Browsing by Subject "REMOVAL"

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  • Baltrenaite, Edita; Baltrenas, Pranas; Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilppo, Teemu; Selenius, Mikko; Koistinen, Arto; Dahl, Mari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka (2017)
    The environmental legislation and strict enforcement of environmental regulations are the tools effectively used for developing the market of materials for environmental protection technologies. Sustain ability criteria shift environmental engineering systems to more sustainable-material-based technologies. For carbon-based medium materials in biofiltration, this trend results in attempts to use biochar for biofiltration purposes. The paper presents the analysis of biochar properties based on the main criteria for biofiltration medium integrating the environmental quality properties of biochar, following the European Biochar Certificate guidelines. Three types of biochar produced from feedstock of highly popular and abundant types of waste are analysed. A multi component approach was applied to summarize the results. The lignocellulosic type of biochar was found to be more competitive for use as a biofiltration medium than the types of biochar with high ash or lignin content. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ambat, Indu; Bec, Sabina; Peltomaa, Elina; Srivastava, Varsha; Ojala, Anne; Sillanpaa, Mika (2019)
    The combination of wastewater treatment and biodiesel production using algal cultivation was studied in the present work. The two main goals of the work were achieved by the cultivation of freshwater microalgae such as Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus ecornis, and Scenedesmus communis in two different dilutions of fertilizer plant wastewater (FWWD1 and FWWD2) collected from Yara Suomi 0y, Finland. The growth pattern of different algal species in FWWD1 and FWWD2 was observed. The effect of pH on biomass concentration, lipid content, biomass productivity, and lipid productivity by all three algal species in FWWD1 and FWWD2 were monitored. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were observed in FWWD1 at pH7.5 for Chlamydomonas sp. and at pH 8.5 for S. ecornis and S. communis. The maximum lipid content was detected in Chlamydomonas sp at pH5.5, followed by S. ecornis and then S. communis at pH 7.5 in FWWD2 obtained after co-solvent extraction method. The most significant removal percentage of COD by all algal species were observed in FWWD1, whereas the highest removal percentage of TN and TP were detected in FWWD2, respectively. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) characterization of each algal species in FWWD1 and FWWD2 at their optimum pH was investigated to determine the quality of obtained biodiesel.
  • Kormi, Eeva; Snall, Johanna; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Thoren, Hanna; Tornwall, Jyrki (2017)
    Purpose: To clarify the effect of systemic dexamethasone (DXM) on pain and postoperative opioid (oxycodone) consumption after blowout fracture surgery. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized observer-blinded trial of 20 patients who had a blowout fracture requiring surgical intervention was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a total dose of intravenous DXM 30 mg perioperatively or no DXM (controls). Pain was assessed postoperatively using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) each time analgesics (acetaminophen every 6 hours or oxycodone upon request) were administered. The VAS area under the curve (VAS AUC) for 24 hours postoperatively represented the outcome. Data were analyzed using chi(2) test, Student t test, 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test, and linear regression, with a P value less than .05 indicating significance. Results: Patients with blowout fracture receiving perioperative systemic DXM exhibited a significantly lower average VAS AUC (P = .04). After controlling for other confounding variables, this result remained significant (P = .03). Conclusions: DXM appears to decrease postoperative pain and thus is recommended as a pre-emptive analgesic in blowout fracture surgery. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Kinnunen, Niko; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Pumpanen, Jukka; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Palviainen, Marjo (2021)
    A 96-h laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the potential of biochar as a water protection tool for acid sulfate soil runoff. Acid sulfate soils pose a risk to water bodies due to acid, metal-rich runoff, especially in drained peatland forests. New water protection methods, such as adsorption with biochar, are needed. We investigated the capability of spruce and birch biochar to adsorb metals and reduce acidity in the water. Water from an acid sulfate site was stirred with biochar, biochar with lime, and biochar with ash. We determined water Al, S, Fe, Cu, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn concentrations periodically, as well as pH and total organic carbon at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The studied substances are considered the most abundant and environmentally harmful elements in the acid sulfate soils in Finland. Biochar surface characteristics were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Concentration changes were used to parametrize adsorption kinetics models. Biochar adsorbed metals and increased pH, but lime and ash additives did not always improve the adsorption. Spruce biochar and ash addition had generally higher adsorption than birch biochar and lime addition. The adsorption was dominated by Al and Fe at lower pH, while increasing pH improved the adsorption of Cd and Zn. The results show that biochar can increase the water pH, as well as adsorb Al, Fe, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn. Further work could include an actual-scale biochar reactor in a laboratory and field conditions.
