Browsing by Subject "REGISTRIES"

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  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli (2021)
    Objectives Global survival studies have shown favourable development in colon and rectal cancers but few studies have considered extended periods or covered populations for which medical care is essentially free of charge. Design We analysed colon and rectal cancer survival in Finland and Sweden over a 50-year period (1967-2016) using data from the Nordcan database. In addition to the standard 1-year and 5-year survival rates, we calculated the difference between these as a novel measure of how well survival was maintained between years 1 and 5. Results Relative 1-year and 5-year survival rates have developed favourably without major shifts for men and women in both countries. For Finnish men, 1-year survival in colon cancer increased from 50% to 82%, and for rectal cancer from 62% to 85%. The Swedish survival was a few per cent unit better for 1-year survival but for 5-year survival the results were equal. Survival of female patients for both cancers was somewhat better than survival in men through 50 years. Overall the survival gains were higher in the early compared with the late follow-up periods, and were the smallest in the last 10 years. The difference between 1-year and 5-year survival in colon cancer was essentially unchanged over the 50-year period while in rectal cancer there was a large improvement. Conclusions The gradual positive development in survival suggests a contribution by many small improvements rather than single breakthroughs. The improvement in 5-year survival in colon cancer was almost entirely driven by improvement in 1-year survival while in rectal cancer the positive development extended to survival past year 1, probably due to successful curative treatments. The current challenges are to reinvigorate the apparently stalled positive development and to extend them to old patients. For colon cancer, survival gains need to be extended past year 1 of diagnosis.
  • Aro, Ellinoora; Ijas, Petra; Vikatmaa, Leena; Soinne, Lauri; Sund, Reijo; Venermo, Maarit; Vikatmaa, Pirkka (2019)
    Objective: Considering carotid endarterectomy (CEA), reporting treatment delay, symptom status, and surgical complication rates separately gives an incomplete picture of efficacy; therefore, the aim was to combine these factors and develop a reporting standard that better describes the number of potentially prevented strokes. With a real life cohort and theoretical inclusion scenarios, the aim was to explore the stroke prevention potential of different carotid practices. Methods: Landmark studies for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were revisited. By using published estimates of treatment effect, a simplified calculator was designed to assess the five year stroke prevention rate per 1000 CEAs (stroke prevention potential [SPP], range 0-478), including the presence and recentness of symptoms, sex, increasing stenosis severity, and complication rates. Patients operated on for carotid stenosis at Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) between 2008 and 2016 were collected from a vascular registry (HUSVASC) and categorised according to the model. The local annual complication rate was re-evaluated and added to the model. The HUH patient cohort was incorporated into the SPP model, and changes over time analysed. Finally, theoretical changes in patient selection were compared in order to explore the theoretical impact of patient selection and shortening of the delay. Results: Fifteen hundred and five symptomatic and 356 asymptomatic carotid stenoses were operated on with stroke plus death rates of 3.6% and 0.3%, respectively. The proportion of CEAs performed within two weeks of the index event increased over the follow up period, being 77% in 2016. The SPP increased from 123 in 2008 to 229 in 2016. Theoretically, 350 ischaemic strokes were prevented in the period 2008-16, with 1861 CEAs. Conclusions: National and international comparison of different CEA series is irrelevant if the inclusion criteria are not considered. A calculator that is easy to apply to large scale high quality registered data was developed and tested. SPP was found to increase over time, which is a probable sign of improved patient selection and an increased number of strokes prevented by the CEAs performed.
  • GBD 2017 Childhood Canc Collaborat (2019)
    Background Accurate childhood cancer burden data are crucial for resource planning and health policy prioritisation. Model-based estimates are necessary because cancer surveillance data are scarce or non-existent in many countries. Although global incidence and mortality estimates are available, there are no previous analyses of the global burden of childhood cancer represented in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Methods Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 methodology, childhood (ages 0-19 years) cancer mortality was estimated by use of vital registration system data, verbal autopsy data, and population-based cancer registry incidence data, which were transformed to mortality estimates through modelled mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs). Childhood cancer incidence was estimated using the mortality estimates and corresponding MIRs. Prevalence estimates were calculated by using MIR to model survival and multiplied by disability weights to obtain years lived with disability (YLDs). Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the difference between the age of death and a reference life expectancy. DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. Final point estimates are reported with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings Globally, in 2017, there were 11.5 million (95% uncertainty interval 10.6-12.3) DALYs due to childhood cancer, 97.3% (97.3-97.3) of which were attributable to YLLs and 2.7% (2.7-2.7) of which were attributable to YLDs. Childhood cancer was the sixth leading cause of total cancer burden globally and the ninth leading cause of childhood disease burden globally. 82.2% (82.1-82.2) of global childhood cancer DALYs occurred in low, low-middle, or middle Socio-demographic Index locations, whereas 50.3% (50.3-50.3) of adult cancer DALYs occurred in these same locations. Cancers that are uncategorised in the current GBD framework comprised 26.5% (26.5-26.5) of global childhood cancer DALYs. Interpretation The GBD 2017 results call attention to the substantial burden of childhood cancer globally, which disproportionately affects populations in resource-limited settings. The use of DALY-based estimates is crucial in demonstrating that childhood cancer burden represents an important global cancer and child health concern. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Lundberg, Frida E.; Andersson, Therese M. -L.; Lambe, Mats; Engholm, Gerda; Morch, Lina Steinrud; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Virtanen, Anni; Pettersson, David; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J.; Birgisson, Helgi; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Lambert, Paul C. (2020)
    Background Differences in cancer survival between the Nordic countries have previously been reported. The aim of this study was to examine whether these differences in outcome remain, based on updated information from five national cancer registers. Materials and methods The data used for the analysis was from the NORDCAN database focusing on nine common cancers diagnosed 1990-2016 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with maximum follow-up through 2017. Relative survival (RS) was estimated at 1 and 5 years using flexible parametric RS models, and percentage point differences between the earliest and latest years available were calculated. Results A consistent improvement in both 1- and 5-year RS was found for most studied sites across all countries. Previously observed differences between the countries have been attenuated. The improvements were particularly pronounced in Denmark that now has cancer survival similar to the other Nordic countries. Conclusion The reasons for the observed improvements in cancer survival are likely multifactorial, including earlier diagnosis, improved treatment options, implementation of national cancer plans, uniform national cancer care guidelines and standardized patient pathways. The previous survival disadvantage in Denmark is no longer present for most sites. Continuous monitoring of cancer survival is of importance to assess the impact of changes in policies and the effectiveness of health care systems.