Browsing by Subject "REPLACEMENT THERAPY"

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  • Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio; Wald, Ron; Martensson, Johan; Maiden, Matthew; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Glassford, Neil J.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh; Vaara, Suvi; Schneider, Antoine (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, but animal models and lack of histological changes suggest that, at least initially, septic AKI may be a functional phenomenon with combined microvascular shunting and tubular cell stress. The diagnosis remains based on clinical assessment and measurement of urinary output and serum creatinine. However, multiple biomarkers and especially cell cycle arrest biomarkers are gaining acceptance. Prevention of septic AKI remains based on the treatment of sepsis and on early resuscitation. Such resuscitation relies on the judicious use of both fluids and vasoactive drugs. In particular, there is strong evidence that starch-containing fluids are nephrotoxic and decrease renal function and suggestive evidence that chloride-rich fluid may also adversely affect renal function. Vasoactive drugs have variable effects on renal function in septic AKI. At this time, norepinephrine is the dominant agent, but vasopressin may also have a role. Despite supportive therapies, renal function may be temporarily or completely lost. In such patients, renal replacement therapy (RRT) becomes necessary. The optimal intensity of this therapy has been established, while the timing of when to commence RRT is now a focus of investigation. If sepsis resolves, the majority of patients recover renal function. Yet, even a single episode of septic AKI is associated with increased subsequent risk of chronic kidney disease.
  • European Soc Paediat Nephrology; Chronic Kidney Dis Mineral Bone D; Dialysis & Transplantat Workin (2019)
    Achieving normal growth is one of the most challenging problems in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) promotes longitudinal growth and likely enables children with CKD and short stature to reach normal adult height. Here, members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (MBD), Dialysis and Transplantation working groups present clinical practice recommendations for the use of GH in children with CKD on dialysis and after renal transplantation. These recommendations have been developed with input from an external advisory group of paediatric endocrinologists, paediatric nephrologists and patient representatives. We recommend that children with stage 3-5 CKD or on dialysis should be candidates for GH therapy if they have persistent growth failure, defined as a height below the third percentile for age and sex and a height velocity below the twenty-fifth percentile, once other potentially treatable risk factors for growth failure have been adequately addressed and provided the child has growth potential. In children who have received a kidney transplant and fulfil the above growth criteria, we recommend initiation of GH therapy 1 year after transplantation if spontaneous catch-up growth does not occur and steroid-free immunosuppression is not a feasible option. GH should be given at dosages of 0.045-0.05 mg/kg per day by daily subcutaneous injections until the patient has reached their final height or until renal transplantation. In addition to providing treatment recommendations, a cost-effectiveness analysis is provided that might help guide decision-making.
  • Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Ketonen, Matti; Koukkunen, Heli; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesaniemi, Y. Antero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S. (2016)
    Objectives: The role of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been studied extensively, but less is known of the impact of HT on the mortality risk due to an ACS. Study design and main outcome measures: We extracted from a population-based ACS register, FINAMI, 7258 postmenopausal women with the first ACS. These data were combined with HT use data from the National Drug Reimbursement Register; 625 patients (9%) had used various HT regimens. The death risks due to ACS before admission to hospital, 2-28, or 29-365 days after the incident ACS were compared between HT users and non-users with logistic regression analyses. Results: In all follow-up time points, the ACS death risks in HT ever-users were smaller compared to non-users. Of women with FIT ever use, 42% died within one year as compared with 52% of non-users (OR 0.62, p <0.001). Most deaths (84%) occurred within 28 days after the ACS, and in this group 36% of women with ever use of FIT (OR 0.73, p = 0.002) and 30% of women with >= 5 year FIT use (OR 0.54, p <0.001) died as compared to 43% of the non-users. Age 60 years at the HT initiation was accompanied with similar reductions in ACS mortality risk. Conclusions: Postmenopausal HT use is accompanied with reduced mortality risk after primary ACS. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fagerholm, Rainer; Faltinova, Maria; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Heikkila, Paivi; Halttunen-Nieminen, Mervi; Nevanlinna, Heli; Blomqvist, Carl (2018)
    Long term use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been reported to increase breast cancer risk. On the other hand, observational studies suggest that breast cancers diagnosed during HT may have a more favorable prognosis. While family history is a risk factor for breast cancer, and genetic factors also influence prognosis, the role of family history in combination with HT use has been little studied. We investigated the relationship between HT, family history, and prognosis in 584 (267 exposed) familial and 952 (460 exposed) non-familial breast cancer cases, using three survival end points: death from breast cancer (BCS), distant disease free survival (DDFS), and local recurrence free survival (LRFS). Among non-familial cases, HT was associated with better BCS (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.94; p = 0.025), and DDFS (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.85; p = 0.005), with a consistent but not statistically significant effect in LRFS. This effect was not seen in familial cases (HR > 1.0), and family history was found to interact with HT in BCS (p((interaction)) = 0.0067) (BC-death) and DDFS (p((interaction)) = 0.0070). There was phenotypic heterogeneity between HT-associated tumors in familial and non-familial cases, particularly on estrogen receptor (ER) status, although the interaction between HT and family history appears to be at least partially independent of these markers (p = 0.0370 after adjustment for standard prognostic factors). If confirmed by further studies, our results suggest that family history should be taken into consideration in clinical counseling before beginning a HT regimen.
  • Markkanen, Helene M.; Pekkarinen, Tuula; Hamalainen, Esa; Valimaki, Matti J.; Alfthan, Henrik V.; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan (2017)
    Objective: Data on the effect of gender on the interpretation of the GHRH plus arginine stimulation test (GHRH + ARG test) is controversial. We validated the GHRH + ARG stimulation test in control subjects and patients with organic or idiopathic pituitary disease and a suspicion of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) using the Immulite 2000 XPi GH assay. Design: We studied 126 apparently healthy adults (median age 38.8 years) and 34 patients with a suspicion of AGHD (median age 42.2 years). Identification of AGHD with the GHRH + ARG test was investigated with commonly accepted BMI-related consensus cut-off limits for peak GH concentrations. Serum samples collected during the GHRH + ARG test were analysed for GH in 2014-2015. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were studied as a reference. Results: In 14 of 65 (22%) control males the GH peak value was below the BMI-related cut-off limits for GH sufficiency indicating a false diagnosis of AGHD. All control females had a normal GHRH + ARG response. Median peak GH response was significantly (p <0.001) higher in female (39.3 mu g/L) than in male controls (21 mu g/L). According to consensus cut-offs all but one young female patient had a deficient response compatible with a diagnosis of AGHD. Conclusions: The GH response to stimulation by GHRH + ARG is gender-dependent, being lower in healthy males than in females. Gender should be considered when defining cut-off limits for peak GH concentrations in the GHRH + ARG test. The presently used BMI-related cut-off levels will lead to a significant misclassification of males as GH deficient.
  • Vidal, Enrico; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holmberg, Christer; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Trivelli, Antonella; Esteves Da Silva, Jose Eduardo; Herthelius, Maria; Adams, Brigitte; Bjerre, Anna; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Miteva, Polina; Emirova, Khadizha; Bayazit, Aysun K.; Mache, Christoph J.; Sanchez-Moreno, Ana; Harambat, Jerome; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Jager, Kitty J.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico; ESPN-ERA-EDTA Registryy (2017)
    Background: The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure. Study Design: Cohort study. Setting & Participants: Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013. Factor: Type of dialysis modality. Outcomes & Measurements: Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence. Results: 917 infants initiated dialysis therapy on PD, and 146, on HD. Median age at dialysis therapy initiation was 4.5 (IQR, 0.7-7.9) months, and median body weight was 5.7 (IQR, 3.7-7.5) kg. Although the groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex, infants treated with PD more often had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 48% vs 27%), whereas those on HD therapy more frequently had metabolic disorders (12% vs 4%). Risk factors for death were younger age at dialysis therapy initiation (HR per each 1-month later initiation, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97) and non-CAKUT cause of chronic kidney failure (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04). Mortality risk and likelihood of transplantation were equal in PD and HD patients, whereas HD patients had a higher risk for changing dialysis treatment (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.17-2.31). Limitations: Inability to control for unmeasured confounders not included in the Registry database and missing data (ie, comorbid conditions). Low statistical power because of relatively small number of participants. Conclusions: Despite a widespread preconception that HD should be reserved for cases in which PD is not feasible, in Europe, we found 1 in 8 infants in need of maintenance dialysis to be initiated on HD therapy. Patient characteristics at dialysis therapy initiation, prospective survival, and time to transplantation were very similar for infants initiated on PD or HD therapy. (C) 2016 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
  • Pollanen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipila, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko (2015)