  • Kaarakka, Lilli; Hyvönen, Riitta; Strömgren, Monika; Palviainen, Marjo; Persson, Tryggve; Olsson, Bengt A; Launonen, Erno; Vegerfors, Birgitta; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko (2016)
    The use of forest-derived biomass has steadily increased in Finland and Sweden during the past decades leading to more intensive forest management practices in the region, such as whole-tree harvesting, both above- and belowground. Stump harvesting results in a direct removal of stump and coarse-root carbon (C) from the stand and can cause extensive soil disturbance, which has been suggested to increase C mineralization. In this study, the effects of stump harvesting on soil C and nitrogen (N) mineralization, and soil surface disturbance were studied in two different clear-felled Norway spruce (Picea abies) sites in Central Finland. The treatments were whole-tree harvesting (WTH, removal of stems and logging residues), and WTH and stump harvesting (WTH + S). Both sites, Honkola (2 stands) and Haukilahti (6 stands) were mounded. In both treatments, soil samples were taken from different soil layers down to a total depth of 20 cm in the mineral soil from (i) mounds, (ii) undisturbed soil and (iii) pits. The sampling was performed 11-12 years after treatments. Soil C and N mineralization rates were determined in laboratory incubation experiments. In addition, total C and N pools (g m(2)) were estimated for each disturbance class and soil layer. Soil C and N pools had a tendency to be lower following stump harvesting, but no statistically significant treatment effect was detected. Stump harvesting increased soil mixing as indicated by a significant decrease in C concentration in the mound disturbance class. There was no significant effect of stump harvesting on soil C mineralization rates. A combination of mineralization rates and soil pool data showed that field C mineralization (g CO2-C m(-2) yr(-1)) did not significantly differ between stands where stumps were removed or were retained. Further, stump harvesting did not seem to have any stimulating effect on soil CO2 efflux 11-12 years after treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Poysa, Hannu; Lammi, Esa; Poysa, Silvo; Vaananen, Veli-Matti (2019)
    Interactions and dependence between species can transmit the effects of species declines within and between trophic levels, resulting in secondary endangerments and, in some cases, extinctions. Many mixed-species avian breeding aggregations commonly have a protector species whose aggressive nest defense is used by other species to defend their nests. Disappearance of the protector species may have population demographic consequences on the dependent species. Aggressive nest defense behavior of small colonial gulls, such as the black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), is used by many waterbird species to gain protection against predators. We used data from 15 local waterbird communities in Finland to study long-term changes and dynamics of breeding numbers of other waterbirds as a response to long-term changes and dynamics of black-headed gull colonies. We found that breeding numbers of many species tracked long-term changes in the size of black-headed gull colonies. This was true even after controlling for a common trend in the size of the black-headed gull colony and the breeding numbers of the other species. The trend-controlled positive temporal association with black-headed gull was relatively stronger in species that nest in similar habitats of a lake as the black-headed gull, and in species that have a more critical conservation status due to drastic population decline. Our results suggest that the overall decline of black-headed gull colonies has resulted in secondary endangerment of many other species in waterbird communities.
  • Haumann, Niels Trusbak; Parkkonen, Lauri; Kliuchko, Marina; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira (2016)
    We here compared results achieved by applying popular methods for reducing artifacts in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of the auditory evoked Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in healthy adult subjects. We compared the Signal Space Separation (SSS) and temporal SSS (tSSS) methods for reducing noise from external and nearby sources. Our results showed that tSSS reduces the interference level more reliably than plain SSS, particularly for MEG gradiometers, also for healthy subjects not wearing strongly interfering magnetic material. Therefore, tSSS is recommended over SSS. Furthermore, we found that better artifact correction is achieved by applying Independent Component Analysis (ICA) in comparison to Signal Space Projection (SSP). Although SSP reduces the baseline noise level more than ICA, SSP also significantly reduces the signal-slightly more than it reduces the artifacts interfering with the signal. However, ICA also adds noise, or correction errors, to the wave form when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the original data is relatively low-in particular to EEG and to MEG magnetometer data. In conclusion, ICA is recommended over SSP, but one should be careful when applying ICA to reduce artifacts on neurophysiological data with relatively low SNR.
  • Björnström, Michaela; Niinikoski, Laura; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Leidenius, Marjut H. K.; Hukkinen, Katja (2022)
    Purpose: This study aims to compare the feasibility of VAE and BLES in the treatment of intraductal papillomas. Material and methods: Patients with a suspected intraductal papilloma who underwent a BLES or a VAE procedure were included in this retrospective study. The BLES procedures were performed between November 2011 and June 2016 and the VAE procedures between May 2018 and September 2020 at the Department of Radiology of Helsinki University Hospital (HUH). The procedures were performed with an intent of complete removal of the lesions. Results: In total, 72 patients underwent 78 BLES procedures and 95 patients underwent 99 VAE procedures. Altogether 52 (60%) papillomas with or without atypia were completely removed with VAE, whereas 24 (46%) were completely removed with BLES, p = 0.115. The median radiological size of the high-risk lesions completely removed with BLES was 6 mm (4-12 mm), whereas with VAE it was 8 mm (3-22 mm), p = 0.016. Surgery was omitted in 90 (94.7%) non-malignant breast lesions treated with VAE and in 66 (90.4%) treated with BLES, p = 0.368. Conclusion: Both VAE and BLES were feasible in the treatment of intraductal papillomas. In most non-malignant lesions surgery was avoided, but VAE was feasible in larger lesions than BLES. However, follow-up ultrasound was needed more often after VAE. The histopathologic assessment is more reliable after BLES, as the lesion is removed as a single sample. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Parmentier, Dries; Paradis, Sarah; Metz, Sybrand J.; Wiedmer, Susanne K.; Kroon, Maaike C. (2016)
    This work describes for the first time a continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid (IL) at room temperature. The hydrophobic fatty acid based IL tetraoctylphosphonium oleate ([P-8888][oleate]) was specifically chosen for its low viscosity and high selectivity towards transition metals. Applying [P-8888][oleate] for continuous metal ion extraction with 0.1 M sodium oxalate for regeneration resulted in a process with good and stable extraction efficiencies over time. The selectivity of the IL resulted in a process in which cobalt was selectively removed from two mixed salt solutions (Co/Na, Ca/Co/K) to obtain a pure cobalt stream after stripping the IL. The performed experiments showed that the contact time of the IL for extraction and stripping strongly influenced the achieved efficiencies. The stability of the IL was tested and it was shown that the fatty acid based IL was stable for the duration of the experiment. Liposome tests showed that the IL is very hydrophobic, which limits its leakage towards the water phase, but also results in a higher toxicity towards cell membranes. Economic analysis shows that the IL based process is not (yet) economical compared to ion-exchange resins, in case demineralised water is the only product. However, if the recovery of valuable metals is also taken into account and/or if brine disposal is an issue, then continuous IL metal extraction systems must be regarded as promising alternatives. (C) 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kantola, Taru; Mäklin, Suvi; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Räsänen, Pirjo; Rissanen, Anne; Roine, Risto; Sintonen, Harri; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena (2010)
  • Jokela, Johanna; Saarinen, Riitta; Mäkitie, Antti; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto (2019)
    PurposeTo analyse costs related to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sialolithiasis and sialadenitis managed with sialendoscopy, and to prospectively evaluate the impact of sialendoscopy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a longitudinal follow-up study.MethodsAll patients undergoing sialendoscopy or sialendoscopy-assisted surgery at a tertiary care university hospital between January 2014 and May 2016 were identified from a surgical database, and the direct hospital costs were retrospectively evaluated from 1year before to 1year after the sialendoscopy. The 15D HRQoL questionnaire and a questionnaire exploring the use of health care services during the preceding 3months were mailed to the patients before sialendoscopy as well as at 3 and 12months after the operation.ResultsA total of 260 patients were identified. Mean total hospital costs, costs related to the sialendoscopy, and complications were significantly higher in sialolithiasis patients than in patients with other diagnoses. 74 patients returned the baseline 15D questionnaire, and 51 patients all three 15D questionnaires. At baseline, the dimensions discomfort and symptoms and distress were lower in patients than in age- and gender-standardised general population, but the total 15D score did not differ significantly. The dimension discomfort and symptoms improved significantly at 3 and 12months postoperatively, and the mean total HRQoL score improved in patients with sialolithiasis at 3months postoperatively.ConclusionsThe costs related to sialendoscopy are substantial and the cost-effectiveness of sialendoscopy warrants further studies. However, sialendoscopy seems to reduce patients' discomfort and ailments and to improve HRQoL at least in patients with sialolithiasis.
