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  • Yanes, Manar; Santoni, Giola; Maret-Ouda, John; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Farkkila, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Nwaru, Bright; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pal; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper (2020)
    Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration. Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes. Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results. Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Skytthe, Axel; Harris, Jennifer R.; Czene, Kamila; Mucci, Lorelei; Adami, Hans-Olov; Christensen, Kaare; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Holm, Niels V.; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pukkala, Eero (2019)
    The Nordic countries have comprehensive, population-based health and medical registries linkable on individually unique personal identity codes, enabling complete long-term follow-up. The aims of this study were to describe the NorTwinCan cohort established in 2010 and assess whether the cancer mortality and incidence rates among Nordic twins are similar to those in the general population. We analyzed approximately 260,000 same-sexed twins in the nationwide twin registers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Cancer incidence was determined using follow-up through the national cancer registries. We estimated standardized incidence (SIR) and mortality (SMR) ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) across country, age, period, follow-up time, sex and zygosity. More than 30,000 malignant neoplasms have occurred among the twins through 2010. Mortality rates among twins were slightly lower than in the general population (SMR 0.96; CI 95% [0.95, 0.97]), but this depends on information about zygosity. Twins have slightly lower cancer incidence rates than the general population, with SIRs of 0.97 (95% CI [0.96, 0.99]) in men and 0.96 (95% CI [0.94, 0.97]) in women. Testicular cancer occurs more often among male twins than singletons (SIR 1.15; 95% CI [1.02, 1.30]), while cancers of the kidney (SIR 0.82; 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]), lung (SIR 0.89; 95% CI [0.85, 0.92]) and colon (SIR 0.90; 95% CI [0.87, 0.94]) occur less often in twins than in the background population. Our findings indicate that the risk of cancer among twins is so similar to the general population that cancer risk factors and estimates of heritability derived from the Nordic twin registers are generalizable to the background populations.
  • Daltveit, Dagrun Slettebo; Klungsoyr, Kari; Engeland, Anders; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Glimelius, Ingrid; Grotmol, Tom; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Ording, Anne Gulbech; Saether, Solbjorg Makalani Myrtveit; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Troisi, Rebecca; Bjørge, Tone (2020)
    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between birth defects and cancer from birth into adulthood. DESIGN Population based nested case-control study. SETTING Nationwide health registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS 62 295 cancer cases (0-46 years) and 724 542 frequency matched controls (matched on country and birth year), born between 1967 and 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Relative risk of cancer in relation to major birth defects, estimated as odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals from logistic regression models. RESULTS Altogether, 3.5% (2160/62 295) of cases and 2.2% (15 826/724 542) of controls were born with major birth defects. The odds ratio of cancer for people with major birth defects compared with those without was 1.74 (99% confidence interval 1.63 to 1.84). For individuals with non-chromosomal birth defects, the odds ratio of cancer was 1.54 (1.44 to 1.64); for those with chromosomal anomalies, the odds ratio was 5.53 (4.67 to 6.54). Many structural birth defects were associated with later cancer in the same organ system or anatomical location, such as defects of the eye, nervous system, and urinary organs. The odds ratio of cancer increased with number of defects and decreased with age, for both non-chromosomal and chromosomal anomalies. The odds ratio of cancer in people with any non-chromosomal birth defect was lower in adults (>= 20 years: 1.21, 1.09 to 1.33) than in adolescents (15-19 years: 1.58, 1.31 to 1.90) and children (0-14 years: 2.03, 1.85 to 2.23). The relative overall cancer risk among adults with chromosomal anomalies was markedly reduced from 11.3 (9.35 to 13.8) in children to 1.50 (1.01 to 2.24). Among adults, skeletal dysplasia (odds ratio 3.54, 1.54 to 8.15), nervous system defects (1.76, 1.16 to 2.65), chromosomal anomalies (1.50, 1.01 to 2.24), genital organs defects (1.43, 1.14 to 1.78), and congenital heart defects (1.28, 1.02 to 1.59) were associated with overall cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS The increased risk of cancer in individuals with birth defects persisted into adulthood, both for nonchromosomal and chromosomal anomalies. Further studies on the molecular mechanisms involved are warranted.
