Browsing by Subject "RESIDENTS"

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  • Inkeri, Niina-Mari; Karjalainen, Merja; Haanpaa, Maija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Mantyselka, Pekka; Tiihonen, Miia (2019)
    What is known and objective Anticholinergic drug use has been associated with a risk of central and peripheral adverse effects. There is a lack of information on anticholinergic drug use in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate anticholinergic drug use and the association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. Methods The basic population was comprised of Finnish community-dwelling primary care patients aged 65 and older. Persons with diabetes were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnostic codes from electronic patient records. Two controls adjusted by age and gender were selected for each person with diabetes. This cross-sectional study was based on electronic primary care patient records and a structured health questionnaire. The health questionnaire was returned by 430 (81.6%) persons with diabetes and 654 (73.5%) persons without diabetes. Data on prescribed drugs were obtained from the electronic patient records. Anticholinergic drug use was measured according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale. The presence and strength of anticholinergic symptoms were asked in the health questionnaire. Results and discussion The prevalence of anticholinergic drug use was 8.9% in the total study cohort. There were no significant differences in anticholinergic drug use between persons with and without diabetes. There was no consistent association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms. What is new and conclusion There is no difference in anticholinergic drug use in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. Anticholinergic drug use should be considered individually and monitored carefully.
  • Pirhonen, Jari; Tiilikainen, Elisa; Pekkarinen, Satu; Lemivaara, Marjut; Melkas, Helina (2020)
    This future-oriented study examines the opportunities and challenges offered by social robots and communication technology when aiming to decrease emotional and social loneliness in older people residing in assisted living (AL). The paper draws on prior literature on loneliness, elder care and social robots. The aim is to scan the futures regarding technology support for the frail older people in future AL. The analytical frame was built on Robert Weiss’ division of relational functions: attachment, social integration, opportunity for nurturance, reassurance of worth, sense of reliable alliance, and guidance in stressful situations, and on a distinction between direct and indirect social robots. Our examinations show that social robots could tackle both emotional and social loneliness in assisted living by empowering people to engage in different forms of social interaction inside and outside the facility. However, ethical concerns of objectification, lack of human contact, and deception need to be thoroughly considered when implementing social robots in care for frail older people.
  • Aaronson, Alexander; Viljanen, Antti; Kanclerz, Piotr; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    Background: To evaluate the learning-curve in performing cataract surgery with respect to developments in technology and different teaching strategies by comparing the incidence of capsular bag-related complications to operator experience. Methods: A review of the registry of 14,520 cataract surgeries carried out at the Ophthalmology Unit of Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland, from August 8, 2009 to July 31, 2017. Results: We identified 144 cases with posterior capsule rupture and/or loss of capsular bag support (incidence 0.99% of all surgeries). The mean age of patients was 76.99.1 years and gender distribution ratio 29:71 male:female. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF; incidence 21%) and small pupil (incidence 14%) were over-represented in complication eyes, especially at the beginning of the study. Capsular bag-related complication rates were reported in 0.36% of surgeries for senior and 7.03% for resident surgeons at the beginning of the study, compared to 0.32% and 1.32%, respectively, at the end of the study. Best-corrected visual acuity at the final post-operative visit was 0.61 +/- 0.16 decimals at the beginning of the study, and 0.81 +/- 0.19 decimals at the end of the study. The mean number of post-operative visits was 4.3 +/- 2.7 and did not show trend over the study period. Conclusions: Real-world evidence suggests PXF and small pupil as significant risk factors in cataract surgery. A gradual decline in the rate complications was noted with increasing surgical experience, also among residents over the follow-up period.
