the total 422,218 days survivors spent in hospital, 47% (197,596 bed days) were for new primary cancers and recurrences. Our study is likely to underestimate the absolute overall disease burden experienced by survivors, as less severe late effects are missed if they are treated sufficiently in the outpatient setting or in the primary health care system. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors were at increased long-term risk for diseases requiring inpatient treatment even decades after their initial cancer. Health care providers who do not work in the area of late effects, especially those in primary health care, should be aware of this highly challenged group of patients in order to avoid or postpone hospitalisations by prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatments.