Browsing by Subject "REGISTRATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Mattar, Marcelo G.; Olkkonen, Maria; Epstein, Russell A.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K. (2018)
    Perception and neural responses are modulated by sensory history. Visual adaptation, an example of such an effect, has been hypothesized to improve stimulus discrimination by decorrelating responses across a set of neural units. While a central theoretical model, behavioral and neural evidence for this theory is limited and inconclusive. Here, we use a parametric 3D shape-space to test whether adaptation decorrelates shape representations in humans. In a behavioral experiment with 20 subjects, we find that adaptation to a shape class improves discrimination of subsequently presented stimuli with similar features. In a BOLD fMRI experiment with 10 subjects, we observe that adaptation to a shape class decorrelates the multivariate representations of subsequently presented stimuli with similar features in object-selective cortex. These results support the long-standing proposal that adaptation improves perceptual discrimination and decorrelates neural representations, offering insights into potential underlying mechanisms.
  • Liu, Jingbin; Liang, Xinlian; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Lehtomäki, Matti; Pyörälä, Jiri; Zhu, Lingli; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Ruizhi (2017)
    Terrestrial laser scanning has been widely used to analyze the 3D structure of a forest in detail and to generate data at the level of a reference plot for forest inventories without destructive measurements. Multi-scan terrestrial laser scanning is more commonly applied to collect plot-level data so that all of the stems can be detected and analyzed. However, it is necessary to match the point clouds of multiple scans to yield a point cloud with automated processing. Mismatches between datasets will lead to errors during the processing of multi-scan data. Classic registration methods based on flat surfaces cannot be directly applied in forest environments; therefore, artificial reference objects have conventionally been used to assist with scan matching. The use of artificial references requires additional labor and expertise, as well as greatly increasing the cost. In this study, we present an automated processing method for plot-level stem mapping that matches multiple scans without artificial references. In contrast to previous studies, the registration method developed in this study exploits the natural geometric characteristics among a set of tree stems in a plot and combines the point clouds of multiple scans into a unified coordinate system. Integrating multiple scans improves the overall performance of stem mapping in terms of the correctness of tree detection, as well as the bias and the root-mean-square errors of forest attributes such as diameter at breast height and tree height. In addition, the automated processing method makes stem mapping more reliable and consistent among plots, reduces the costs associated with plot-based stem mapping, and enhances the efficiency. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Haagsma, Juanita A.; James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Aremu, Olatunde; Arora, Amit; Asayesh, Hamid; Assadi, Reza; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J.; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Choi, Jee-Young J.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv; Daryani, Ahmad; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; Degenhardt, Louisa; De Leo, Diego; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Deribe, Kebede; Dessie, Getenet Ayalew; deVeber, Gabrielle Aline; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Linh Phuong Doan,; Dolan, Kate A.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubey, Manisha; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Faro, Andre; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Maria Haro, Josep; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Hijar, Martha; Hole, Michael K.; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie; Hossain, Naznin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jonas, Jost B.; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kalani, Rizwan; Kasaeian, Amir; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Daniel; Kisa, Adnan; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, Manasi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Leasher, Janet L.; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Machado, Flavia R.; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Meheretu, Hailemariam Abiy Alemu; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Melese, Addisu; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Montero-Zamora, Pablo A.; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M.; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Son Hoang Nguyen,; Long Hoang Nguyen,; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen,; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Orpana, Heather M.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pakhale, Smita; Park, Eun-Kee; Patton, George C.; Pesudovs, Konrad; Phillips, Michael R.; Polinder, Suzanne; Prakash, Swayam; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ramezanzadeh, Kiana; Rawaf, Salman; Rawaf, David Laith; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Sabde, Yogesh Damodar; Saddik, Basema; Salamati, Payman; Salimi, Yahya; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sawyer, Susan M.; Saxena, Sonia; Saylan, Mete; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sheikh, Aziz; Shen, Jiabin; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Soares Filho, Adauto Martins; Soriano, Joan B.; Soshnikov, Sergey; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Starodubov, Vladimir; Stein, Dan J.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sunshine, Jacob E.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Khanh Bao Tran,; Bach Xuan Tran,; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; Valdez, Pascual R.; Varavikova, Elena; Nogales Vasconcelos, Ana Maria; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Yadav, Priyanka; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken Azage; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zafar, Shamsa; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Hay, Simon; Lopez, Alan D.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
  • Ruuth, Riikka; Kuusela, Linda; Mäkelä, Teemu; Melkas, Susanna; Korvenoja, Antti (2019)
    Aim and scope: A Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging technique (GEPCI) is a post-processing method, which can be used to obtain quantitative T2* values and generate multiple synthetic contrasts from a single acquisition. However, scan duration and image reconstruction from k-space data present challenges in a clinical workflow. This study aimed at optimizing image reconstruction and acquisition duration to facilitate a post-processing method for synthetic image contrast creation in clinical settings. Materials and methods: This study consists of tests using the American College of Radiology (ACR) image quality phantom, two healthy volunteers, four mild traumatic brain injury patients and four small vessel disease patients. The measurements were carried out on a 3.0 T scanner with multiple echo times. Reconstruction from k-space data and DICOM data with two different coil-channel combination modes were investigated. Partial Fourier techniques were tested to optimize the scanning time. Conclusions: Sum of squares coil-channel combination produced artifacts in phase images, but images created with adaptive combination were artifact-free. The voxel-wise median signed difference of T2* between the vendor's adaptive channel combination and k-space reconstruction modes was 2.9 +/- 0.7 ms for white matter and 4.5 +/- 0.6 ms for gray matter. Relative white matter/gray matter contrast of all synthetic images and contrast-to-noise ratio of synthetic T1-weighted images were almost equal between reconstruction modes. Our results indicate that synthetic contrasts can be generated from the vendor's DICOM data with the adaptive combination mode without affecting the quantitative T2* values or white matter/gray matter contrast.
  • Makela, Keijo T.; Matilainen, Markus; Pulkkinen, Pekka; Fenstad, Anne M.; Havelin, Leif I.; Engesaeter, Lars; Furnes, Ove; Overgaard, Soren; Pedersen, Alma B.; Kaerrholm, Johan; Malchau, Henrik; Garellick, Goeran; Ranstam, Jonas; Eskelinen, Antti (2014)
  • Roth, Gregory A.; Collaborotors, G. B. D.Causes Death; Abate, Degu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abay, Solomon M.; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Load; Abdela, Jemal; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abebe, Haftom Temesgen; Abebe, Molla; Abebe, Zegeye; Abejie, Ayenew Negesse; Abera, Semaw F.; Abil, Olifan Zewdie; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abrham, Aklilu Roba; Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou; Acharya, Dilaram; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adookunboh, Olatunii; Adhena, Beyene Meressa; Adib, Mina G.; Admasie, Aniha; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Gina; Agesa, Karelia M.; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Melidi; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Sayent; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Fddine; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Akinyeniti, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alandab, Fares; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Tahiya; Alebel, Animut; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Aminde, Leopold N.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampern; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Androudi, Sofia; Animut, Megbaru Debalkie; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansari, Hossein; Aniha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Aremu, Olatunde; Arnlov, Johan; Arora, Amit; Arora, Monika; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna K.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asfaw, Ephremi Tsegay; Ataro, Zerihun; Atique, Suleman; Atre, Sachin R.; Ausloos, Marcel; Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintattilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayele, Yohanes; Ayer, Rakesh; Azzopardi, Peter S.; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Bacha, Umar; Badali, Hamid; Badawi, Alaa; Bali, Ayele Geleto; Ballesteros, Katherine E.; Banach, Maciej; Banerjee, Kajori; Bannick, Marlena S.; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyu; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Barquera, Simon; Barrero, Lope; Bassat, Quique; Base, Sanjay; Baune, Bernhard T.; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beth, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Mcysam; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Belacliew, Abate Bekele; Belay, Ezra; Belay, Yihalem Abebe; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berman, Adam F.; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bertolacci, Gregory J.; Beuran, Mircea; Beyranvand, Tina; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhattarai, Suraj; Bhaumik, Sounayadeeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgo, Belete; Biehl, Molly H.; Bijani, Ali; Bikbov, Boris; Bilano, Ver; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shandaat; Bisanzio, Donal; Biswas, Tuhin; Blacker, Brigitte F.