  • Soder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Soder, Per-Osten (2014)
  • Rytkönen, Kaisa; Ventä, Irja (2018)
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular third molar (M3) and the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) in a panoramic radiograph of 20-year-old subjects. The specific aim was to assess differences in this proximity over time. Two similar samples of panoramic radiographs taken in a routine oral health examination with 20-year time interval were examined retrospectively and images with both mandibular M3s were included. The material consisted of 300 subjects (25% men, mean age 20.5 +/- 0.6 years). The radiographic relationship between the mandibular M3 root and the IAC was assessed as follows: the M3 root was either apart from, tangential to, superimposed with, or inferior to the IAC. Differences between frequencies were tested using the chi-squared test. In the combined samples, only 16% of the M3s located apart from the IAC, 15% located tangential to, 61% superimposed with, and 8% inferior to the IAC. The proportion of the intimate locations had increased during the 20-year time interval from 79 to 88% (P <0.01) and especially in females (P <0.05). The vast majority of the mandibular M3s situated very close to the mandibular canal. Our results suggest that in the cohort of 20-year-old non-extraction subjects, most of the M3s are possibly at risk for inferior alveolar nerve injury at removal, as judged from the panoramic radiograph, and also the number of such teeth has increased over the 20-year period.
  • Ojanen, Paavo; Mäkiranta, Päivi; Penttilä, Timo; Minkkinen, Kari (2017)
    Logging residue piles have been suggested to markedly increase the decomposition of the underlying peat soil leading to large carbon dioxide emissions. We aimed at scrutinizing this postulate with straightforward decomposition (mass loss) measurements. For the purpose, authentic soil organic matter (humus and peat) was incubated in mesh bags under piles and at control plots. The effect of piles was assumed to result from physical (shading and insulation on soil surface) and chemical-biological (leaching of nutrients and fresh organic matter) sources. To distinguish between the two, artificial piles of inorganic matter were established to mimic the bare physical effects. Enhancement of decomposition in the soil under the real and artificial piles was assessed by measuring the mass loss of cellulose strips. Logging residue piles had clear physical effects on soil: temperatures were lowered and their diurnal variation subdued, and relative humidity at the soil surface was higher. The effect on soil moisture was also evident, but more variable, including both decreases and increases. These effects, mimicked by the artificial piles, decreased rather than increased cellulose mass loss. As the real piles, on the other hand, increased mass loss, we conclude that logging residue piles may enhance decomposition in soil due to chemical-biological mechanisms. Also the results on humus and peat mass loss indicate that piles can both increase and decrease decomposition. Consistent, remarkable increase in mass loss was not observed. Thus, our results do not support the postulate of logging residue piles dramatically increasing decomposition of soil organic matter. Rather, they hint that the effect of logging residue piles on soil is an interplay of physical and chemical-biological effects and carbon transport via roots and fungi. To fully understand and quantify these effects, vertical C fluxes between piles and soil and horizontal C fluxes within soil need to be assessed in addition to decomposition in soil and piles.
