Browsing by Subject "REGISTER"

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  • Raisanen, Sari; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Laine, Katariina; Kramer, Michael R.; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    ObjectiveTo examine the effect of pregnancy history on the risk of stillbirth. MethodsIn a population-based cross-sectional study, data were reviewed from all women aged at least 20years with singleton pregnancies in Finland between 2000 and 2010. The primary outcomestillbirthwas defined as fetal death after 22 gestational weeks or death of a fetus weighing at least 500g. ResultsAmong 604047 singleton pregnancies, the prevalence of stillbirth was 3.17 per 1000 deliveries. Prevalence was lowest for multiparous women without previous pregnancy loss after adjusting for major pregnancy complications associated with stillbirth (placenta previa, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia) and other confounders. Relative to these women, stillbirth prevalence was higher among multiparous women with previous spontaneous abortion and/or stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.36), nulliparous women with no previous pregnancy loss (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.38), and nulliparous women with prior spontaneous abortion (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.18-1.74). ConclusionPrevious pregnancy loss was found to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth, irrespective of the number of prior deliveries. Spontaneous abortion assessed as a part of pregnancy history was found to be an independent risk factor for stillbirth.
  • Rantanen, Pekka; Parkkari, Timo; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja; Lyles, Alan (2017)
    Purpose: We examined the safety profile and usability of an integrated advanced robotic device and telecare system to promote medication adherence for elderly home-care patients. Methods: There were two phases. Phase I aimed to verify under controlled conditions in a single nursing home (n = 17 patients) that no robotic malfunctions would hinder the device's safe use. Phase II involved home-care patients from 3 sites (n = 27) who were on long-term medication. On-time dispensing and missed doses were recorded by the robotic system. Patients' and nurses' experiences were assessed with structured interviews. Findings: The 17 nursing home patients had 457 total days using the device (Phase I; mean, 26.9 per patient). On-time sachet retrieval occurred with 97.7% of the alerts, and no medication doses were missed. At baseline, Phase II home-dwelling patients reported difficulty remembering to take their medicines (23%), and 18% missed at least 2 doses per week. Most Phase II patients (78%) lived alone. The device delivered and patients retrieved medicine sachets for 99% of the alerts. All patients and 96% of nurses reported the device was easy to use. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.
  • Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskyla, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2014)
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina; Holm, Minna; Jokela, Markus; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    Background: The aims of this study were to (1) compare differences in psychiatric comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders between immigrants and native Finns and to (2) compare differences in the intensity of psychiatric care received by different immigrant groups and Finnish-born controls with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: The study uses registered-based data, which includes all immigrants living in Finland at the end of 2010 and matched Finnish-born controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of depression and/or an anxiety disorder during the follow-up (2011?2015) (immigrants n = 6542, Finnish-born controls n = 9281). We compared differences in comorbidity between the immigrants and the Finnish-born controls using chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict psychiatric treatment intensity by immigrant status, region of origin, and other background factors. Results: In both diagnosis groups, Finnish-born participants exhibited greater comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Immigrants more often received lower intensity treatment and less often higher intensity treatment. These differences were most striking among those from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Limitations: We did not have the information on the perceived need for the services, which limits us from drawing further conclusions about the mechanisms behind the observed patterns. Conclusions: Immigrants in Finland receive less intensive treatment for depression and anxiety disorders compared to the Finnish-born population. Since lower symptom levels can unlikely alone explain these differences, they could reflect a need for improvement in the psychiatric services for immigrants.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2013)
  • Lindqvist, U.; Gudbjornsson, B.; Iversen, L.; Laasonen, L.; Ejstrup, L.; Ternowitz, T.; Stahle, M. (2017)
    Objective: To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.Method: Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM.Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (3314years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 +/- 12years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group.Conclusion: PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.
