Browsing by Subject "RESOURCES"

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  • Wu, Anette; Noel, Geoffroy P. J. C.; Wingate, Richard; Kielstein, Heike; Sakurai, Takeshi; Viranta-Kovanen, Suvi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Traxler, Hannes; Waschke, Jens; Vielmuth, Franziska; Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Kitahara, Shuji; Kato, Yojiro; Keay, Kevin A.; Olsen, Jorgen; Bernd, Paulette (2020)
    Background: At a time of global interconnectedness, the internationalization of medical education has become important. Anatomy as an academic discipline, with its close connections to the basic sciences and to medical education, can easily be connected with global health and internationalization of medical education. Here the authors present an international program based on a partnership between twelve anatomy departments in ten countries, on four continents. Details of a proposed plan for the future direction of the program are also discussed. Objective: The aim is to improve global healthcare by preparing future global healthcare leaders via early international networking, international collaboration and exchange, intercultural experience, and connecting two seemingly distant academic disciplines - anatomy and global health - via internationalization of medical education. Methods: Based in the anatomy course, the program involved early international collaboration between preclinical medical and dental students. The program provided a stepwise progression for learning about healthcare and intercultural topics beyond pure anatomy education - starting with virtual small groups of international students, who subsequently presented their work to a larger international audience during group videoconferences. The above progressed to in-person visits for research internships in the basic sciences within industrialized countries. Findings: Students appreciated the international and intercultural interaction, learned about areas outside the scope of anatomy (e.g., differences in healthcare education and delivery systems, Public and Global Health challenges, health ethics, and cultural enrichment), and valued the exchange travel for basic sciences research internships and cultural experience. Conclusions: This unique collaboration of international anatomy departments can represent a new role for the medical anatomy course beyond pure anatomy teaching - involving areas of global health and internationalization of medical education - and could mark a new era of international collaboration among anatomists.
  • Kurttila, Mikko; Haara, Arto; Juutinen, Artti; Karhu, Jouni; Ojanen, Paavo; Pykäläinen, Jouni; Saarimaa, Miia; Tarvainen, Oili; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tolvanen, Anne (2020)
    This study demonstrates the characteristics of the new generic project portfolio selection tool YODA ("Your Own Decision Aid"). YODA does not include a mathematical aggregation model. Instead, the decision maker's preferences are defined by the interactive articulation of acceptance thresholds of project-level decision criteria. Transparency and ease of adopting the method in participatory planning are sought using the method's simple preference input. The characteristics of the YODA tool are introduced by presenting how it has been applied in participatory land use planning in northern Finland in selecting a combination of peat production sites to attain the goals defined at municipal level. In this process, each stakeholder first constructed a project portfolio that best met his or her preferences. In doing this, acceptance thresholds for project-level decision criteria were defined. In total, eight decision criteria were related to economic value, biodiversity, social impacts, and ecosystem services. Subsequently, the portfolios of different stakeholders were combined in line with the principles of robust portfolio modelling. Core projects were accepted by all stakeholders, while exterior projects were not accepted, and borderline projects by some of the stakeholders. Although the land use planning situation at hand was highly sensitive, because it was related to various aspects of sustainability, the use of YODA provided useful results. The first meeting with stakeholders identified 52 out of 99 sites that none of the stakeholders would use for energy peat production, due to their characteristics, whereas, in the second meeting, a smaller stakeholder group found 18 core projects and 26 borderline projects which could be potential areas for energy peat production. We conclude that YODA-as a generic project portfolio tool-can be used in various planning situations.
  • Nissinen, Terhi S; Maksniemi, Erika; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Lonka, Kirsti (2022)
    The aim of this study was to investigate how job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism were related in public sector organizations. The participants (N = 213) were civil servants from three Finnish public organizations, representing different professions, such as school personnel, secretaries, directors, parking attendants, and ICT specialists. We duly operationalized job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism by using the Job Crafting Scale, the UWES-9, and the Work Addiction Risk Test. The current study focused on the Finnish public sector, since work engagement is recognized at the governmental level and has been shown to be strongly and positively associated with economic activity and productivity, while workaholism is associated with poor wellbeing. We analyzed the data by using structural equation modeling and found that three job crafting dimensions were strongly intertwined with one another. These dimensions were increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands. In the structural model, dimension "increasing structural job resources" was positively related to work engagement, whereas dimension "decreasing hindering job demands" was negatively associated with workaholism. This study highlighted the relevance of employees learning to balance their job resources and demands. We recommend that, in the public sector, employees be systematically encouraged to practice job crafting behavior by enabling them to increase structural job resources. These results are of high relevance, considering the heavy workload of public sector employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Zheng, Shuyu; Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Tang, Jing; Amiryousefi, Ali (2020)
    Understanding the complexity of genomic structures and their unique architecture is linked with the power of visualization tools used to represent these features. Such tools should be able to provide a realistic and scalable version of genomic content. Here, we present an online organelle plotting tool focused on chloroplasts, which were developed to visualize the exclusive structure of these genomes. The distinguished unique features of this program include its ability to represent the Single Short Copy (SSC) regions in reverse complement, which allows the depiction of the codon usage bias index for each gene, along with the possibility of the minor mismatches between inverted repeat (IR) regions and user-specified plotting layers. The versatile color schemes and diverse functionalities of the program are specifically designed to reflect the accurate scalable representation of the plastid genomes. We introduce a Shiny app website for easy use of the program; a more advanced application of the tool is possible by further development and modification of the downloadable source codes provided online. The software and its libraries are completely coded in R, available at
  • Torppa, Martina Auri; Kuikka, Liisa; Nevalainen, Maarit; Pitkala, Kaisu Hannele (2016)
    Objective: To explore how work experiences, professional issues and social support at work are associated with a need for clinical supervision (CS) among family physicians (FP). Methods: Web-based survey to FPs in Finland 2011 (response rate 68%; n = 165). Results: Among FPs, 36% needed CS, 35% had experience with CS, and 29% did not need CS. Feeling emotionally drained from work was associated with both needing and experience with CS. FPs needing CS felt callous and had committed a medical error in the recent past more often than those with CS experience. FPs expressing a need for CS felt greater uncertainty regarding their professional knowledge and more alone at work than FPs not needing CS. Rewarding work experiences were common. Conclusions: A large proportion of FPs expressed a need for CS. Need for CS is associated with feeling alone at work, experiences of callousness and uncertainty regarding medical knowledge. Experience of emotional drainage was associated with experience of and need for CS. Practice implications: Emotional drainage may signal a need for CS among FPs. CS might enhance FPs' emotional well-being at work. It should be more widely available to FPs and could be integrated into continuing professional development. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sandstrom, Vilma; Chrysafi, Anna; Lamminen, Marjukka; Troell, Max; Jalava, Mika; Piipponen, Johannes; Siebert, Stefan; van Hal, Ollie; Virkki, Vili; Kummu, Matti (2022)
    Optimizing biomass use by reducing food-feed competition is paramount to achieving sustainable food systems. This study assesses global food systems in terms of livestock and aquaculture feed use and the availability of food system by-products and residues to quantify the potential for replacing food-grade feeds with food system by-products. Many livestock and aquaculture feeds compete for resources with food production. Increasing the use of food system by-products and residues as feed could reduce this competition. We gathered data on global food system material flows for crop, livestock and aquaculture production, focusing on feed use and the availability of by-products and residues. We then analysed the potential of replacing food-competing feedstuff-here cereals, whole fish, vegetable oils and pulses that account for 15% of total feed use-with food system by-products and residues. Considering the nutritional requirements of food-producing animals, including farmed aquatic species, this replacement could increase the current global food supply by up to 13% (10-16%) in terms of kcal and 15% (12-19%) in terms of protein content. Increasing the use of food system by-products as feed has considerable potential, particularly when combined with other measures, in the much-needed transition towards circular food systems.
  • Liu, Jiming; Gao, Shilun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Mianzhi; Ngiam, Jia Jun; Rui Wen, Nicholas Cho; Yi, Joan Jong Jing; Weng, Xuehuang; Jia, Liming; Salojarvi, Jarkko (2022)
    Sapindus is an important forest tree genus with utilization in biodiesel, biomedicine, and it harbors great potential for biochemical engineering applications. For advanced breeding of Sapindus, it is necessary to evaluate the genetic diversity and construct a rationally designed core germplasm collection. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of Sapindus were conducted with 18 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers in order to establish a core germplasm collection from 161 Sapindus accessions. The population of Sapindus showed high genetic diversity and significant population structure. Interspecific genetic variation was significantly higher than intraspecific variation in the Sapindus mukorossi, Sapindus delavayi, and combined Sapindus rarak plus Sapindus rarak var. velutinus populations. S. mukorossi had abundant genetic variation and showed a specific pattern of geographical variation, whereas S. delavayi, S. rarak, and S. rarak var. velutinus showed less intraspecific variation. A core germplasm collection was created that contained 40% of genetic variation in the initial population, comprising 53 S. mukorossi and nine S. delavayi lineages, as well as single representatives of S. rarak and S. rarak var. velutinus. These results provide a germplasm basis and theoretical rationale for the efficient management, conservation, and utilization of Sapindus, as well as genetic resources for joint genomics research in the future.