  • Jokanovic, Natali; Kautiainen, Hannu; Bell, J. Simon; Tan, Edwin C. K.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2019)
    BackgroundOne quarter of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have a diagnosis of CHD or stroke and over half use at least one preventative cardiovascular medication. There have been no studies that have investigated the longitudinal change in secondary preventative cardiovascular medication use in residents in LTCFs over time.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the change in cardiovascular medication use among residents with coronary heart disease (CHD) and prior stroke in nursing homes (NHs) and assisted living facilities (ALFs) in Finland over time, and whether this change differs according to dementia status.MethodsThree comparable cross-sectional audits of cardiovascular medication use among residents aged 65years and over with CHD or prior stroke in NHs in 2003 and 2011 and ALFs in 2007 and 2011 were compared. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, mobility, cancer and length of stay were performed to examine the effect of study year, dementia and their interaction on medication use.ResultsCardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD (NHs: 89% vs 70%; ALFs: 89% vs 84%) and antithrombotic medication use among residents with stroke (NHs: 72% vs 63%; ALFs: 78% vs 69%) declined between 2003 and 2011 in NHs and 2007 and 2011 in ALFs.Decline in the use of diuretics, nitrates and digoxin were found in both groups and settings. Cardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD and dementia declined in NHs (88% [95% CI 85-91] in 2003 vs 70% [95% CI 64-75] in 2011) whereas there was no change among people without dementia. There was no change in cardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD in ALFs with or without dementia over time. Antithrombotic use was lower in residents with dementia compared with residents without dementia in NHs (p
  • Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Maltais, Lois; Rosendahl, Erik; Vellas, Bruno; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Lamb, Sarah E.; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Rolland, Yves (2021)
  • Kawase, Kazumi; Carpelan-Holmstrom, Monika; Kwong, Ava; Sanfey, Hilary (2016)
    Compared with male surgeons, women have less success advancing their careers and are underrepresented in leadership positions in surgery. The purpose of this study is to identify the qualifications necessary to become leaders in surgery and the career barriers faced by women surgeons in various cultural environments. A survey was performed with women surgeons in Japan, USA, Finland, and Hong Kong, China, to assess various barriers faced by women surgeons in the respective countries. To develop appropriate survey tool, a preliminary questionnaire was distributed to leaders in surgery and also in various organizations worldwide. The response rate was 23 % with 225 of 964 survey returned. Japanese women surgeons identify lacked family support as impeding a successful surgical career. US women surgeons feel more latent gender discrimination. Finnish women surgeons are less likely to need to sacrifice work-life balance, when holding leadership positions. Women surgeons worldwide are highly motivated to develop their career and agree the percentage of women surgeons in leadership positions should be increased. Women surgeons in different countries perceive different challenges. We must develop strategies and should not hesitate to negotiate to overcome these issues to reach leadership positions in surgery. This may be accomplished through networking worldwide to improve current conditions and obstacles.
  • Kawase, Kazumi; Carpelan-Holmstrom, Monika; Kwong, Ava; Sanfey, Hilary (SPRINGER NEW YORK LLC, 2016)
    Compared with male surgeons, women have less success advancing their careers and are underrepresented in leadership positions in surgery. The purpose of this study is to identify the qualifications necessary to become leaders in surgery and the career barriers faced by women surgeons in various cultural environments. A survey was performed with women surgeons in Japan, USA, Finland, and Hong Kong, China, to assess various barriers faced by women surgeons in the respective countries. To develop appropriate survey tool, a preliminary questionnaire was distributed to leaders in surgery and also in various organizations worldwide. The response rate was 23 % with 225 of 964 survey returned. Japanese women surgeons identify lacked family support as impeding a successful surgical career. US women surgeons feel more latent gender discrimination. Finnish women surgeons are less likely to need to sacrifice work-life balance, when holding leadership positions. Women surgeons worldwide are highly motivated to develop their career and agree the percentage of women surgeons in leadership positions should be increased. Women surgeons in different countries perceive different challenges. We must develop strategies and should not hesitate to negotiate to overcome these issues to reach leadership positions in surgery. This may be accomplished through networking worldwide to improve current conditions and obstacles.
  • European Neurosurg Simulation Stud; Perin, Alessandro; Galbiati, Tommaso Francesco; Gambatesa, Enrico; Ayadi, Roberta; Orena, Eleonora Francesca; Cuomo, Valentina; Riker, Nicole Irene; Falsitta, Lydia Viviana; Schembari, Silvia; Rizzo, Stefano; Luciano, Cristian; Cappabianca, Paolo; Meling, Torstein Ragnar; Schaller, Karl; DiMeco, Francesco; Laakso, Aki (2018)
    Currently available simulators are supposed to allow young neurosurgeons to hone their technical skills in a safe environment, without causing any unnecessary harm to their patients caused by their inexperience. For this training method to be largely accepted in neurosurgery, it is necessary to prove simulation efficacy by means of large-scale clinical validation studies. We correlated and analysed the performance at a simulator and the actual operative skills of different neurosurgeons (construct validity). We conducted a study involving 92 residents and attending neurosurgeons from different European Centres; each participant had to perform a virtual task, namely the placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) at a neurosurgical simulator (ImmersiveTouch). The number of attempts needed to reach the ventricles and the accuracy in positioning the catheter were assessed. Data suggests a positive correlation between subjects who placed more EVDs in the previous year and those who get better scores at the simulator (p = .008) (fewer attempts and better surgical accuracy). The number of attempts to reach the ventricle was also analysed; senior residents needed fewer attempts (mean = 2.26; SD = 1.11) than junior residents (mean = 3.12; SD = 1.05) (p = .007) and staff neurosurgeons (mean = 2.89, SD = 1.23). Scoring results were compared by using the Fisher's test, for the analysis of the variances, and the Student's T test. Surprisingly, having a wider surgical experience overall does not correlate with the best performance at the simulator. The performance of an EVD placement on a simulator correlates with the density of the neurosurgical experience for that specific task performed in the OR, suggesting that simulators are able to differentiate neurosurgeons according to their surgical ability. Namely this suggests that the simulation performance reflects the surgeons' consistency in placing EVDs in the last year.
  • Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Aalto, Ulla L.; Ohman, Hannareeta; Laurila, Jouko; Pitkala, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Objectives: The use of psychotropic drugs in long-term care (LTC) is very common, despite their known adverse effects. The prevalence of opioid use is growing among older adults. This study aimed to investigate trends in the prevalence of psychotropics, opioids, and sedative load in a LTC setting over a 14-year period. We also explored the interaction of psychotropic and opioid use according to residents' dementia status in nursing home (NH) and assisted living facility (ALF) settings. Design: Four cross-sectional studies. Setting: Institutional settings in Helsinki, Finland. Participants: Older residents in NHs in 2003 (n = 1987), 2011 (n = 1576), and 2017 (n = 791) and in ALFs in 2007 (n = 1377), 2011 (n = 1586), and 2017 (n = 1624). Measures: Comparable assessments were conducted among LTC residents at 4 time points over 14 years. The prevalence of regular psychotropics, opioids, and other sedatives and data on demographics and diagnoses were collected from medical records. Results: Disabilities and severity of dementia increased in both settings over time. The prevalence of all psychotropics decreased significantly in NHs (from 81% in 2003 to 61% in 2017), whereas in ALFs there was no similar linear trend (65% in 2007 and 64% in 2017). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of opioids in both settings (30% in NHs and 22% in AFLs in 2017). Residents with dementia used less psychotropics and opioids than those without dementia in both settings and at each time point. Conclusions/Implications: NHs show a favorable trend in psychotropic drug use, but the rates of psychotropic use remain high in both NHs and ALFs. In addition, the rates of opioid use have almost tripled, leading to a high sedative load among LTC residents. Clinicians should carefully consider the risk-to-benefit ratio when prescribing in LTC. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Background: Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N = 2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty. Methods: Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty). Results: Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with patients. Conclusions: The results showed distinctive personality traits to be associated with physicians' career and specialty choices after medical school independent of known confounding factors. Openness was the most consistent personality trait associated with physicians' career choices in terms of employment sector, amount of clinical patient contact, specialty choice and change of specialty. Personality-conscious medical career counseling and career guidance during and after medical education might enhance the person-job fit among physicians.
  • Teramura-Gronblad, Mariko; Raivio, Minna; Savikko, Niina; Muurinen, Seija; Soini, Helena; Suominen, Merja; Pitkala, Kaisu (2016)
    Objective: This study aims to assess potentially severe class D drug-drug interactions (DDDIs) in residents 65 years or older in assisted living facilities with the use of a Swedish and Finnish drug-drug interaction database (SFINX). Design: A cross-sectional study of residents in assisted living facilities in Helsinki, Finland. Setting: A total of 1327 residents were assessed in this study. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and DDDIs were coded according to the SFINX. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of DDDIs, associated factors and 3-year mortality among residents. Results: Of the participants (mean age was 82.7 years, 78.3% were females), 5.9% (N=78) are at risk for DDDIs, with a total of 86 interactions. Participants with DDDIs had been prescribed a higher number of drugs (10.8 (SD 3.8) vs. 7.9 (SD 3.7), p Conclusions: Of the residents in assisted living, 5.9% were exposed to DDDIs associated with the use of a higher number of drugs. Physicians should be trained to find safer alternatives to drugs associated with DDDIs.