  • Mahmoud, O.; Vikatmaa, P.; Räsänen, J.; Peltola, E.; Sihvo, E.; Vikatmaa, L.; Lappalainen, K.; Venermo, M. (2018)
    Background: Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis represents (UEDVT) 2-3% of all deep vein thrombosis. Catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) was replaced largely by pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) in our institution. In this study we compared the immediate and 1-year results as well as the total hospital costs between CDT and PMT in the treatment of UEDVT. Methods: From 2006 to 2013, 55 patients with UEDVT were treated with either CDT or PMT at Helsinki University Hospital. Of them, 43 underwent thoracoscopic rib resection later to relieve phlebography-confirmed vein compression. This patient cohort was prospectively followed up with repeated phlebographies. CDT was performed to 24 patients, and 19 had PMT with a Trellis (TM) device. Clinical evaluation and vein patency assessment were performed with either phlebography or ultrasound 1 year after the thrombolysis. Primary outcomes were immediate technical success, 1-year vein patency, and costs of the initial treatment. Results: The immediate overall technical success rate, defined as recanalization of the occluded vein and removal of the fresh thrombus, was 91.7% in the CDT group and 100% in the PMT group (n.s.). The median thrombolytic time was significantly longer in CDT patients than that in PMT patients (21.1 vs. 0.33 hr, P <0.00001). There were no procedure-related complications. The 1-year primary assisted patency rate was similar in both the groups (91.7% and 94.7%). There were no recurrences of clinical DVT. The hospital costs for the acute period were significantly lower in the PMT group than those in the CDT group (medians: 11,476 (sic) and 5,975 (sic) in the CDT and PMT groups, respectively [P <0.00001]). Conclusions: The clinical results of the treatment of UEDVT with CDT or PMT were similar. However, PMT required shorter hospital stay and less intensive surveillance, leading to lower total costs.
  • Broch, Kaspar; Gude, Einar; Karason, Kristjan; Dellgren, GÖran; Radegran, Goran; Gjesdal, Grunde; Gustafsson, Finn; Eiskjaer, Hans; Lommi, Jyri; Pentikäinen, Markku; Lemström, Karl B.; Andreassen, Arne K.; Gullestad, Lars (2020)
    Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is characterized by diffuse thickening of the arterial intima. Statins reduce the incidence of CAV, but despite the use of statins, CAV remains one of the leading causes of long-term death after heart transplant. Inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) substantially reduce cholesterol levels but have not been tested in heart transplant recipients. Methods The Cholesterol lowering with EVOLocumab to prevent cardiac allograft Vasculopathy in De-novo heart transplant recipients (EVOLVD) trial ( Identifier: NCT03734211) is a randomized, double-blind trial designed to test the effect of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab on coronary intima thickness in heart transplant recipients. Adults who have received a cardiac transplant within the past 4-8 weeks are eligible. Exclusion criteria include an estimated glomerular filtration rate <20 mL/min/1.73 m(2), renal replacement therapy, or contraindications to coronary angiography with intravascular ultrasound. 130 patients will be randomized (1:1) to 12-month treatment with evolocumab or matching placebo. The primary endpoint is the coronary artery intima thickness as measured by intravascular ultrasound. Conclusion The EVOLVD trial is a randomized clinical trial designed to show whether treatment with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab can ameliorate CAV over the first year after heart transplant.
  • Villa, Pia M.; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele (2017)
    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12(+0)-13(+6). Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.711.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.160.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.160.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34(+0)-36(+6) weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.179.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37(+0) weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.052.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m(2) (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.13.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier pregnancy the risk increased to 11.4 (95%CI 4.520.9). Chronic hypertension (n = 60) increased the risk of preeclampsia 5.3-fold (95%CI 2.49.8), of severe preeclampsia 22.2-fold (95%CI 9.941.0), and risk of early-onset preeclampsia 16.7-fold (95%CI 2.057.6). If a woman had chronic hypertension combined with obesity, gestational diabetes and earlier preeclampsia, the risk of term preeclampsia increased 4.8-fold (95%CI 0.121.7). Women with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a high risk of all subgroups of preeclampsia. Conclusion The risk of preeclampsia increases exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Early-onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia have different risk profile from term preeclampsia.
  • Zhang, Luyao; Hemminki, Otto; Zheng, Guoqiao; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    Literature on familial risk of carcinomas in situ (CISs) is limited because many cancer registries do not collect information on CIS. In Sweden CISs are collected, and we used these data to analyze familial relative risks (RRs) for concordant (CIS-CIS) types of anogenital (cervical, other female and male genital and anal) and skin squamous cell CIS; additionally RRs were assessed between CIS types and between CIS and invasive forms. RRs were calculated for the offspring generations when family members were diagnosed CIS. Case numbers for CIS ranged from 330 in anal to 177,285 in cervical CIS. Significant concordant CIS-CIS RRs were 2.74 for female genital, 1.77 for cervical and 2.29 for SCC skin CISs. The CIS forms associated also with each other, except for cervical and skin CIS types. RRs for concordant CIS-invasive cancer associations were lower than CIS-CIS associations. Cervical CIS associated with non-Hodgkin CIS which may suggest immune dysfunction as a contributing factors. The results for anogenital CIS types suggest that life style related human papilloma virus infections contributed to the observed familial associations. Lower risks for CIS-invasive cancer than CIS-CIS suggest that CIS and invasive cancers share only partially risk factors that underlie familial clustering.
  • Braun, Oscar Ö.; Nilsson, Johan; Gustafsson, Finn; Dellgren, Göran; Fiane, Arnt E.; Lemström, Karl; Hubbert, Laila; Hellgren, Laila; Lund, Lars H. (2019)
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess complications and mortality and its predictors, with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) in the Nordic Countries. Design: This was a retrospective, international, multicenter cohort study. Results: Between 1993 and 2013, 442 surgically implanted long-term mechanical assist devices were used among 8 centers in the Nordic countries. Of those, 238 were CF-LVADs (HVAD or HeartMate II) implanted in patients >18 years with complete data. Postoperative complications and survival were compared and Cox proportion hazard regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 75% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years and 63% at 3 years. A planned strategy of destination therapy had poorer survival compared to a strategy of bridge to transplantation or decision (2-year survival of 41% vs. 76%, p <.001). The most common complications were non-driveline infections (excluding sepsis) (44%), driveline infection (27%), need for continuous renal replacement therapy (25%) and right heart failure (24%). In a multivariate model age and left ventricular diastolic dimension was left as independent risk factors for mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.01-1.80], p = .046) per 10 years and 0.88 (95% CI [0.72-0.99], p = .044) per 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Outcome with CF LVAD in the Nordic countries was comparable to other cohorts. Higher age and destination therapy require particularly stringent selection.
  • Mattila, Anne; Mrena, Johanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Nevantaus, Juha; Kellokumpu, Ilmo (2016)
    To examine the impact of day-care laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with ultrasonic scissors dissection versus diathermy hook dissection method in a randomized setting. From April 2012 to September 2014, a total of 169 elective day-care patients were randomized to undergo either laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ultrasonic scissors using fundus-first approach (n = 88) or diathermy hook dissection starting from the triangle of Calot (n = 79). Main measures of outcome were operative time, same-day discharge and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative pain (numeric rating scale), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), readmissions and 30-day morbidity. Median operative time was similar in the ultrasonic dissection and diathermy hook dissection groups (45 vs 45 min, p = 0.95). Same-day discharge was possible in 77 patients (87 %) in the ultrasonic dissection group and in 69 patients (87 %) in the diathermy group, p = 0.98. Intraoperative gallbladder perforations, mean intraoperative bleeding, postoperative pain and PONV at 1, 2 and 4 h (p = 0.78) did not differ significantly between the study groups. Day-care LC using either diathermy hook or ultrasonic dissection resulted in excellent same-day discharge in both groups (87 %). LC with ultrasonic dissection does not offer any clinical advantages compared to diathermy dissection.