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borschmann, Rohan; Bosetti, Cristina; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Brady, Oliver J.; Brant, Luisa C.; Brayne, Carol; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briant, Paul Svitil; Britton, Gabrielle; Brugha, Traolach; Busse, Reinhard; Butt, Zahid A.; Callender, Charlton S. K. H.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Rincon, Julio Cesar Canapuzano; Cano, Jorge; Car, Mate; Cardenas, Rosario; Carreras, Giulia; Carrero, Juan J.; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Castle, Chris D.; Castro, Clara; Castro, Franz; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chaiah, Yazan; Chang, Jung -Chen; Chanson, Fiona J.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheet, Abdulaal; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Chiang, Sheng-Chia; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J.; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Cortinovis, Monica; Cousin, Ewerton; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Crump, John A.; Cunningham, Matthew; Daba, Alemneh Kabeta; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dang, Anh Kim; Dargan, Paul I.; Daryani, Ahmad; Das, Siddharth K.; Das Gupta, Rajat; Das Neves, Jose; Dasa, Tamirat Tesfaye; Dash, Aditya Prasad; Davis, Adrian C.; Weaver, Nicole Davis; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; Davletov, Kairat; De La Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Degenhardt, Louisa; Degfie, Tizta T.; Deiparine, Selina; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Demtsu, Baleen Betsu; Denova-Gutierrez, Edgar; Deribe, Kebede; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessie, Getenet Ayalew; Dey, Subhojit; Dhannaratne, Samath D.; Dicker, Daniel; Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese; Ding, Eric L.; Dirac, M. Ashworth; Djalalinia, Shirin; Dokova, Klara; Ter Doku, David; Donnelly, Christl A.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Doshi, Pratik P.; Douwes-Schultz, Dirk; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Duncan, Bruce B.; Duraes, Andre R.; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Edessa, Dumessa; Edvardsson, David; Eggen, Anne Elise; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; El-Khatib, Ziad; Elkout, Hajer; Eltinsel, Christian Lycke; Endres, Matthias; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Er, Benjamin; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esmaeili, Reza; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fakhar, Mahdi; Fakhim, Hamed; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Fareed, Mohammad; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Faninha, Carla Sofia E. Sa; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Feign, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fentahun, Netsanet; Eereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alice J.; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Finegold, Samuel; Fischer, Florian; Eitzmaurice, Christina; Foigt, Nataliya A.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Fornari, Carla; Frank, Tahvi D.; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Fuller, John E.; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Futran, Neal D.; Gallus, Silvano; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A.; Gardner, William M.; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebrehiwol, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebremichael, Bereket; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Gelano, Tilayie Feto; Geleijinse, Johanna M.; Genova-Maleras, Ricard; Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea; Gething, Peter W.; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Ghadimi, Reza; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Ghimire, Mamata; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Goli, Srinivas; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon N.; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gorman, Taren M.; Goto, Atsushi; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Gnedovskaya, Elena V.; Grada, Aymara; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gugnani, Hanish Chander; Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena; Gun, Nailing; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Rahid; Gupta, Rajenv; Gupta, Tanush; Gutierrez, Reyna Alma; Gyawali, Bishal; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagos, Tekleberhan B.; Hailegiyorgis, Tewodros Tesfa; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randall R.; Hamidi, Sinner; Handal, Meads J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasan, Mehedi; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; He, Yihua; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Hegazy, Mohamed I.; Heibati, Behzad; Heidari, Mohsen; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Heydarpour, Sousan; Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw; Hoek, Hans W.; Hole, Michael K.; Red, Enayatollah Homaie; Hoogar, Praveen; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian C.; Hsiao, Thomas; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Hussen, Mohammedaman Mama; Hutfless, Susan; Idrisov, Bulat; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Islam, Nazrul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahangiry, Leila; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Jakovlievic, Mihajlo; Jalu, Moti Tolera; James, Spencer L.