Browsing by Subject "RELATIVE ABUNDANCE"

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  • Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Vainola, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr (2016)
    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.
  • Vetterli, Adrien; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina (2016)
    The diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) nitrifying communities in the sediments of the eutrophic Gulf of Finland (GoF) were investigated. Using clone libraries of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), we found a low richness of both AOB and AOA. The AOB amoA phylogeny matched that of AOB 16S ribosomal genes from the same samples. AOA communities were characterized by strong spatial variation while AOB communities showed notable temporal patterns. At open sea sites, where transient anoxic conditions prevail, richness of both AOA and AOB was lowest and communities were dominated by organisms with gene signatures unique to the GoF. Given the importance of nitrification as a link between the fixation of nitrogen and its removal from aquatic environments, the low diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microbes across the GoF could be of relevance for ecosystem resilience in the face of rapid global environmental changes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.