  • Launonen, Antti P.; Huttunen, Tuomas T.; Lepola, Vesa; Niemi, Seppo T.; Kannus, Pekka; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Berg, Hans E.; Laitinen, Minna K.; Mattila, Ville M. (2020)
    Purpose Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury usually occurring with excess external extension force applied to a flexed elbow. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery in the Finnish and Swedish adult population between the years 1997 and 2016. A secondary aim was to investigate the distal biceps rupture incidence in the Swedish population in 2001 to 2016. Methods We assessed the number and rate of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery using the Finnish and Swedish Hospital Discharge Register as databases. The study included the entire Finnish and Swedish adult population aged 18 years and older between January 1, 1997 and of December 31, 2016. Results During the study period, 2,029 patients had a distal biceps tendon rupture in Finland, and the corresponding figure was 2,000 in Sweden. The rate of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery increased steeply, but equally, in both countries, in Finnish men from 1.3 per 100,000 person-years in 1997 to 9.6 in 2016, and in Swedish men from 0.2 in 1997 to 5.6 in 2016. The incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture in Sweden increased in men from 1.6 to 10.0 per 100,000 person-years from 2001 to 2016. Conclusions There was a 7-fold and a 28-fold increase in the incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture surgery in Finnish and Swedish men during 1997 to 2016. The incidence of distal biceps tendon rupture rose 6-fold in Swedish men in 2001 to 2016. Copyright (C) 2020 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Karalis, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Ulander, Veli-Matti (2016)
    Objective: To evaluate the influence of delivery unit size and on-call staffing in the performance of low-risk deliveries in Finland. Study design: A population-based study of hospital size and level based on Medical Birth Register data. Population was all hospital births in Finland in 2005-2009. Inclusion criteria were singleton births (birth weight 2500 g or more) without major congenital anomalies or birth defects. Additionally, only intrapartum stillbirths were included. Birthweights and maternal background characteristics were adjusted for by logistic regression. Main outcome measures were intrapartum or early neonatal mortality, neonatal asphyxia and newborns' need for intensive care or transfer to other hospital and longer duration of care. On-call arrangements were asked from each of the hospitals. Results: Intrapartum mortality was higher in units where physicians were at home when on-call (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02-1.52). A tendency to a higher mortality was also recorded in non-university hospitals (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.99-1.40). Early neonatal mortality was twofold in units with less than 1000 births annually (OR 2.11; 95% CI 0.97-4.56) and in units where physicians were at home when on-call (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.91-3.76). These results did not reach statistical significance. No differences between the units were found regarding Apgar scores or umbilical cord pH. Conclusion: The differences in mortality rates between different level hospitals suggest that adverse outcomes during delivery should be studied in detail in relation to hospital characteristics, such as size or level, and more international studies determining obstetric patient safety indicators are required. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Syvänen, J.; Helenius, I.; Koskimies-Virta, E.; Ritvanen, A.; Hurme, S.; Nietosvaara, Y. (2019)
    Background and Aims: There are no population-based studies about hospital admissions and need for surgical treatment of congenital lower-limb deficiencies. The aim is to assess the impact children with lower-limb deficiencies pose to national hospital level health-care system. Materials and Methods: A population-based study was conducted using the national Register of Congenital Malformations and Care Register for Health Care. All 185 live births with lower-limb deficiency (1993-2008) were included. Data on hospital care were collected until 31 December 2009 and compared to data on the whole pediatric population (0.9 million) live born in 1993-2008. Results: The whole pediatric population had annually on average 0.10 hospital admissions and the mean length of in-patient care of 0.3 days per child. The respective figures were 1.5 and 5.6 in terminal lower-limb amputations (n = 7), 1.1 and 3.9 in long-bone deficiencies (n = 53), 0.6 and 1.9 in foot deficiencies (n = 26) and 0.4 and 2.6 in toe deficiencies (n = 101). Orthopedic surgery was performed in 72% (5/7) of patients with terminal amputations, in 62% (33/53) of patients with long bone, in 58% (14/24) of patients with foot and in 25% (25/101) of patients in toe deficiencies. Half (54%) of all procedures were orthopedic operations. Conclusion: In congenital lower-limb deficiencies the need of hospital care and the number of orthopedic procedures is multiple-fold compared to whole pediatric population. The burden to the patient and to the families is markedly increased, especially in children with terminal amputations and long-bone deficiencies of lower limbs.