  • Aaltonen, K. J.; Joensuu, J. T.; Pirilä, L.; Kauppi, M.; Uutela, T.; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, T.; Yli-Kerttula, T.; Isomäki, P.; Nordström, D.; Sokka, T. (2017)
    Objective: A systematic review found that an average of 27% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors discontinue their treatment within 1year. The aim of this study was to assess drug survival on TNF inhibitors among patients with RA.Methods: Patients were identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN), which is a longitudinal cohort study established to monitor the effectiveness and safety of biologic drugs in rheumatic diseases. Inclusion was limited to TNF-inhibitor treatments started as the patient's first, second, or third biologic treatment between 2004 and 2014. Follow-up was truncated at 36months. The results of a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Of the 4200 TNF-inhibitor treatment periods identified from ROB-FIN, 3443 periods from 2687 patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients discontinued their treatment within 12months. Infliximab (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) and certolizumab pegol (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) had lower drug survival compared to golimumab. A similar trend was seen with adalimumab (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.90-1.7) and etanercept (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.87-1.6). Concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) was associated with improved drug survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) in comparison with TNF-inhibitor monotherapy.Conclusions: Golimumab was better in terms of drug survival than infliximab or certolizumab pegol and at least as good as adalimumab and etanercept. Concomitant use of MTX improved drug survival on TNF inhibitors.
  • IN.PACT Global Study Investigators; Venermo, Maarit (2018)
    OBJECTIVES The IN. PACT Global Study is the largest prospective, multicenter, independently adjudicated trial to evaluate a paclitaxel drug-coated balloon in patients with lifestyle-limiting claudication and/or ischemic rest pain due to atherosclerotic disease of the femoropopliteal artery and includes complex lesions beyond what are typically included in randomized controlled trials. BACKGROUND Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of drug-coated balloons for the treatment of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document II A and B lesions, but there is a need for large-scale prospective studies to evaluate a broader range of lesions. METHODS The IN. PACT Global Study enrolled 1,535 subjects, and 1,406 (1,773 lesions) were included in the pre-defined clinical cohort analysis. Freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization was evaluated at 24 months. The safety composite endpoint was freedom from device-and procedure-related death through 30 days and freedom from target limb major amputation and clinically driven target vessel revascularization within 24 months. RESULTS Mean lesion length was 12.1 cm, 35.5% were total occlusions, and 18.0% had in-stent restenosis. Freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization at 24 months was 83.3%, the composite safety endpoint was met in 81.7%, the 2-year all-cause mortality rate was 7.0%, and the major target limb amputation rate was 0.7%. Increased lesion length and the presence of de novo in-stent restenosis or coronary artery disease were associated with increased risk for clinically driven target lesion revascularization by 24 months. CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of femoropopliteal artery disease treatment with drug-coated balloons confirmed positive findings reported from more strictly designed randomized controlled trials and showed that outcomes are durable in this population up to 2 years after treatment. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Budtz-Lilly, J.; Venermo, M.; Debus, S.; Behrendt, C. -A.; Altreuther, M.; Belles, B.; Szeberin, Z.; Eldrup, N.; Danielsson, G.; Thomson, I.; Wigger, P.; Bjorck, M.; Loftus, I.; Mani, K. (2017)
    Background: Case mix and outcomes of complex surgical procedures vary over time and between regions. This study analyses peri-operative mortality after intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in 11 countries over 9 years. Methods: Data on primary AAA repair from vascular surgery registries in 11 countries for the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2013 were analysed. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were carried out to adjust for variations in case mix. Results: A total of 83,253 patients were included. Over the two periods, the proportion of patients >= 80 years old increased (18.5% vs. 23.1%; p <.0001) as did the proportion of endovascular repair (EVAR) (44.3% vs. 60.6; p <.0001). In the latter period, 25.8% of AAAs were less than 5.5 cm. The mean annual volume of open repairs per centre decreased from 12.9 to 10.6 between the two periods (p <.0001), and it increased for EVAR from 10.0 to 17.1 (p <.0001). Overall, peri-operative mortality fell from 3.0% to 2.4% (p <.0001). Mortality for EVAR decreased from 1.5% to 1.1% (p <.0001), but the outcome worsened for open repair from 3.9% to 4.4% (p = .008). The peri-operative risk was greater for octogenarians (overall, 3.6% vs. 2.1%, p <.0001; open, 9.5% vs. 3.6%, p <.0001; EVAR, 1.8% vs. 0.7%, p <.0001), and women (overall, 3.8% vs. 2.2%, p <.0001; open, 6.0% vs. 4.0%, p <.0001; EVAR, 1.9% vs. 0.9%, p <.0001). Peri-operative mortality after repair of AAAs Conclusions: In this large international cohort, total peri-operative mortality continues to fall for the treatment of intact AAAs. The number of EVAR procedures now exceeds open procedures. Mortality after EVAR has decreased, but mortality for open operations has increased. The peri-operative mortality for small AM treatment, particularly open surgical repair, is still considerable and should be weighed against the risk of rupture. (C) 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Leopold, Valentine; Gayat, Etienne; Pirracchio, Romain; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Champion, Sebastien; Zannad, Faiez; Valente, Serafina; Urban, Philip; Chua, Horng-Ruey; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Popovic, Batric; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Henriques, Jose P. S.; Simonis, Gregor; Levy, Bruno; Kimmoun, Antoine; Gaudard, Philippe; Basir, Mir Babar; Markota, Andrej; Adler, Christoph; Reuter, Hannes; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Chouihed, Tahar (2018)
    Catecholamines have been the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). Recently, use of epinephrine has been associated with detrimental outcomes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association between epinephrine use and short-term mortality in all-cause CS patients. We performed a meta-analysis of individual data with prespecified inclusion criteria: (1) patients in non-surgical CS treated with inotropes and/or vasopressors and (2) at least 15% of patients treated with epinephrine administrated alone or in association with other inotropes/vasopressors. The primary outcome was short-term mortality. Fourteen published cohorts and two unpublished data sets were included. We studied 2583 patients. Across all cohorts of patients, the incidence of epinephrine use was 37% (17-76%) and short-term mortality rate was 49% (21-69%). A positive correlation was found between percentages of epinephrine use and short-term mortality in the CS cohort. The risk of death was higher in epinephrine-treated CS patients (OR [CI] = 3.3 [2.8-3.9]) compared to patients treated with other drug regimens. Adjusted mortality risk remained striking in epinephrine-treated patients (n = 1227) (adjusted OR = 4.7 [3.4-6.4]). After propensity score matching, two sets of 338 matched patients were identified and epinephrine use remained associated with a strong detrimental impact on short-term mortality (OR = 4.2 [3.0-6.0]). In this very large cohort, epinephrine use for hemodynamic management of CS patients is associated with a threefold increase of risk of death.
  • Kaunisto, Jaana; Salomaa, Eija-Riitta; Hodgson, Ulla; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2013)
  • Tanislav, Christian; Grittner, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Bjoern; Jungehuelsing, Gerhard Jan; Enzinger, Christian; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Kaps, Manfred; Kropp, Peter; Rolfs, Arndt; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Fazekas, Franz; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo (2014)
  • Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus; Skytthe, Axel; Pukkala, Eero; Kutschke, Julia; Harris, Jennifer R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Christensen, Kaare; Czene, Kamila; Adami, Hans-Olov; Scheike, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Nordic Twin Study Canc NorTwinCan (2017)
    Background We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time-to-event analyses accounting for censoring and competing risk of death to estimate incidence, concordance risk and heritability of liability to develop lung cancer by smoking status. Results During a median of 28.5 years of follow-up, we recorded 1508 incident lung cancers. Of the 30 MZ and 28 DZ pairs concordant for lung cancer, nearly all were current smokers at baseline and only one concordant pair was seen among never smokers. Among ever smokers, the case-wise concordance of lung cancer, that is the risk before a certain age conditional on lung cancer in the co-twin before that age, was significantly increased compared with the cumulative incidence for both MZ and DZ pairs. This ratio, the relative recurrence risk, significantly decreased by age for MZ but was constant for DZ pairs. Heritability of lung cancer was 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.56) for currently smoking and 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.49) for ever smoking pairs. Among smoking discordant pairs, the pairwise HR for lung cancer of the ever smoker twin compared to the never smoker co-twin was 5.4 (95% CI 2.1 to 14.0) in MZ pairs and 5.0 (95% CI 3.2 to 7.9) in DZ pairs. Conclusions The contribution of familial effects appears to decrease by age. The discordant pair analysis confirms that smoking causes lung cancer.
  • Yanes, M; Santoni, G; Maret-Ouda, J; Markar, S; Ness-Jensen, E; Kauppila, J; Farkkila, M; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E; Tryggvadottir, L; Von Euler-Chelpin, M; Lagergren, J (2021)
  • Jasmin, Melissa; Ahn, Eun Hee; Voutilainen, Merja H.; Fombonne, Joanna; Guix, Catherine; Viljakainen, Tuulikki; Kang, Seong Su; Yu, Li-ying; Saarma, Mart; Mehlen, Patrick; Ye, Keqiang (2021)
    The netrin-1/DCC ligand/receptor pair has key roles in central nervous system (CNS) development, mediating axonal, and neuronal navigation. Although expression of netrin-1 and DCC is maintained in the adult brain, little is known about their role in mature neurons. Notably, netrin-1 is highly expressed in the adult substantia nigra, leading us to investigate a role of the netrin-1/DCC pair in adult nigral neuron fate. Here, we show that silencing netrin-1 in the adult substantia nigra of mice induces DCC cleavage and a significant loss of dopamine neurons, resulting in motor deficits. Because loss of adult dopamine neurons and motor impairments are features of Parkinson's disease (PD), we studied the potential impact of netrin-1 in different animal models of PD. We demonstrate that both overexpression of netrin-1 and brain administration of recombinant netrin-1 are neuroprotective and neurorestorative in mouse and rat models of PD. Of interest, we observed that netrin-1 levels are significantly reduced in PD patient brain samples. These results highlight the key role of netrin-1 in adult dopamine neuron fate, and the therapeutic potential of targeting netrin-1 signaling in PD.
  • Kiss, Jan; Stark, Christoffer; Nykaäen, Antti; Lemström, Karl (2020)
    Objectives. We present the outcome of the first 80 patients receiving a continuous flow left ventricular assist device at Helsinki University Hospital between December 2011 and November 2018. Design. This was a single-center retrospective study. We describe our patient management in detail. The primary end-points were death, heart transplantation, or pump explant. Data was reported in accordance with the Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support protocol. All patients receiving an assist device during the study period were included in the data analysis. Results. Mean patient age was 53 +/- 12 years at implantation and 85% were male. Most patients suffered from dilated (48%), or ischemic (40%) cardiomyopathy. One-third of patients were bridged with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to assist device implantation. Implant strategy was bridge to transplant or bridge to decision in most patients (88%). Mean follow-up time on pump was 529 +/- 467 days. Survival was 98, 92, 85, 79 and 71% at 1, 3, 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. Most common causes of death were multi-organ failure, right heart failure, or stroke. Only three patients (4%) had suspected pump thrombosis, two of which resolved with medical treatment and one resulting in death. Pump exchange or explant were not performed in a single patient. Neurological events occurred in 18%, non-disabling stroke in 8%, and fatal stroke in 4% of the patients. The incidence of device-related infection was 10%. Conclusions. Survival rates were good, although one third of patients were bridged with temporary circulatory support. We report a high level of freedom from pump thrombosis, fatal stroke, and driveline infection.
  • Konki, Mikko; Malonzo, Maia; Karlsson, Ida K.; Lindgren, Noora; Ghimire, Bishwa; Smolander, Johannes; Scheinin, Noora M.; Ollikainen, Miina; Laiho, Asta; Elo, Laura L.; Lonnberg, Tapio; Roytta, Matias; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Rinne, Juha O.; Lund, Riikka J. (2019)
    Background Alzheimer's disease results from a neurodegenerative process that starts well before the diagnosis can be made. New prognostic or diagnostic markers enabling early intervention into the disease process would be highly valuable. Environmental and lifestyle factors largely modulate the disease risk and may influence the pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. As environmental and lifestyle factors may affect multiple tissues of the body, we hypothesized that the disease-associated DNA methylation signatures are detectable in the peripheral blood of discordant twin pairs. Results Comparison of 23 disease discordant Finnish twin pairs with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in 11 genomic regions with at least 15.0% median methylation difference and FDR adjusted p value