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah C.; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Ankur; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Karami, Manoochehr; Matin, Behzad Karami; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Dessalegn H.; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kazemi, Zhila; Karyani, Ali Kazemi; Kazi, Dhruv Satish; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Grant Rodgers; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaei, Behzad; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khajavi, Alireza; Khalid, Nauman; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Khang, Young-Ho; Khater, Mona M.; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kibret, Getiye D.; Kidanemariam, Zelalem Teklemariam; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Kivimäki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Kochhar, Sonali; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolola, Tufa; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kinuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kutz, Michael J.; Kuzin, Igor; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Lad, Deepesh P.; Lad, Sheetal D.; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Jennifer O.; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Lansky, Sonia; Larson, Heidi J.; Latifi, Amman; Lau, Kathryn Mei-Ming; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Lebedev, Georgy; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leili, Mostafa; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yichong; Liang, Juan; Lim, Lee-Ling; Lim, Stephen S.; Limenih, Miteku Andualem; Linn, Shai; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Lansdale, Chris; Lopez, Alan D.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Stefan; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Emilie R.; Nadotto, Fabiana; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Maghavani, Dhaval P.; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Manguerra, Helena; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mapoma, Chabila Christopher; Marami, Dadi; Maravilla, Joemer C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Marczak, Laurie; Marks, Ashley; Marks, Guy B.; Martinez, Gabriel; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Martopullo, Ira; Marz, Winfried; Marron, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Lylassenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mathur, Prashant; Matzopoulos, Richard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Cohn; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; McMahon, Brian J.; Mehata, Suiiesh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mehrotra, Ravi; Mehta, Kala M.; Mehta, Varshil; Mekonnen, Tefera C.; Melese, Addisu; Melku, Mulugeta; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Mensah, George A.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meshovic, Tbmislav; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Millear, Anoushka I.; Miller, Ted R.; Katherine, Molly; Petrie, Miller; Mini, G. K.; Mirabi, Parvaneh; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirica, Andreea; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen; Mitiku, Habtamu; Moazen, Babak; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammad, Moslem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammed, A. Mohammed; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mokdad, Ali H.; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Velasquez, Ilais Moreno; Morgado-Da-Costa, Joana; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M.; Mouodi, Simin; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muchie, Kindie Eentahun; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Muller, Kate; Mumford, John Everett; Musa, Jonah; Musa, Kamand Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Nahvijou, Azin; Naik, Gunidatta; Nair, Sanjeev; Najafi, Farid; Naldi, Luigi; Nam, Hae Sung; Nangia, Vinay; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Nascirnento, Bruno Ramos; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Nearnati, Nahid; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxcandra Irina; Nettpane, Subas; Newton, Charles R. J.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Anh Quynh Nguyen,; Nguyen, Grant; Ha Thu Nguyen,; Luong Thanh Nguyen,; Long Hoang Nguyen,; Minh Nguyen,; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Nichols, Emma; Ningnun, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Nolutshungu, Nomonde; Nomura, Shhhei; Norhelin, Ole F.; Noroozi, Mehdi; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nouri, Hamid Reza; Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza; Nyasulu, Peter S.; Odell, Christopher M.; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin L.; Ong, Sok King Sk; Oren, Eyal; Orpana, Heather M.; Ortiz, Alberto; Ortiz, Justin R.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Overland, Simon; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Ozdemir, Raziye; Mahesh, P. A.; Pacella, Rosana; Pakhale, Smita; Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Pakpour, Amir H.; Pana, Adrian; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Parisi, Andrea; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D. H.; Parsian, Hadi; Patel, Shanti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Patton, George C.; Paturi, Vishnupriya Rao; Paulson, Katherine R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Piel, Frederic B.; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Pishgar, Farhad; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J.; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pujar, Ashwini; Prakash, Swayam; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Caroline A.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quintana, Hedley; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rade, Kirankumar Waman; Radfah, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Ranjan, Prabhat; Rao, Puja C.; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Razo-Garcia, Christian; Reddy, K. Srinath; Reiner, Robert C.