  • Klovatch-Podlipsky, Ilana; Gazit, Tomer; Fahoum, Firas; Tsirelson, Boris; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Kremer, Uri; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassah; Eisenstein, Orna; Harpaz, Yuval; Levy, Ory; Kirschner, Adi; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma; Medvedovsky, Mordekhay (2016)
    Objective: Although simultaneous recording of EEG and MRI has gained increasing popularity in recent years, the extent of its clinical use remains limited by various technical challenges. Motion interference is one of the major challenges in EEG-fMRI. Here we present an approach which reduces its impact with the aid of an MR compatible dual-array EEG (daEEG) in which the EEG itself is used both as a brain signal recorder and a motion sensor. Methods: We implemented two arrays of EEG electrodes organized into two sets of nearly orthogonally intersecting wire bundles. The EEG was recorded using referential amplifiers inside a 3 T MR-scanner. Virtual bipolar measurements were taken both along bundles (creating a small wire loop and therefore minimizing artifact) and across bundles (creating a large wire loop and therefore maximizing artifact). Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied. The resulting ICA components were classified into brain signal and noise using three criteria: 1) degree of two-dimensional spatial correlation between ICA coefficients along bundles and across bundles; 2) amplitude along bundles vs. across bundles; 3) correlation with ECG. The components which passed the criteria set were transformed back to the channel space. Motion artifact suppression and the ability to detect interictal epileptic spikes following daEEG and Optimal Basis Set (OBS) procedures were compared in 10 patients with epilepsy. Results: The SNR achieved by daEEG was 11.05 +/- 3.10 and by OBS was 8.25 +/- 1.01 (p <0.00001). In 9 of 10 patients, more spikes were detected after daEEG than after OBS (p <0.05). Significance: daEEG improves signal quality in EEG-fMRI recordings, expanding its clinical and research potential. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Deb, Anjan; Gurung, Khum; Rumky, Jannatul; Sillanpää, Mika; Kallioinen, Mari (2022)
    Membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) is highly influenced by the characteristics of the influent, the mixed liquor microbial community and the operational parameters, all of which are environment specific. Therefore, we studied the dynamics of microbial community during the treatment of real municipal wastewater in a pilotscale anoxic-oxic (A/O) MBR equipped with a gravity-driven membrane filtration system. The MBR was operated at three different solid retention times (SRTs): 25, 40 and 10 days for a total period of 180 days in Nordic environmental conditions. Analysis of microbial community dynamics revealed a high diversity of microbial species at SRT of 40 days, whereas SRT of 25 days was superior with microbial richness. Production of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was found to be intensely connected with the SRT and food to microorganism (F/M) ratio. Relatively longer operational period with the lowest rate of membrane fouling was observed at SRT of 25 days, which was resulted from the superior microbial community, lowest production of SMP and loosely bound EPS as well as the lower filtration resistance of larger sludge flocs. Abundance of quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria and granular floc forming bacterial genera at SRT of 25 days provided relatively lower membrane fouling tendency and larger floc formation, respectively. On the other hand, substantial amount of various surface colonizing and EPS producing bacteria was found at SRT of 10 days, which promoted more rapid membrane fouling compared with the fouling rate seen at other tested SRTs. To sum up, this research provides a realistic insight into the impact of SRT on microbial community dynamics and resulting characteristics of mixed liquor, floc size distribution and membrane fouling for improved MBR operation. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Cai, Zongping; Sun, Yan; Deng, Yanghong; Zheng, Xiaojie; Sun, Shuiyu; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin (2022)
    This study compared electrokinetic (EK) remediation with and without interval power breaking in the removal of total and plant available cadmium (Cd) in the soil. Two laboratory experiments, i.e. EK remediation with interval power breaking (24-12 h power-on-off cycles) and conventional EK remediation (continuous power supply), with the same accumulated time (192 h) of power supply, were conducted to remove soil Cd. After the EK remediation with interval power breaking, the total Cd removal efficiency in the soil rose to 38%, in comparison to 28% after the conventional EK remediation. As for the plant available Cd, the removal efficiency was enhanced from 52 to 63%. Additionally, the electric current during the EK remediation and electric conductivity after the EK remediation were higher in the soil treated by interval power breaking, which indicated an enhanced desorption and/or migration of charged species. It further meant that the higher removal efficiency of soil Cd by interval power breaking could be related to the enhanced desorption and/or migration of Cd species. This study indicated that both conventional EK remediation and EK remediation with interval power breaking were effective methods to remove soil Cd but EK remediation with interval power breaking was more efficient.