  • Aberg, Susanne C.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti; Rautio, Anne; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Aberg, Annika K. (2019)
    Areas of groundwater-surface water interaction in riverbanks and open mires are important habitats for groundwater-dependent species. In order to preserve these ecosystems, the planning and development of mining operations on such locations require a fundamental understanding of the groundwater discharge-recharge and flow patterns. In this study. 3D flow modelling and a TIR survey were used to define the groundwater discharge. Simultaneously, the flow modelling and groundwater table fluctuation were used for defining groundwater recharge at a mining development site in northern Finland. The results indicated flow towards the River Kitinen and the discharge of groundwater in the banks of the river. The discharge also occurred within the mire area, which may provide suitable habitats for groundwater-dependent plant species. The modelling results and stable isotope variations indicated complex flow patterns and a potential groundwater connection from the Viiankiaapa mire through possible bedrock fractures to the river. Recharge mainly occurred in the sorted sediment accumulations of the riverbanks and partly also in the mire area.
  • Laskowski, Kate; Moiron, Maria; Niemelä, Petri Toivo (2021)
    Central theories explaining the maintenance of individual differences in behavior build on the assumption that behavior mediates life-history trade-offs between current and future reproduction. However, current empirical evidence does not robustly support this assumption. This mismatch might be because current theory is not clear about the role of behavior in individual allocation versus acquisition of resources, hindering empirical testing. The relative importance of allocation compared to acquisition is a key feature of classic life-history theory, but appears to have been lost in translation in recent developments of life-history theory involving behavior. We argue that determining the relative balance between variation in resource allocation and acquisition, and the role of behavior in this process, will help to build more robust and precise predictions.
  • Yang, Liu; Rezitis, Anthony; Zhu, Yuchun; Ren, Yang (2018)
    Understanding the factors affecting irrigation management performance is crucial for sustainable resource use, especially with the decentralized management mode of irrigation systems being implemented in rural China. This paper contributes to the research field by incorporating different categories of social trust and perceived organization support (POS) into the analysis of irrigation management performance, by linking multiple elements that are based on the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. We employed principal component analysis (PCA) and ordered probit regression to analyze a database covering 785 households in the upstream of the Yellow River basin. The results suggested that social trust and POS positively affected the irrigation management performance, and social trust strengthened the positive effect of POS on the performance. Furthermore, the results indicated that personal trust and institutional trust, as well as perceived emotional support and physical support, positively affected the performance. In addition, we also found that household characteristics, household cognition, group characteristics, physical conditions, and rules-in-use also had significant impact on the performance. This paper can be used to inform the government that social trust and POS need to be considered in the common-pool resources (CPRs) management.
  • Garoff, Ferdinand; Tinghög, Petter; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lilja, Eero; Castaneda, Anu E. (2021)
    Background: Most refugees and other forced migrants have experienced potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Torture and other traumatic experiences, as well as various daily stressors, impact the mental health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected populations. Methods: The study includes two population-based samples of Iranian and Iraqi men living in Finland and Sweden. The Finnish Migrant Health and Well-being Study (Maamu) was conducted in 2010-2012. The Linkoping study was conducted in Sweden in 2005. In both samples, health and well-being measures, social and economic outcomes as well as health service utilization were reported. Results: The final sample for analysis consisted of two groups of males of Iranian or Iraqi origin: 278 residents in Finland and 267 residents in Sweden. Both groups were subdivided according to the reported PTEs: Torture survivors; Other PTEs; No PTEs. Migrants that reported PTEs, torture survivors in particular, had significantly poorer social and health outcomes. Torture survivors also reported lower trust and confidence in authorities and public service providers, as well as more loneliness, social isolation and experiences of discrimination. Conclusions: Torture and other PTEs prevalent in refugee and migrant populations create a wide-ranging and long-term impact in terms of increased risk of various types of adverse social and health conditions. Early identification through systematic and effective screening should be the first step in guiding migrants and refugees suffering from experiences of torture and other PTEs to flexible, multidisciplinary services.
