Browsing by Subject "RELEVANCE"

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  • Talja, Ija; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Vaha-Makila, Mari; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Utt, Meeme; Uibo, Raivo (2014)
  • Saat, R.; Mahmood, G.; Laulajainen-Hongisto, A.; Lempinen, Laura; Aarnisalo, A. A.; Jero, J.; Markkola, Antti Thor Olavi (2016)
    To compare MR imaging features in patients with incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity with those of clinical acute mastoiditis, to ascertain characteristic differences between them. MR images of 35 adult and paediatric patients with clinical acute mastoiditis and 34 consecutive age-matched controls without relevant middle ear pathology and with incidental T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid were retrospectively analysed with regard to signal, diffusion, and enhancement characteristics, and presence of complications. Incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid volume was found in 4.6 % of reviewed MR scans (n = 2341), and associated significantly (p <0.05) less with the involvement of the tympanic cavity (38 % vs. 74 %) and mastoid antrum (56 % vs. 80 %), hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2 FSE (6 % vs. 86 %), intramastoid diffusion restriction (0 % vs. 62 %), intense intramastoid enhancement (0 % vs. 51 %), periosteal enhancement (3 % vs. 69 %), perimastoid dural enhancement 3 % vs. 43 %), bone destruction (0 % vs 49 %), intratemporal abscess or cholesteatoma (0 % vs. 24 %), labyrinth involvement (0 % vs. 14 %), and extracranial abscesses (0 % vs. 20 %). Hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2WI, restricted diffusion, intense intramastoid enhancement among other MR imaging characteristics favoured an acute mastoiditis diagnosis over clinically non-relevant incidental mastoid pathology. Intramastoid T2-hyperintensity alone is not a reliable sign for acute mastoiditis. In acute mastoiditis, intramastoid T2-weighted signal intensity is usually hypointense to CSF. Diffusion restriction and intense intramastoid enhancement are absent in incidental mastoid effusion. An ADC value >= 1.72 x 10 (-3) mm (2) /s contradicts the AM diagnosis.
  • Sivaranjani, Murugesan; Leskinen, Katarzyna; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Saavalainen, Päivi; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Skurnik, Mikael; Ravi, Arumugam Veera (2019)
    Background: Alpha-mangostin (alpha-MG) is a natural xanthone reported to exhibit rapid bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, and may therefore have potential clinical application in healthcare sectors. This study sought to identify the impact of alpha-MG on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A through integrated advanced omic technologies. Methods: S. epidermidis was challenged with sub-MIC (0.875 mu g/ml) of alpha-MG at various time points and the differential expression pattern of genes/proteins were analyzed in the absence and presence of alpha-MG using RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS experiments. Bioinformatic tools were used to categorize the biological processes, molecular functions and KEGG pathways of differentially expressed genes/proteins. qRT-PCR was employed to validate the results obtained from these analyses. Results: Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling of alpha-MG treated cells indicated that genes/proteins affected by alpha-MG treatment were associated with diverse cellular functions. The greatest reduction in expression was observed in transcription of genes conferring cytoplasmic membrane integrity (yidC2, secA and mscL), cell division (ftsY and divlB), teichoic acid biosynthesis (tagG and dltA), fatty-acid biosynthesis (accB, accC, fabD, fabH, fabl, and fabZ), biofilm formation (icaA) and DNA replication and repair machinery (polA, polC, dnaE, and uvrA). Those with increased expression were involved in oxidative (katA and sodA) and cellular stress response (clpB, clpC, groEL, and asp23). The qRT-PCR analysis substantiated the results obtained from transcriptomic and proteomic profiling studies. Conclusion: Combining transcriptomic and proteomic methods provided comprehensive information about the antibacterial mode of action of alpha-MG. The obtained results suggest that alpha-MG targets S. epidermidis through multifarious mechanisms, and especially prompts that loss of cytoplasmic membrane integrity leads to rapid onset of bactericidal activity.
  • Tormalehto, Soili; Aarnio, Emma; Mononen, Mika E.; Arokoski, Jari P. A.; Korhonen, Rami K.; Martikainen, Janne A. (2019)
    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) worsens health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but the symptom pathway varies from person to person. We aimed to identify groups of people with knee OA or at its increased risk whose HRQoL changed similarly. Our secondary aim was to evaluate if patient-related characteristics, incidence of knee replacement (KR) and prevalence of pain medication use differed between the identified HRQoL trajectory groups. Methods Eight-year follow-up data of 3053 persons with mild knee OA or at increased risk were obtained from the public Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of experiencing a decrease of >= 10 points (Minimal Important Change, MIC) in the Quality of Life subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score compared to baseline. Multinomial logistic regression, Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to study secondary aims. Results Four HRQoL trajectory groups were identified. Persons in the 'no change' group (62.9%) experienced no worsening in HRQoL. 'Rapidly' (9.5%) and 'slowly' worsening (17.1%) groups displayed an increasing probability of experiencing the MIC in HRQoL. The fourth group (10.4%) had 'improving' HRQoL. Female gender, higher body mass index, smoking, knee pain, and lower income at baseline were associated with belonging to the 'rapidly worsening' group. People in 'rapidly' (hazard ratio (HR) 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-10.7) and 'slowly' worsening (HR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.9) groups had an increased risk of requiring knee replacement. Pain medication was more rarely used in the 'no change' than in the other groups. Conclusions HRQoL worsening was associated with several risk factors; surgical and pharmacological interventions were more common in the poorer HRQoL trajectory groups indicating that HRQoL does reflect the need for OA treatment. These findings may have implications for targeting interventions to specific knee OA patient groups.