  • Ahlgren, Tommy; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Räisänen, Jyrki; Heinola, Kalle; Tikkanen, Pertti O. (2019)
    The radiological safety of the future thermonuclear fusion devices depends critically on the total tritium inventory in the plasma-facing components. The planned method to remove tritium from the ITER reactor tungsten divertor is to perform vacuum baking. We show that tritium removal from tungsten can be enhanced by the isotope exchange mechanism by doing the baking in H-2 atmosphere. The results show that the retained deuterium from 30 keV implantation can be expected to drop almost to zero after 24h annealing at 250 degrees C in H-2 atmosphere. Annealing in vacuum requires temperatures above 400 degrees C for close to zero retention.
  • Niemi, Mikko (2021)
    The pulse density of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is increasing due to technical developments. The trade-offs between pulse density, inventory costs, and forest attribute measurement accuracy are extensively studied, but the possibilities of high-density airborne LiDAR in stream extraction and soil wetness mapping are unknown. This study aimed to refine the best practices for generating a hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model (DEM) from an airborne LiDAR -derived 3D point cloud. Depressionless DEMs were processed using a stepwise breaching-filling method, and the performance of overland flow routing was studied in relation to a pulse density, an interpolation method, and a raster cell size. The study area was situated on a densely ditched forestry site in Parkano municipality, for which LiDAR data with a pulse density of 5 m–2 were available. Stream networks and a topographic wetness index (TWI) were derived from altogether 12 DEM versions. The topological database of Finland was used as a ground reference in comparison, in addition to 40 selected main flow routes within the catchment. The results show improved performance of overland flow modeling due to increased data density. In addition, commonly used triangulated irregular networks were clearly outperformed by universal kriging and inverse-distance weighting in DEM interpolation. However, the TWI proved to be more sensitive to pulse density than an interpolation method. Improved overland flow routing contributes to enhanced forest resource planning at detailed spatial scales.
  • Cai, Zongping; Sun, Yan; Deng, Yanghong; Zheng, Xiaojie; Sun, Shuiyu; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki (2021)
    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been widely studied at laboratory scales. However, field-scale research is far less. In this study, a 14-day EK remediation was carried out, in a field pilot (4 m2) test and a full-scale (200 m2) application for the first time, in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated paddy agricultural field near a mining area. A low voltage of 20 V was applied at both scales; voltage gradient was 20 V m & minus;1 and 4 V m & minus;1 at the pilot and full scales, respectively. Samples were taken from near the anode and cathode, and in the middle of the electric field, in the soil layers 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 40-50 cm. After the EK remediation, a significant portion of the total Cd was removed in all the layers at the pilot scale, by 87%, 72%, and 54% from the top down, but only in the 0-10 cm layer at the full scale by 74%. As for the plant available (exchangeable and soluble) Cd, significant removal (64%) was only observed in the 0-10 cm layer at the pilot scale. The percentage reduction of the electrical conductivity and removal efficiency of the total Cd was higher near the anode than the cathode. The soil pH was elevated near the cathode but stayed below pH 6 due to the sufficient supply of lactic acid. After the EK remediation, the concentration of the total Cd dropped below the hazard threshold, i.e. 0.4 mg (kg dry wt soil)& minus;1 for agricultural paddy fields in China. A total energy of 2 kW & middot;h and 0.6 kW & middot;h was consumed at the pilot and full scales, respec-tively. This study showed a successful in situ EK remediation of Cd contaminated paddy agricultural soil, espe-cially in the surface layer, with low voltage and energy demand. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (