Browsing by Subject "REQUIREMENTS"

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  • Palonen, Pauliina; Lettojarvi, Iiris; Luoranen, Jaana; Ruhanen, Hanna; Rantanen, Marja; Haikonen, Tuuli; Finni, Sanna (2021)
    In the future climate scenario the transient warm spells during winter are predicted to become more frequent and potentially increase the risk of frost damage in perennial horticultural crops. The aim of our study was to examine, whether apple (Males x domestica Borkh.), blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.), and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars differing in winter hardiness have a different susceptibility to deacclimation during a warm spell and the ability to reacclimate in response to a subsequent cold period. Shoot samples were collected from commercial orchards in Finland on Feb. 6, 2019. Samples were subjected to a deacclimation treatment (+5 degrees C, 4 d) followed by a reacclimation treatment (-7 degrees C, 7 d). Controlled freezing tests were conducted immediately after sampling, and at the end of deacclimation and reacclimation treatments to determine frost hardiness (FH). FH was most stable in those cultivars that are known to be hardy in the Finnish climate conditions, i.e. 'Pirja' apple, 'Mikael' and `Ojebyn' blackcurrants, and 'Maurin Makea' raspberry. Buds were consistently less hardy than shoots, the difference being largest in blackcurrant, 25 degrees C . The buds of all cultivars, except 'Pirja' apple, deacclimated during four days at +5 degrees C, but only 'Ben Tron' blackcurrant buds were able to reacclimate. The depth of dormancy was determined by forcing the shoot samples in a greenhouse to examine the relationship of the FH stability to the dormancy status in the cultivars. Sixty to 95 % of apple, 98 to 100 % of blackcurrant, and 55 to 67 % of raspberry buds broke during five weeks in forcing. Only the apple cultivars exhibited cultivar differences in the dormancy status in the beginning of February. `Pirja' despite having the most stable FH of the apple cultivars, showed the most complete and fastest bud break in forcing. Consequently, the susceptibility to deacclimation during a warm spell and the ability to reacclimate at subsequent low temperatures were not related to the status of dormancy in these cultivars.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Paykari, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. C. (2020)
    Aims. Our aim is to quantify the impact of systematic effects on the inference of cosmological parameters from cosmic shear.Methods. We present an "end-to-end" approach that introduces sources of bias in a modelled weak lensing survey on a galaxy-by-galaxy level. We propagated residual biases through a pipeline from galaxy properties at one end to cosmic shear power spectra and cosmological parameter estimates at the other end. We did this to quantify how imperfect knowledge of the pipeline changes the maximum likelihood values of dark energy parameters.Results. We quantify the impact of an imperfect correction for charge transfer inefficiency and modelling uncertainties of the point spread function for Euclid, and find that the biases introduced can be corrected to acceptable levels.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nut (2018)
    Following an application from Lonza Ltd., submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panelon Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to L-carnitine and normal lipid metabolism. The food that is proposed as the subject of the health claim is L-carnitine. The Panelconsiders that L-carnitine is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is normal lipid metabolism'. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. The Panelconsiders that contribution to normal lipid metabolism is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant proposes that the claim submitted with this application is based on the essentiality of a nutrient. The Panelconsiders that the evidence provided does not establish that dietary L-carnitine is required to maintain normal lipid metabolism in the target population, for which the claim is intended. The Panelconcludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of L-carnitine and contribution to normal lipid metabolism in the target population. (c) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • EUROfusion MST1 Team; TCV Team; Blanken, T. C.; Hakola, A.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Karhunen, J.; Lahtinen, A.; Marchand, B.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Pehkonen, S.-P.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T. (2019)
    In ITER and DEMO, various control objectives related to plasma control must be simultaneously achieved by the plasma control system (PCS), in both normal operation as well as off-normal conditions. The PCS must act on off-normal events and deviations from the target scenario, since certain sequences (chains) of events can precede disruptions. It is important that these decisions are made while maintaining a coherent prioritization between the real-time control tasks to ensure high-performance operation. In this paper, a generic architecture for task-based integrated plasma control is proposed. The architecture is characterized by the separation of state estimation, event detection, decisions and task execution among different algorithms, with standardized signal interfaces. Central to the architecture are a plasma state monitor and supervisory controller. In the plasma state monitor, discrete events in the continuous-valued plasma state arc modeled using finite state machines. This provides a high-level representation of the plasma state. The supervisory controller coordinates the execution of multiple plasma control tasks by assigning task priorities, based on the finite states of the plasma and the pulse schedule. These algorithms were implemented on the TCV digital control system and integrated with actuator resource management and existing state estimation algorithms and controllers. The plasma state monitor on TCV can track a multitude of plasma events, related to plasma current, rotating and locked neoclassical tearing modes, and position displacements. In TCV experiments on simultaneous control of plasma pressure, safety factor profile and NTMs using electron cyclotron heating (ECI I) and current drive (ECCD), the supervisory controller assigns priorities to the relevant control tasks. The tasks are then executed by feedback controllers and actuator allocation management. This work forms a significant step forward in the ongoing integration of control capabilities in experiments on TCV, in support of tokamak reactor operation.