Browsing by Subject "RELATEDNESS"

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  • Holzer, Julia; Korlat, Selma; Haider, Christian; Mayerhofer, Martin; Pelikan, Elisabeth; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane; Toumazi, Toumazis; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kaeser, Udo; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Wachs, Sebastian; Dabas, Mukul; Verma, Suman; Iliev, Dean; Andonovska-Trajkovska, Daniela; Plichta, Piotr; Pyzalski, Jacek; Walter, Natalia; Michalek-Kwiecien, Justyna; Lewandowska-Walter, Aleksandra; Wright, Michelle F.; Lueftenegger, Marko (2021)
    The sudden switch to distance education to contain the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered adolescents' lives around the globe. The present research aims to identify psychological characteristics that relate to adolescents' well-being in terms of positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and key characteristics of their learning behavior in a situation of unplanned, involuntary distance education. Following Self-Determination Theory, experienced competence, autonomy, and relatedness were assumed to relate to active learning behavior (i.e., engagement and persistence), and negatively relate to passive learning behavior (i.e., procrastination), mediated via positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation. Data were collected via online questionnaires in altogether eight countries from Europe, Asia, and North America (N = 25,305) and comparable results across countries were expected. Experienced competence was consistently found to relate to positive emotion and intrinsic learning motivation, and, in turn, active learning behavior in terms of engagement and persistence. The study results further highlight the role of perceived relatedness for positive emotion. The high proportions of explained variance speak in favor of taking these central results into account when designing distance education in times of COVID-19.
  • Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Hardy, Ian Charles Wrighton (2021)
    We develop a game-theoretic model to explore the question of whether two animals should cooperate in the dangerous activity of obtaining a rich and essential resource. We consider variation in the risks incurred to individuals and in how the activities of the two animals interact to influence the probability of success. We also consider that the animals may be relatives and thus share evolutionary interests. The model is general and can, for instance, be applied to mammalian predators attempting to capture and subdue large and dangerous prey or to female parasitoid wasps that attack and, if successful, paralyse aggressive hosts that then provide the only feeding resource for their offspring. This minimal model of cooperation contains three dimensionless parameters: vulnerability (the ratio between the average time for a lone attacker to subdue the defending resource and the average time for the defender to fatally strike the attacker), the dilution ratio (the extent to which attack by animals acting in tandem reduces a defender's ability to kill its attackers) and the relatedness between the potential attackers. The model predicts that higher values of all three parameters favour cooperation and that for small values cooperation is not evolutionarily stable. Cooperation can arise from an ancestral state of non-cooperation if values of all parameters are sufficiently high but cannot arise among non-relatives, irrespective of other parameter values. Once cooperation has emerged in a population, it can be maintained among nonrelatives at modest values of dilution ratio and vulnerability. We discuss these general predictions in particular relation to the parasitoid genus Sclerodermus, in which multiple females may attack unusually large and aggressive hosts and in which host attack behaviour is mediated by kinship. (c) 2021 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rautiala, Petri; Helantera, Heikki; Puurtinen, Mikael (2019)
    Evolution of altruistic behavior was a hurdle for the logic of Darwinian evolution. Soon after Hamilton formalized the concept of inclusive fitness, which explains how altruism can evolve, he suggested that the high sororal relatedness brought by haplodiploidy could be why Hymenopterans have a high prevalence in eusocial species, and why helpers in Hymenoptera are always female. Later it was noted that in order to capitalize on the high sororal relatedness, helpers would need to direct help toward sisters, and this would bias the population sex ratio. Under a 1:3 males:females sex ratio, the inclusive fitness valuation a female places on her sister, brother, and an own offspring are equalapparently removing the benefit of helping over independent reproduction. Based on this argumentation, haplodiploidy hypothesis has been considered a red herring. However, here we show that when population sex ratio, cost of altruism, and population growth rate are considered together, haplodiploidy does promote female helping even with female-biased sex ratio, due the lowered cost of altruism in such populations. Our analysis highlights the need to re-evaluate the role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of helping, and the importance of fully exploring the model assumptions when comparing interactions of population sex ratios and social behaviors.
  • Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus (2014)
  • Peignier, Mélissa; Pokorny, Tamara; Heinze, Jürgen; Lindgren, Rosanna; Helanterä, Heikki; Schultner, Eva (2019)
    Social insects live in highly complex societies with efficient communication systems. Begging is one display commonly used by offspring to signal their nutritional state, however begging behavior has received very little attention in social insects. Theory predicts that begging can be either an honest (i.e., honest-signaling strategy) or a dishonest (i.e., scrambling competition) signal of need, with dishonest signals expected to be more likely when relatedness within the group is low. To investigate the presence and honesty of begging, as well as the nature of the involved signals, we used a comparative approach with four species of the ant genus Formica known to differ in the degree of intra-colony relatedness. We investigated the behavior of starved and non-starved larvae of F. aquilonia, F. pressilabris (both low intra-colony relatedness), F. exsecta (intermediate relatedness), and F. fusca (high relatedness). In addition, we assessed the attraction of conspecific workers toward odors extracted from these two classes of larvae and analyzed the larval cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. We found that in F. fusca and F. exsecta, larvae signaled significantly more when starved. In contrast, larvae of F. aquilonia signaled significantly more when they were non-starved, while there was no significant difference in the behavior of starved vs. non-starved larvae in F. pressilabris. Our results show that workers were not preferentially attracted to the odor of starved larvae, and we also did not detect any differences between the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of starved and non-starved larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates among species variation in larval hunger signaling in Formica ants, and encourages further studies to confirm the link between kin structure variation and the honesty of begging signals.
  • Malabusini, Serena; Hardy, Ian C. W.; Jucker, Costanza; Savoldelli, Sara; Lupi, Daniela (2022)
    In the parasitoid genus Sclerodermus, multiple foundresses produce and care for communal broods on large hosts, which can lead to greater reproductive success for group members than attempting to reproduce alone. We explore the consequences of foundress group size on the benefits of cooperative brooding and on brood sex ratios by providing groups of 10-55 foundresses with a single host and no alternative reproductive options. Within this range, increasing foundress group size leads to increasingly common failure in brood production and diminished per capita success. Group production of adult offspring declines once foundress number reaches around 25. Brood failure is usually at the early developmental stages, and current evidence suggests that there may be competition among foundresses for oviposition sites, possibly involving reproductive dominance and ovicide, which also delays initial brood production. Once broods become established, their rate of development is enhanced by large foundress numbers. The sex ratios of broods are very strongly female biased, irrespective of the foundress number. As this bias is not easily explained by standard models of local mate competition or by a recent model of local resource enhancement, we suggest an explanation based on control of sex allocation by a minority of dominant foundresses, which monopolise the production of adult males.
  • Li, Zitong; Kemppainen, Petri; Rastas, Pasi; Merilä, Juha (2018)
    Genomewide association studies (GWAS) aim to identify genetic markers strongly associated with quantitative traits by utilizing linkage disequilibrium (LD) between candidate genes and markers. However, because of LD between nearby genetic markers, the standard GWAS approaches typically detect a number of correlated SNPs covering long genomic regions, making corrections for multiple testing overly conservative. Additionally, the high dimensionality of modern GWAS data poses considerable challenges for GWAS procedures such as permutation tests, which are computationally intensive. We propose a cluster-based GWAS approach that first divides the genome into many large nonoverlapping windows and uses linkage disequilibrium network analysis in combination with principal component (PC) analysis as dimensional reduction tools to summarize the SNP data to independent PCs within clusters of loci connected by high LD. We then introduce single- and multilocus models that can efficiently conduct the association tests on such high-dimensional data. The methods can be adapted to different model structures and used to analyse samples collected from the wild or from biparental F-2 populations, which are commonly used in ecological genetics mapping studies. We demonstrate the performance of our approaches with two publicly available data sets from a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a fish (Pungitius pungitius), as well as with simulated data.
  • Salmela, Mikko; Sullivan, Gavin Brent (2022)
    This article seeks to analyze the conditions in which group-based pride is rationally appropriate. We first distinguish between the shape and size of an emotion. For the appropriate shape of group-based pride, we suggest two criteria: the distinction between group-based pride and group-based hubris, and between we-mode and I-mode sociality. While group-based hubris is inappropriate irrespective of its mode due to the arrogant, contemptuous, and other-derogating character of this emotion, group-based pride in the we-mode is appropriate in terms of shape if it is felt over an achievement to which the group members collectively committed themselves. For the same reason, members of I-mode groups can feel appropriately proud of the achievement of their group if they have collectively contributed to it. Instead, group-based pride by mere private identification with a successful group can be rationally appropriate if it manifests the person's reduced-agency ideal and is also part of a coherent pattern of rationally interconnected emotions focused on the same ideal. Moreover, we suggest that pride in the success of one's family member or a close friend is typically felt over the rise of social status that one group member's success grants to the group. However, social status cannot be valued for its own sake as this undermines the values upon which social status is founded. Instead, direct or indirect causal contribution to the success of one's child, friend, or student can warrant group-based pride, which may be justified on the basis of shared values without causal contribution as well. Finally, regarding the size of group-based pride, members of we-mode groups are warranted to experience and express more intense pride than members of I-mode groups. Moreover, the proper intensity of this emotion depends on the particular other(s) to whom the expression is directed. Finally, criteria of appropriate size don't apply to shared group-based pride as sharing increases the intensity of emotion by default.