  • Skytta, Eerik T.; Leskinen, Jarkko; Antti, Eskelinen; Huhtala, Heini; Ville, Remes (2011)
  • Miettinen, S. S. A.; Mäkinen, T. J.; Mäkelä, K.; Huhtala, H.; Kettunen, J. S.; Remes, V. (2018)
    Background and Aims: Large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing arthroplasty were popular in Finland from 2000 to 2012 for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the mid-term survival of large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty patients operated on in three university hospitals and to compare these results to the survival of hip resurfacing arthroplasty patients. Material and Methods: A total of 3860 hip arthroplasties (3029 large-diameter head total hip arthroplasties in 2734 patients and 831 hip resurfacing arthroplasties in 757 patients) were operated on between January 2004 and December 2009. The mean follow-up was 4.3years (range: 0.3-8.0years) in the total hip arthroplasty group and 5.1years (range: 1.7-7.9years) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group. Cox multiple regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to study the survival of the total hip arthroplasties and the hip resurfacing arthroplasties. Intraoperative complications and reasons for revisions were also evaluated. Results: In Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio for revision of hip resurfacing arthroplasty was 1.5 compared with large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.2) (p=0.029). The cumulative Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 90.7% at 7.7years for the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 86.8-94.6) and 92.2% at 7.6years for hip resurfacing arthroplasty (95% confidence interval: 89.9-94.6). There were a total of 166/3029 (5.5%) intraoperative complications in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group and 20/831 (2.4%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group (p=0.001). Revision for any reason was performed on 137/3029 (4.5%) of the arthroplasties in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group and 52/831 (6.3%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group (p=0.04). Conclusion: The mid-term survival of both of these devices was poor, and revisions due to adverse reactions to metal debris will most likely rise at longer follow-up. There were more intraoperative complications in the large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty group than in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group.
  • Heikkila, K.; Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Fransson, E. I.; Westerlund, H.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Theorell, T.; Suominen, S. B.; Shipley, M. J.; Salo, P.; Rugulies, R.; Pentti, J.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Oksanen, T.; Nordin, M.; Nielsen, M. L.; Kouvonen, A.; Koskinen, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Knutsson, A.; Ferrie, J. E.; Dragano, N.; Burr, H.; Borritz, M.; Bjorner, J. B.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD-Work Consortium (2014)
  • Licht, Sofie de Fine; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Holmqvist, Anna Sallfors; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Hasle, Henrik; Winther, Jeanette F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; ALICCS Study Grp (2017)
    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer. Methods and findings From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden) from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs), absolute excess risks (AERs), and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs) based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years), childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included), when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97). The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156) per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous system (19.1% of all excess hospitalisations), endocrine system (11.1%), digestive organs (10.5%), and respiratory system (10.0%). Survivors of all types of childhood cancer were at increased, persistent risk for subsequent hospitalisation, the highest risks being those of survivors of neuroblastoma (RR: 2.6 [2.4-2.8]; n = 876), hepatic tumours (RR: 2.5 [2.0-3.1]; n = 92), central nervous system tumours (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 6,175), and Hodgkin lymphoma (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 2,027). Survivors spent on average five times as many days in hospital as comparison individuals (SBDR: 4.96 [4.94-4.98]; n = 422,218). The analyses of bed days in hospital included new primary cancers and recurrences. Of the total 422,218 days survivors spent in hospital, 47% (197,596 bed days) were for new primary cancers and recurrences. Our study is likely to underestimate the absolute overall disease burden experienced by survivors, as less severe late effects are missed if they are treated sufficiently in the outpatient setting or in the primary health care system. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors were at increased long-term risk for diseases requiring inpatient treatment even decades after their initial cancer. Health care providers who do not work in the area of late effects, especially those in primary health care, should be aware of this highly challenged group of patients in order to avoid or postpone hospitalisations by prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatments.
  • Malmberg, Markus; Palomäki, Antti; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Rautava, Päivi; Gunn, Jarmo; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and events. Little is, however, known about the influence of RA to the outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Methods: In a retrospective, nationwide, multicenter cohort study, RA patients (n = 109) were compared to patients without RA (n = 1090) treated with isolated SAVR for aortic valve stenosis. Propensity score-matching adjustment for baseline features was used to study the outcome differences in a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Results: Patients with RA had higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.76; CI 1.21-2.57; p = 0.003), higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (HR 1.63; CI 1.06-2.49; p = 0.025), and they needed more often coronary artery revascularization for coronary artery disease (HR 3.96; CI 1.21-12.90; p = 0.027) in long-term follow-up after SAVR. As well, cardiovascular mortality rate was higher in patients with RA (35.7% vs. 23.4%, p = 0.023). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (2.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.518) or in the need for aortic valve reoperations (3.7% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.532). Conclusions: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had impaired long-term results and increased cardiovascular mortality after SAVR for aortic valve stenosis. Special attention is needed to improve outcomes of aortic valve stenosis patients with RA after SAVR.
  • Bonnesen, Trine Gade; Winther, Jeanette F.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Licht, Sofie de Fine; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Holmqvist, Anna Saellfors; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Birn, Henrik; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Hasle, Henrik; ALiCCS Study Grp (2016)
    Background: Childhood cancer has been associated with long-term risk of urinary tract diseases, but risk patterns remain to be comprehensively investigated. We analysed the lifetime risk of urinary tract diseases in survivors of childhood cancer in the Nordic countries. Methods: We identified 32,519 one-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed since the 1940s and 1950s in the five Nordic cancer registries and selected 211,156 population comparisons of a corresponding age, sex, and country of residence from the national population registries. To obtain information on all first-time hospitalizations for a urinary tract disease, we linked all study subjects to the national hospital registry of each country. Relative risks (RRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for urinary tract diseases among cancer survivors were calculated with the appropriate morbidity rates among comparisons as reference. Results: We observed 1645 childhood cancer survivors ever hospitalized for urinary tract disease yielding an RR of 2.5 (95% CI 2.4-2.7) and an AER of 229 (95% CI 210-248) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative risk at age 60 was 22% in cancer survivors and 10% in comparisons. Infections of the urinary system and chronic kidney disease showed the highest excess risks, whereas survivors of neuroblastoma, hepatic and renal tumours experienced the highest RRs. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood cancer had an excess risk of urinary tract diseases and for most diseases the risk remained elevated throughout life. The highest risks occurred following therapy of childhood abdominal tumours. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Voutilainen, Markku; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Tossavainen, Päivi; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkänen, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background and aims: Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents. Methods: A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions. Results: Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. (C) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Soini, Erkki; Asseburg, Christian; Taiha, Maarit; Puolakka, Kari; Purcaru, Oana; Luosujärvi, Riitta (2017)
    To model the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of certolizumab pegol (CZP) (with and without a hypothetical risk-sharing scheme at treatment initiation for biologic-na <ve patients) versus the current mix of reimbursed biologics for treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Finland. A probabilistic model with 12-week cycles and a societal approach was developed for the years 2015-2019, accounting for differences in ACR responses (meta-analysis), mortality, and persistence. The risk-sharing scheme included a treatment switch and refund of the costs associated with CZP acquisition if patients failed to achieve ACR20 response at week 12. For the current treatment mix, ACR20 at week 24 determined treatment continuation. Quality-adjusted life years were derived on the basis of the Health Utilities Index. In the Finnish target population, CZP treatment with a risk-sharing scheme led to a estimated annual net expenditure decrease ranging from 1.7% in 2015 to 5.6% in 2019 compared with the current treatment mix. Per patient over the 5 years, CZP risk sharing was estimated to decrease the time without ACR response by 5%-units, decrease work absenteeism by 24 days, and increase the time with ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses by 5%-, 6%-, and 1%-units, respectively, with a gain of 0.03 quality-adjusted life years. The modeled risk-sharing scheme showed reduced costs of a,notsign7866 per patient, with a more than 95% probability of cost-effectiveness when compared with the current treatment mix. The present analysis estimated that CZP, with or without the risk-sharing scheme, is a cost-effective alternative treatment for RA patients in Finland. The surplus provided by the CZP risk-sharing scheme could fund treatment for 6% more Finnish RA patients.
  • Kuusalo, Laura; Puolakka, Kari; Kautiainen, Hannu; Karjalainen, Anna; Malmi, Timo; Yli-Kerttula, Timo; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Rantalaiho, Vappu; NEO-RACo Study Grp (2017)
    Identifying prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients is of key clinical importance. We studied patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as predictors of remission in a clinical trial. We randomized 99 untreated ERA patients to receive remission-targeted treatment with three disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and prednisolone for 24 months, and infliximab or placebo for the initial 6 months. At baseline, we measured following PROs: eight Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) dimensions, patient's global assessment [PGA, visual analogue scale (VAS)], Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and pain VAS. We used multivariable-adjusted regression models to identify PROs that independently predicted modified American College of Rheumatology remission at 2 years. Follow-up data at 2 years were available for 93 patients (92%), and 58 patients (62%) were in remission. At baseline, patients who achieved remission had higher radiological score (p = 0.04), lower tender joint count (p = 0.001), lower PGA (p = 0.005) and physician's global assessment (p = 0.019), lower HAQ (p = 0.016), less morning stiffness (p = 0.009), and significantly higher scores in seven out of eight SF-36 dimensions compared with patients who did not. In multivariable models that included all PROs, remission was associated with SF-36 dimensions higher vitality (odds ratio 2.01; 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.39) and better emotional role functioning (odds ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.68). PGA, pain VAS, HAQ, and other SF-36 dimensions were not associated with remission. We conclude that self-reported vitality and better emotional role functioning are among the most important PROs for the prediction of remission in ERA.