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Rezaeian, Shahab; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus; Roba, Kedir Teji; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Robinson, Stephen R.; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saddik, Basema; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Safari, Hosein; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salam, Nasir; Salama, Joseph S.; Salamati, Payman; Saldanha, Raphael De Freitas; Saleem, Zikria; Salimi, Yahya; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Salz, Inbal; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdatiah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Santomauro, Damian Francesco; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Jose, Bruno Piassi Sao; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R.; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schaeffher, Elke; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Scott, James G.; Sekerija, Mario; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shahbazi, Mehdi; Shaheen, Amira A.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsi, Mohammadbagher; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mandi; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Shi, Peilin; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisav; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shiue, Ivy; Shokraneh, Farhad; Shrine, Mark G.; Si, Si; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Joao Pedro; Da Silva, Natacha Torres; Silveira, Dayane Bride Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Solangwi, Eugene; Soneji, Samir S.; Soofi, Moslem; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar F.; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Starodubov, Vladimir I.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stewart, Leo G.; Stokes, Mark A.; Subart, Michelle L.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sur, Patrick John; Sutradhar, Ipsita; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, P. N.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tassew, Segen Gebremeskel; Taveira, Nuno; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekalign, Tigist Gashaw; Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Temsah, Omar; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Teshale, Manaye Yihune; Tesserna, Belay; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Thirinavukkarasu, Sathish; Thomas, Nihal; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tilahun, Binyam; To, Quyen G.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonellli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Torre, Anna E.; Tortajada-Cirbes, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Bach Xuan Tran, [No Value]; Khah Bao Tran,; Tripathi, Suryakant; Troeger, Christopher E.; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Nu Thi Truong,; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Tsoi, Derrick; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Whiff, Irfan; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Updike, Rachel L.; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzun, Selen Begum; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vaezi, Afsane; Vaidya, Gaurang; Valdez, Pascual R.; Varavikova, Elena; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Villafaina, Santos; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch; Vlassov, Vasily; Vollset, Stein Email; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw; Waheed, Yasir; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor; Watson, Judd L.; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weldegebreal, Eitsum; Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey; Werdecker, Andrea; Werkneh, Adhena Ayaliew; West, T. Eoin; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Widecka, Justyna; Wilner, Lauren B.; Wilson, Shadrach; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wu, Shouling; Wu, Yun-Chun; Wyper, Grant M. A.; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yadollahpour, Ali; Jabbari, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yasin, Yasin Jemal; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yeshaneh, Alex; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yip, Paul; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yonga, Gerald; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zare, Zohreh; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Maigeng; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Naghavi, Ntishsen; Murray, Christopher J. L. (2018)
    Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODErn), to generate cause fractions and cause specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NC Ds) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72.5-74.1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 186% (17.9-19.6), and injuries 8.0% (7.7-8.2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22.7% (21.5-23.9), representing an additional 7.61 million (7. 20-8.01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7.9% (7.08.8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 222% (20.0-24.0) and the death rate by 31.8% (30.1-33.3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2.3% (0-5-4-0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13.7% (12.2-15.1) to 57.9 deaths (55.9-59.2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118.0% (88.8-148.6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36.4% (32.2-40.6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33.6% (31.2-36.1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respirator}, infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990 neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera Baeza, Claudio (2016)
    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.
  • Pajula, Juha; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Tohka, Jussi (2012)
  • Liposits, G; Eshoj, HR; Moller, S; Winther, SB; Skuladottir, H; Ryg, J; Hofsli, E; Shah, CH; Poulsen, LO; Berglund, A; Qvortrup, C; Osterlund, P; Glimelius, B; Sorbye, H; Pfeiffer, P (2021)
    Simple Summary Bowel cancer is one of the leading cancer-types in both sexes worldwide. Despite that most new cases and deaths occur in people aged 70 years or older, few clinical trials have investigated the best way to administer chemotherapy in older or frail patients. The NORDIC9-study established that moderately dose-reduced combination chemotherapy improved survival without extra side-effects compared to full dose single drug therapy. However, many older patients with incurable cancer seem to prefer preserved quality of life rather than longer survival. Therefore, our aim with the current quality of life analysis of the NORDIC9-study was to assess that the more effective chemotherapy was not at the expense of decreased quality of life. Our analyses showed that moderately dose-reduced combination chemotherapy-maintained quality of life, physical functioning, and resulted in less symptoms than treatment with full dose single drug in older patients not tolerating standard combination chemotherapy usually provided to young and fit patients. Quality of life data from randomized trials are lacking in older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In the randomized NORDIC9-study, reduced-dose S1+oxaliplatin (SOx) showed superior efficacy compared to full-dose S1 monotherapy. We hypothesized that treatment with SOx does not result in inferior quality of life. Patients with mCRC aged >= 70 years and that were not a candidate for standard combination chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to receive either S1 or SOx. The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire was completed at baseline, after 9, and 18 weeks. The primary endpoint was global Quality of Life (QoL) at 9 weeks. For statistical analysis, a non-inferiority design was chosen applying linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements. The results were interpreted according to statistical significance and anchor-based, clinically relevant between-group minimally important differences (MID). A total of 160 patients aged (median (Interquartile range (IQR))) 78 years (76-81) were included. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was completed by 150, 100, and 60 patients at baseline, at 9, and 18 weeks, respectively. The difference at 9 weeks in global QoL was 6.85 (95%CI-1.94; 15.65) and 7.37 (0.70; 14.05) in the physical functioning domain in favor of SOx exceeding the threshold for MID. At 18 weeks, the between-group MID in physical functioning was preserved. Dose-reduced combination chemotherapy may be recommended in vulnerable older patients with mCRC, rather than full-dose monotherapy.
  • Ilves, Nigul; Ilves, Pilvi; Laugesaar, Rael; Juurmaa, Julius; Mannamaa, Mairi; Loo, Silva; Loorits, Dagmar; Tomberg, Tiiu; Kolk, Anneli; Talvik, Inga; Talvik, Tiina (2016)
    Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of congenital hemiparesis and neurocognitive deficits in children. Dysfunctions in the largescale resting-state functional networks may underlie cognitive and behavioral disability in these children. We studied resting-state functional connectivity in patients with perinatal stroke collected from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database. Neurodevelopment of children was assessed by the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measurement and the Kaufman Assessment Battery. The study included 36 children (age range 7.6-17.9 years): 10 with periventricular venous infarction (PVI), 7 with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and 19 controls. There were no differences in severity of hemiparesis between the PVI and AIS groups. A significant increase in default mode network connectivity (FDR 0.1) and lower cognitive functions (p <0.05) were found in children with AIS compared to the controls and the PVI group. The children with PVI had no significant differences in the resting-state networks compared to the controls and their cognitive functions were normal. Our findings demonstrate impairment in cognitive functions and neural network profile in hemiparetic children with AIS compared to children with PVI and controls. Changes in the resting-state networks found in children with AIS could possibly serve as the underlying derangements of cognitive brain functions in these children.