  • Puhakka, Ilmari J. A.; Nokelainen, Petri; Pylväs, Laura (2021)
    In addition to well-being, workplace learning has gained increasing interest in supporting employee and organizational development and success. Focusing on specific factors affecting workplace learning and well-being, this study examines the links between individual factors (basic psychological need satisfaction) and environmental factors (expansiveness of the workplace as a learning environment), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Survey data were collected from the employees (N = 153) of two Finnish engineering companies from 2018 to 2019. The data were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (observed and latent variable path analysis). Results show that a more expansive workplace learning environment is associated with higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs. High levels of autonomy and competence need satisfaction, versatile work, promotion of learning, and acknowledgment of skills are positively associated with job satisfaction. Higher levels of autonomy and non-routine work tasks are associated with lower turnover intention. The results indicate that turnover intention is not necessarily associated with only negative conditions or perceptions, as high levels of competence and participation and understanding of the workplace are positively associated with turnover intention. The findings provide information about workplace factors that are relevant to improving employees' workplace learning and well-being. The results also highlight the ambiguous nature of turnover intention.
  • Cole, Robert; Brockhaus, Maria; Wong, Grace Yee; Kallio, Maarit Helena; Moeliono, Moira (2019)
    Themes of inclusion, empowerment, and participation are recurrent in development discourse and interventions, implying enablement of agency on the part of communities and individuals to inform and influence how policies that affect them are enacted. This article aims to contribute to debates on participation in rural development and environmental conservation, by applying a structure-agency lens to examine experiences of marginal farm households in three distinct systems of resource allocation in Lao PDR’s northern uplands—in other words, three institutional or (in)formal structures. These comprise livelihood development and poverty reduction projects, maize contract farming, and a national protected area. Drawing on qualitative data from focus group discussions and household surveys, the article explores the degree to which farmers may shape their engagement with the different systems, and ways in which agency may be enabled or disabled by this engagement. Our findings show that although some development interventions provide consultative channels for expressing needs, these are often within limited options set from afar. The market-based maize system, while in some ways agency-enabling, also entailed narrow choices and heavy dependence on external actors. The direct regulation of the protected area system meanwhile risked separating policy decisions from existing local knowledge. Our analytical approach moves beyond notions of agency commonly focused on decision-making and/or resistance, and instead revisits the structure-agency dichotomy to build a nuanced understanding of people’s lived experiences of interventions. This allows for fresh perspectives on the everyday enablement or disablement of agency, aiming to support policy that is better grounded in local realities. Keywords: agency, participation, rural development, forests, conservation, Lao PDR
  • Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas; Bong, Indah Waty; Bosselmann, Aske; Wunder, Sven (2017)
    Systematic comparisons of human dependence on forests and environmental resources have been challenging, as a result of heterogeneous methodologies. Specialized Forestry Modules have been developed, with the goal of filling current information gaps concerning the economic importance of forest and wild products in household welfare and rural livelihoods. Results from a pilot assessment of the Forestry Modules in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, are presented, showing that the Forestry Modules perform well in extracting the expected information: mean per capita forest and wild product income shifts according to the geographical “forest gradient”. Significantly, in the forest-rich upstream village, mean forest and wild product income and mean forest-related wage and business incomes exceeds current mean agricultural income statistics for West Kalimantan and mean non-agricultural rural household incomes in the lowest bracket. Consumption of forest products and importance as a coping strategy was higher in the most upstream village, where sale of forest products in times of shock was more marked in the most downstream village (where forest coping strategies were also least important). The Forestry Modules' detailed and systematic approach can help ensure that contributions of forest and wild products are not underestimated in national figures.
  • Rekola, Mika; Nippala, Jaakko; Tynjälä, Päivi; Virtanen, Anne V. (2018)
    This explorative study examined practices of competence modelling in the forest sector organisations and how organisations anticipate changes in competence needs in the future. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n=10) were conducted amongst forest sector experts in Finland and data was analysed by thematic analysis. The findings showed that the practices of modelling competences were diverse, most frequently used ones being superior-subordinate review discussions and quantitative competence surveys. In addition to these formal systems, informal modelling, especially on the team level and in smaller companies was also frequent. Organisations used competence modelling for several human resources functions, such as appraisal, motivation and promotion of employees. Surprisingly hiring and compensation functions were not mentioned. Perceptions related to competence modelling were generally speaking positive. The most important challenges were the lack of further actions and sometimes the extraordinary burden to the employees. When anticipating the future, the experts interviewed mentioned several commonly recognised trends, e.g., development of information technology, fragmentation of working life and structural changes in labour markets. All these require more generic competences related to information processing and personal self-management, especially respondents highlighted the importance of self-awareness skills. It is concluded that several useful practices for competence modelling already exist and that present study provides a basis for further quantitative further study.
  • Finn, Robert D.; Bateman, Alex; Clements, Jody; Coggill, Penelope; Eberhardt, Ruth Y.; Eddy, Sean R.; Heger, Andreas; Hetherington, Kirstie; Holm, Liisa; Mistry, Jaina; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Tate, John; Punta, Marco (2014)
  • Wang, Ziyu; Satka, Mirja; Julkunen, Ilse (2021)
    Building on the relational approaches, particularly social relational theory, this study investigates how Chinese adolescents plan their transition to post-compulsory education through relational influences between themselves and their parents. By examining the family and school lives of 25 Chinese adolescents from a small Chinese town, it has been found that they exercise their agency when negotiating their educational future with their parents. Their mixed agentic strategies are embedded in multiple parenting styles and they result in differing levels of agreement. Despite such variation, the adolescent-parent relationship is interpreted as the reliable interdependence across the participants. The findings provide new insights into parental influence on young Chinese people's educational future and stress the value of the relational approach in studying the family-education nexus.
  • Rautanen, Pihla; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2021)
    The aim of this research was to study the dynamics of fourth graders' perceived social support for schoolwork and to examine how this support contributes to their study engagement. Social support was hypothesised to be positively associated with higher levels of study engagement. Moreover, social support from teachers and guardians was hypothesised to be associated with social support for schoolwork among peers. Differences between genders were studied in relation to perceived social support and study engagement. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses with cross-sectional survey data from 2400 fourth grade students from Finland. They were 10 years of age on average. The results indicate that social support from teachers and among peers has stronger effects on study engagement compared to support from guardians. Moreover, it was found that social support from teachers and guardians is associated with the social support that students share among their peers. Girls were found to be more engaged in studying and to experience more social support from teachers and among peers compared to boys. The perceived social support from teachers was found to be partly determined by the class group to which the student belongs. These results suggest that by providing emotional and informational support for their students, teachers might be able to promote students' study engagement, as well as such peer interaction that further enhances the students' study engagement.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Kaakinen, Markus; Savela, Nina; Ellonen, Noora; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media enables information sharing and social interaction within organization. This research aims to analyze how both work- and nonwork-related communication with colleagues and the work community on social media is associated with work engagement among Finnish professionals. A total of five Finnish professional organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of the Finnish working population (N = 1817) contributed to the survey data, which was analyzed with structural equation modeling. We found a direct positive association between work-related communication and work engagement among Finnish working population, and a positive indirect associations between both work- and nonwork-related communication and work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Findings suggest that communication in social media supports work engagement via organizational identification and social support. Organizations should pay more attention to social media communication practices and provide opportunities to build organizational identification and receive social support in social media.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Kaakinen, Markus; Savela, Nina; Hakanen, Jari J.; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed work life profoundly and concerns regarding the mental well-being of employees' have arisen. Organizations have made rapid digital advancements and have started to use new collaborative tools such as social media platforms overnight. Objective: Our study aimed to investigate how professional social media communication has affected work engagement before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of perceived social support, task resources, and psychological distress as predictors and moderators of work engagement. Methods: Nationally representative longitudinal survey data were collected in 2019-2020, and 965 respondents participated in all 4 surveys. Measures included work engagement, perceived social support and task resources, and psychological distress. The data were analyzed using a hybrid linear regression model. Results: Work engagement remained stable and only decreased in autumn 2020. Within-person changes in social media communication at work, social support, task resources, and psychological distress were all associated with work engagement. The negative association between psychological distress and work engagement was stronger in autumn 2020 than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted pressure on mental health at work. Fostering social support and task resources at work is important in maintaining work engagement. Social media communication could help maintain a supportive work environment.