  • Ortiz, Fernanda; Harjutsalo, Valma; Helanterä, Ilkka; Lempinen, Marko; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    OBJECTIVE To examine time trends inmortality rates and causes of death in patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease on dialysis and after kidney transplantation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a nationwide retrospective cohort analysis, all patients with type 1 diabetes in Finland who received a kidney transplant alone were compared with patients who remained on dialysis. The main outcome was patient survival after starting dialysis. The cohort was divided into dialysis, functioning kidney transplant, and dialysis after transplant loss. Causes of death were retrieved and standardized mortality ratios calculated. RESULTS We studied 2,383 patients. Patients survived a median of 15.9 years after a successful transplant, 11.2 years if transplant function was lost, and 2.9 years if they remained on chronic dialysis. Standardized mortality ratio decreased in all subgroups during the past four decades: from 2005 onwards, it was 3.9 in patients receiving a kidney transplant, 11.5 in patients with graft loss, and 32.5 in patients on dialysis. The most common cause of death in all patients was ischemic heart disease (45%) followed by infection (18%), which was more common in patients on dialysis. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease because it substantially reduces the excess death risk when compared with dialysis. Even when kidney graft function is lost, the excess death risk is still considerably lower. Although overall mortality has decreased over the years, premature death due to ischemic heart disease remains high.
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha; Pukkala, Eero (2022)
    Purpose This case-control study assesses the independent roles of reproductive history, postmenopausal hormonal therapy (HT), socioeconomic status (SES), and occupational physical activity on the risk of breast cancer (BC). Methods Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from conditional logistic multivariate regression model in a data set of 19,253 Finnish women diagnosed with BC between 1994 and 2013 and 96,265 age-matched population controls. Results Both pre- and postmenopausal white-collar workers had significantly increased risk of ductal and lobular BC as compared to manual workers. Moderate occupational physical activity reduced risk of lobular BC by 14%. There was a transient increase in the risk of BC observed after each birth followed by a protective effect starting some years after the delivery. As the number of children increased, the short-term excess risk was lower and protective effect was observed earlier. Continuous estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) significantly increased the risk of both ductal and lobular BC and the magnitude of risk was directly proportional to duration of use (OR for 5+ years of use 2.26, 95% confidence interval 2.12-2.42). Monthly EPT for 5+ years increased the risk (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.45). Users of estradiol plus levonorgestrel intrauterine system devices showed ORs of 1.56 (95% CI 1.45-1.69) and 2.18 (95% CI 1.81-2.64) for ductal and lobular BC, respectively. Conclusion This study concludes that pregnancy has a dual effect on BC risk, with a transient increase in risk followed by a long-term protective effect. The SES and HT have a large effect on BC risk while occupational physical activity has only a small independent effect.
  • Song, Xin; Tabak, Adam G.; Zethelius, Bjoern; Yudkin, John S.; Soederberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M.; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing; DECODE Study Grp (2014)
  • MRI-GENIE & GISCOME Investigators; Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; Bonkhoff, Anna K.; Schirmer, Markus D.; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; McArdle, Patrick F. (2021)
    Acute ischemic stroke affects men and women differently. In particular, women are often reported to experience higher acute stroke severity than men. We derived a low-dimensional representation of anatomical stroke lesions and designed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework tailored to estimate possible sex differences in lesion patterns linked to acute stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale). This framework was developed in 555 patients (38% female). Findings were validated in an independent cohort (n=503, 41% female). Here, we show brain lesions in regions subserving motor and language functions help explain stroke severity in both men and women, however more widespread lesion patterns are relevant in female patients. Higher stroke severity in women, but not men, is associated with left hemisphere lesions in the vicinity of the posterior circulation. Our results suggest there are sex-specific functional cerebral asymmetries that may be important for future investigations of sex-stratified approaches to management of acute ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke impacts men and women differently. Here, the authors show how different lesion patterns in men and women are linked to the extent of stroke severity.
  • Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer (2016)
    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively.
  • Stoer, N. C.; Botteri, E.; Ghiasvand, R.; Busund, M.; Vangen, S.; Lund, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Weiderpass, E. (2019)
    Background The association between reproductive factors and risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) is unclear. We investigated this issue in the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort study. Objectives To examine the association between the reproductive factors age at menarche, menstrual cycle length, parity, age at first and last birth, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration and length of ovulatory life, and CM risk, overall and by histological subtypes and anatomical site. Methods We followed 165 712 women aged 30-75 years at inclusion from 1991-2007 to the end of 2015. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The mean age at cohort enrolment was 49 years. During a median follow-up of 18 years, 1347 cases of CM were identified. No reproductive factors were clearly associated with CM risk. When stratifying by histological subtype we observed significant heterogeneity (P = 0 center dot 01) in the effect of length of ovulatory life on the risk of superficial spreading melanoma (HR 1 center dot 02, 95% CI 1 center dot 01-1 center dot 04 per year increase) and nodular melanoma (HR 0 center dot 97, 95% CI 0 center dot 94-1 center dot 01 per year increase). When stratifying by anatomical site, menopausal status (HR 0 center dot 54, 95% CI 0 center dot 31-0 center dot 92, postmenopausal vs. premenopausal) and menstrual cycle length (HR 1 center dot 07, 95% CI 1 center dot 01-1 center dot 13, per day increase) were associated with CM of the trunk, and significant heterogeneity between anatomical sites was observed for menopausal status (P = 0 center dot 04). Conclusions In this large population-based Norwegian cohort study, we did not find convincing evidence of an association between reproductive factors and risk of CM.
  • Pippias, Maria; Kramer, Anneke; Noordzij, Marlies; Afentakis, Nikolaos; Alonso de la Torre, Ramon; Ambuhl, Patrice M.; Aparicio Madre, Manuel I.; Arribas Monzon, Felipe; Asberg, Anders; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Bouzas, Encarnacion; Bubic, Ivan; Caskey, Fergus J.; de la Nuez, Pablo Castro; Cernevskis, Harijs; Garcia Bazaga, Maria de los Angeles; des Grottes, Jean-Marin; Fernandez Gonzalez, Raquel; Ferrer-Alamar, Manuel; Finne, Patrik; Garneata, Liliana; Golan, Eliezer; Heaf, James G.; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Idrizi, Alma; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Jarraya, Faical; Kantaria, Nino; Kolesnyk, Mykola; Kramar, Reinhard; Lassalle, MathilDe; Lezaic, Visnja V.; Lopot, Frantisek; Macario, Fernando; Magaz, Angela; de Francisco, Angel L. Martin; Martin Escobar, Eduardo; Martinez Castelao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Wendy; Moreno Alia, Inmaculada; Nordio, Maurizio; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Palsson, Runolfur; Ratkovic, Marina; Resic, Halima; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; de Pablos, Carmen Santiuste; Seyahi, Nurhan; Roblero, Maria Fernanda Slon; Spustova, Viera; Stas, Koenraad J. F.; Stendahl, Maria E.; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Vazelov, Evgueniy; Ziginskiene, Edita; Massy, Ziad; Jager, Kitty J.; Stel, Vianda S. (2017)
    Background: This article summarizes the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry's 2014 annual report. It describes the epidemiology of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 2014 within 35 countries. Methods: In 2016, the ERA-EDTA Registry received data on patients who in 2014 where undergoing RRT for ESRD, from 51 national or regional renal registries. Thirty-two registries provided individual patient level data and 19 provided aggregated patient level data. The incidence, prevalence and survival probabilities of these patients were determined. Results: In 2014, 70 953 individuals commenced RRT for ESRD, equating to an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 133 per million population (pmp). The incidence ranged by 10-fold; from 23 pmp in the Ukraine to 237 pmp in Portugal. Of the patients commencing RRT, almost two-thirds were men, over half were aged >= 65 years and a quarter had diabetes mellitus as their primary renal diagnosis. By day 91 of commencing RRT, 81% of patients were receiving haemodialysis. On 31 December 2014, 490 743 individuals were receiving RRT for ESRD, equating to an unadjusted prevalence of 924 pmp. This ranged throughout Europe by more than 10-fold, from 157 pmp in the Ukraine to 1794 pmp in Portugal. In 2014, 19 406 kidney transplantations were performed, equating to an overall unadjusted transplant rate of 36 pmp. Again this varied considerably throughout Europe. For patients commencing RRT during 2005-09, the 5-year-adjusted patient survival probabilities on all RRT modalities was 63.3% (95% confidence interval 63.0-63.6). The expected remaining lifetime of a 20-to 24-year-old patient with ESRD receiving dialysis or living with a kidney transplant was 21.9 and 44.0 years, respectively. This was substantially lower than the 61.8 years of expected remaining lifetime of a 20-year-old patient without ESRD.
  • Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi; Hoti, Fabian; Vattulainen, Pia; Gissler, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S. (2019)
    OBJECTIVES To compare the use of hormone therapy between Finnish postmenopausal women with and without a diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN Nationwide case-control study. SETTING Finnish national population and drug register, between 1999 and 2013. PARTICIPANTS All postmenopausal women (n= 84 739) in Finland who, between 1999 and 2013, received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease from a neurologist or geriatrician, and who were identified from a national drug register. Control women without a diagnosis (n= 84 739), matched by age and hospital district, were traced from the Finnish national population register. INTERVENTIONS Data on hormone therapy use were obtained from the Finnish national drug reimbursement register. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Alzheimer's disease, calculated with conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS In 83 688 (98.8%) women, a diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease was made at the age of 60 years or older, and 47 239 (55.7%) women had been over 80 years of age at diagnosis. Use of systemic hormone therapy was associated with a 9-17% increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The risk of the disease did not differ significantly between users of estradiol only (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.14) and those of oestrogen-progestogen (1.17, 1.13 to 1.21). The risk increases in users of oestrogen-progestogen therapy were not related to different progestogens (noreth isterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or other progestogens); but in women younger than 60 at hormone therapy initiation, these risk increases were associated with hormone therapy exposure over 10 years. Furthermore, the age at initiation of systemic hormone therapy was not a decisive determinant for the increase in risk of Alzheimer's disease. The exclusive use of vaginal estradiol did not affect the risk of the disease (0.99, 0.96 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS Long term use of systemic hormone therapy might be accompanied with an overall increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, which is not related to the type of progestogen or the age at initiation of systemic hormone therapy. By contrast, use of vaginal estradiol shows no such risk. Even though the absolute risk increase for Alzheimer's disease is small, our data should be implemented into information for present and future users of hormone therapy.
  • El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; Abramova, Irina; Carlos Aldave, Juan; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Boukari, Rachida; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz; Cancrini, Caterina; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Derfalvi, Beata; Dogu, Figen; Edgar, J. David M.; Eley, Brian; El-Owaidy, Rasha Hasan; Elva Espinosa-Padilla, Sara; Galal, Nermeen; Haerynck, Filomeen; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; Hossny, Elham; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Kamal, Ebtihal; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kechout, Nadia; Lau, Yu Lung; Morio, Tomohiro; Moschese, Viviana; Neves, Joao Farela; Ouederni, Monia; Paganelli, Roberto; Paris, Kenneth; Pignata, Claudio; Plebani, Alessandro; Qamar, Farah Naz; Qureshi, Sonia; Radhakrishnan, Nita; Rezaei, Nima; Rosario, Nelson; Routes, John; Sanchez, Berta; Sediva, Anna; Seppänen, Mikko R. J.; Serrano, Edith Gonzalez; Shcherbina, Anna; Singh, Surjit; Siniah, Sangeetha; Spadaro, Guiseppe; Tang, Mimi; Maria Vinet, Ana; Volokha, Alla; Sullivan, Kathleen E. (2019)
    Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features. Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries. Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians. Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.