  • Vuori-Holopainen, Elina; Salo, Eeva; Saxen, Harri; Hedman, Klaus; Hyypiä, Timo; Lahdenperä, Raija; Leinonen, Maija; Tarkka, Eveliina; Vaara, Martti; Peltola, Heikki (2002)
    Childhood pneumonia is usually treated without determining its etiology. The causative organism can be isolated from specimens of blood, empyema fluid, or lung aspirate, but this is rarely done. The potential of transthoracic needle aspiration for identification of causative agents was tested with use of modern microbiological methods. Aspiration was performed for 34 children who had radiological signs compatible with community-acquired pneumonia and had alveolar consolidation. In addition to bacterial and viral cultures and viral antigen detection, nucleic acid detection for common respiratory pathogens was performed on aspirate specimens. Aspiration disclosed the etiology in 20 (59%) of 34 cases overall and in 18 (69%) of 26 patients from whom a representative specimen was obtained. Aspiration's advantages are high microbiological yield and a relatively low risk of a clinically significant adverse event. Aspiration should be used if identification of the causative agent outweighs the modest risk of the procedure.
  • Morozov, Sergey; McCairns, R. J. Scott; Merila, Juha (2019)
    FishResp is a user-friendly tool for calculating oxygen uptake of aquatic organisms. The aim of the software is to improve the quality of metabolic rate estimates based on a straightforward pipeline: background respiration correction, detection of mechanical problems, conduction of QC tests, and filtration based on user-defined criteria. Abstract Intermittent-flow respirometry is widely used to measure oxygen uptake rates and subsequently estimate aerobic metabolic rates of aquatic animals. However, the lack of a standard quality-control software to detect technical problems represents a potential impediment to comparisons across studies in the field of evolutionary and conservation physiology. Here, we introduce FishResp', a versatile R package and its graphical implementation for quality-control and filtering of raw respirometry data. Our goal is to provide a straightforward, cross-platform and free software to help improve the quality and comparability of metabolic rate estimates for reducing methodological fragmentation in the field of aquatic respirometry. FishResp accepts data from various respirometry systems, allows users to detect potential mechanical problems which can occur during oxygen uptake measurements (e.g. chamber leaking, poor water circulation), and offers six options to correct raw data for microbial oxygen consumption. The software performs filtering of raw data based on user criteria, and produces accurate and unbiased estimates of absolute and mass-specific metabolic rates. Using data from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), we demonstrate the virtues of FishResp, highlighting the importance of detecting mechanical problems and correcting measurements for background respiration.
  • Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Gregow, Hilppa; Harjanne, Atte; Luhtala, Sanna; Mäkelä, Antti; Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina; Juhola, Sirkku; Hilden, Mikael; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Halonen, Mikko (2019)
    Climate change adaptation (CCA) policies require scientific input to focus on relevant risks and opportunities, to promote effective and efficient measures and ensure implementation. This calls for policy relevant research to formulate salient policy recommendations. This article examines how CCA research may contribute to policy recommendations in the light of idealized set of knowledge production attributes for policy development in Finland. Using general background information on the evolution of CCA research and a case study, we specifically examine how the set of attributes have been manifested in research serving CCA and discuss how they have affected the resulting policy recommendations. We conclude that research serving CCA can be improved by more explicit reflection on the attributes that pay attention to the context of application, the methods of teamwork and a variety of participating organizations, transdisciplinarity of the research, reflexivity based on the values and labour ethos of scientists and novel forms of extended peer review. Such attributes can provide a necessary, although not sufficient, condition for knowledge production that strives to bridge the gap between research and policy.
  • Ojanen, Maria; Brockhaus, Maria; Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Petrokofsky, Gillian (2021)
    There is growing interest – and need – among researchers and research organizations to contribute societally relevant work as well as to demonstrate the policy impact of their research. Diverse science-policy interfaces (SPIs) aim for scientifically informed policymaking by connecting scientists with policymakers. Effective SPIs need to be grounded in credibility, relevance and legitimacy; at the same time, however, they become part of the complex, politicised web of public policymaking. In this article we examine how forest researchers who participate in diverse SPIs in the context of the Global South navigate this complexity. We apply the concepts of credibility, relevance and legitimacy to explore the tensions researchers experience, as well as the strategies that researchers apply when responding to them. The research is based on in-depth interviews with 23 forest researchers and highlights (i) the tensions related to ensuring both policy and political relevance particularly in the context of research led SPIs; and (ii) tensions arising from the need to maintain credibility in the face of contestation and pressure to omit research critical of existing policies and practice and also the legitimacy of ‘experts’ operating within the SPI. Ensuring SPI effectiveness (research impact) also emerged as an additional source of tension. While multiple response strategies were identified, including knowledge co-production and strategic engagement with key policy actors, some of the tensions led to compromises, which we discuss. We conclude by highlighting the need to understand power relations in terms of both planning but also evaluating effective SPIs.
  • Oinas, Minna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; Myllykangas, Liisa; Juva, Kati; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Rastas, Sari; Niinisto, Leena; Kalimo, Hannu; Paetau, Anders (2009)