Browsing by Subject "RESOURCES"

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  • Wu, Anette; Noel, Geoffroy P. J. C.; Wingate, Richard; Kielstein, Heike; Sakurai, Takeshi; Viranta-Kovanen, Suvi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Traxler, Hannes; Waschke, Jens; Vielmuth, Franziska; Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Kitahara, Shuji; Kato, Yojiro; Keay, Kevin A.; Olsen, Jorgen; Bernd, Paulette (2020)
    Background: At a time of global interconnectedness, the internationalization of medical education has become important. Anatomy as an academic discipline, with its close connections to the basic sciences and to medical education, can easily be connected with global health and internationalization of medical education. Here the authors present an international program based on a partnership between twelve anatomy departments in ten countries, on four continents. Details of a proposed plan for the future direction of the program are also discussed. Objective: The aim is to improve global healthcare by preparing future global healthcare leaders via early international networking, international collaboration and exchange, intercultural experience, and connecting two seemingly distant academic disciplines - anatomy and global health - via internationalization of medical education. Methods: Based in the anatomy course, the program involved early international collaboration between preclinical medical and dental students. The program provided a stepwise progression for learning about healthcare and intercultural topics beyond pure anatomy education - starting with virtual small groups of international students, who subsequently presented their work to a larger international audience during group videoconferences. The above progressed to in-person visits for research internships in the basic sciences within industrialized countries. Findings: Students appreciated the international and intercultural interaction, learned about areas outside the scope of anatomy (e.g., differences in healthcare education and delivery systems, Public and Global Health challenges, health ethics, and cultural enrichment), and valued the exchange travel for basic sciences research internships and cultural experience. Conclusions: This unique collaboration of international anatomy departments can represent a new role for the medical anatomy course beyond pure anatomy teaching - involving areas of global health and internationalization of medical education - and could mark a new era of international collaboration among anatomists.
  • Kurttila, Mikko; Haara, Arto; Juutinen, Artti; Karhu, Jouni; Ojanen, Paavo; Pykäläinen, Jouni; Saarimaa, Miia; Tarvainen, Oili; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tolvanen, Anne (2020)
    This study demonstrates the characteristics of the new generic project portfolio selection tool YODA ("Your Own Decision Aid"). YODA does not include a mathematical aggregation model. Instead, the decision maker's preferences are defined by the interactive articulation of acceptance thresholds of project-level decision criteria. Transparency and ease of adopting the method in participatory planning are sought using the method's simple preference input. The characteristics of the YODA tool are introduced by presenting how it has been applied in participatory land use planning in northern Finland in selecting a combination of peat production sites to attain the goals defined at municipal level. In this process, each stakeholder first constructed a project portfolio that best met his or her preferences. In doing this, acceptance thresholds for project-level decision criteria were defined. In total, eight decision criteria were related to economic value, biodiversity, social impacts, and ecosystem services. Subsequently, the portfolios of different stakeholders were combined in line with the principles of robust portfolio modelling. Core projects were accepted by all stakeholders, while exterior projects were not accepted, and borderline projects by some of the stakeholders. Although the land use planning situation at hand was highly sensitive, because it was related to various aspects of sustainability, the use of YODA provided useful results. The first meeting with stakeholders identified 52 out of 99 sites that none of the stakeholders would use for energy peat production, due to their characteristics, whereas, in the second meeting, a smaller stakeholder group found 18 core projects and 26 borderline projects which could be potential areas for energy peat production. We conclude that YODA-as a generic project portfolio tool-can be used in various planning situations.
  • Zheng, Shuyu; Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Tang, Jing; Amiryousefi, Ali (2020)
    Understanding the complexity of genomic structures and their unique architecture is linked with the power of visualization tools used to represent these features. Such tools should be able to provide a realistic and scalable version of genomic content. Here, we present an online organelle plotting tool focused on chloroplasts, which were developed to visualize the exclusive structure of these genomes. The distinguished unique features of this program include its ability to represent the Single Short Copy (SSC) regions in reverse complement, which allows the depiction of the codon usage bias index for each gene, along with the possibility of the minor mismatches between inverted repeat (IR) regions and user-specified plotting layers. The versatile color schemes and diverse functionalities of the program are specifically designed to reflect the accurate scalable representation of the plastid genomes. We introduce a Shiny app website for easy use of the program; a more advanced application of the tool is possible by further development and modification of the downloadable source codes provided online. The software and its libraries are completely coded in R, available at https://irscope.shinyapps.io/chloroplot/.
  • Torppa, Martina Auri; Kuikka, Liisa; Nevalainen, Maarit; Pitkala, Kaisu Hannele (2016)
    Objective: To explore how work experiences, professional issues and social support at work are associated with a need for clinical supervision (CS) among family physicians (FP). Methods: Web-based survey to FPs in Finland 2011 (response rate 68%; n = 165). Results: Among FPs, 36% needed CS, 35% had experience with CS, and 29% did not need CS. Feeling emotionally drained from work was associated with both needing and experience with CS. FPs needing CS felt callous and had committed a medical error in the recent past more often than those with CS experience. FPs expressing a need for CS felt greater uncertainty regarding their professional knowledge and more alone at work than FPs not needing CS. Rewarding work experiences were common. Conclusions: A large proportion of FPs expressed a need for CS. Need for CS is associated with feeling alone at work, experiences of callousness and uncertainty regarding medical knowledge. Experience of emotional drainage was associated with experience of and need for CS. Practice implications: Emotional drainage may signal a need for CS among FPs. CS might enhance FPs' emotional well-being at work. It should be more widely available to FPs and could be integrated into continuing professional development. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Aberg, Susanne C.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti; Rautio, Anne; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Aberg, Annika K. (2019)
    Areas of groundwater-surface water interaction in riverbanks and open mires are important habitats for groundwater-dependent species. In order to preserve these ecosystems, the planning and development of mining operations on such locations require a fundamental understanding of the groundwater discharge-recharge and flow patterns. In this study. 3D flow modelling and a TIR survey were used to define the groundwater discharge. Simultaneously, the flow modelling and groundwater table fluctuation were used for defining groundwater recharge at a mining development site in northern Finland. The results indicated flow towards the River Kitinen and the discharge of groundwater in the banks of the river. The discharge also occurred within the mire area, which may provide suitable habitats for groundwater-dependent plant species. The modelling results and stable isotope variations indicated complex flow patterns and a potential groundwater connection from the Viiankiaapa mire through possible bedrock fractures to the river. Recharge mainly occurred in the sorted sediment accumulations of the riverbanks and partly also in the mire area.
  • Yang, Liu; Rezitis, Anthony; Zhu, Yuchun; Ren, Yang (2018)
    Understanding the factors affecting irrigation management performance is crucial for sustainable resource use, especially with the decentralized management mode of irrigation systems being implemented in rural China. This paper contributes to the research field by incorporating different categories of social trust and perceived organization support (POS) into the analysis of irrigation management performance, by linking multiple elements that are based on the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. We employed principal component analysis (PCA) and ordered probit regression to analyze a database covering 785 households in the upstream of the Yellow River basin. The results suggested that social trust and POS positively affected the irrigation management performance, and social trust strengthened the positive effect of POS on the performance. Furthermore, the results indicated that personal trust and institutional trust, as well as perceived emotional support and physical support, positively affected the performance. In addition, we also found that household characteristics, household cognition, group characteristics, physical conditions, and rules-in-use also had significant impact on the performance. This paper can be used to inform the government that social trust and POS need to be considered in the common-pool resources (CPRs) management.
  • Cole, Robert; Brockhaus, Maria; Wong, Grace Yee; Kallio, Maarit Helena; Moeliono, Moira (2019)
    Themes of inclusion, empowerment, and participation are recurrent in development discourse and interventions, implying enablement of agency on the part of communities and individuals to inform and influence how policies that affect them are enacted. This article aims to contribute to debates on participation in rural development and environmental conservation, by applying a structure-agency lens to examine experiences of marginal farm households in three distinct systems of resource allocation in Lao PDR’s northern uplands—in other words, three institutional or (in)formal structures. These comprise livelihood development and poverty reduction projects, maize contract farming, and a national protected area. Drawing on qualitative data from focus group discussions and household surveys, the article explores the degree to which farmers may shape their engagement with the different systems, and ways in which agency may be enabled or disabled by this engagement. Our findings show that although some development interventions provide consultative channels for expressing needs, these are often within limited options set from afar. The market-based maize system, while in some ways agency-enabling, also entailed narrow choices and heavy dependence on external actors. The direct regulation of the protected area system meanwhile risked separating policy decisions from existing local knowledge. Our analytical approach moves beyond notions of agency commonly focused on decision-making and/or resistance, and instead revisits the structure-agency dichotomy to build a nuanced understanding of people’s lived experiences of interventions. This allows for fresh perspectives on the everyday enablement or disablement of agency, aiming to support policy that is better grounded in local realities. Keywords: agency, participation, rural development, forests, conservation, Lao PDR
  • Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas; Bong, Indah Waty; Bosselmann, Aske; Wunder, Sven (2017)
    Systematic comparisons of human dependence on forests and environmental resources have been challenging, as a result of heterogeneous methodologies. Specialized Forestry Modules have been developed, with the goal of filling current information gaps concerning the economic importance of forest and wild products in household welfare and rural livelihoods. Results from a pilot assessment of the Forestry Modules in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, are presented, showing that the Forestry Modules perform well in extracting the expected information: mean per capita forest and wild product income shifts according to the geographical “forest gradient”. Significantly, in the forest-rich upstream village, mean forest and wild product income and mean forest-related wage and business incomes exceeds current mean agricultural income statistics for West Kalimantan and mean non-agricultural rural household incomes in the lowest bracket. Consumption of forest products and importance as a coping strategy was higher in the most upstream village, where sale of forest products in times of shock was more marked in the most downstream village (where forest coping strategies were also least important). The Forestry Modules' detailed and systematic approach can help ensure that contributions of forest and wild products are not underestimated in national figures.
  • Rekola, Mika; Nippala, Jaakko; Tynjälä, Päivi; Virtanen, Anne V. (2018)
    This explorative study examined practices of competence modelling in the forest sector organisations and how organisations anticipate changes in competence needs in the future. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n=10) were conducted amongst forest sector experts in Finland and data was analysed by thematic analysis. The findings showed that the practices of modelling competences were diverse, most frequently used ones being superior-subordinate review discussions and quantitative competence surveys. In addition to these formal systems, informal modelling, especially on the team level and in smaller companies was also frequent. Organisations used competence modelling for several human resources functions, such as appraisal, motivation and promotion of employees. Surprisingly hiring and compensation functions were not mentioned. Perceptions related to competence modelling were generally speaking positive. The most important challenges were the lack of further actions and sometimes the extraordinary burden to the employees. When anticipating the future, the experts interviewed mentioned several commonly recognised trends, e.g., development of information technology, fragmentation of working life and structural changes in labour markets. All these require more generic competences related to information processing and personal self-management, especially respondents highlighted the importance of self-awareness skills. It is concluded that several useful practices for competence modelling already exist and that present study provides a basis for further quantitative further study.
  • Finn, Robert D.; Bateman, Alex; Clements, Jody; Coggill, Penelope; Eberhardt, Ruth Y.; Eddy, Sean R.; Heger, Andreas; Hetherington, Kirstie; Holm, Liisa; Mistry, Jaina; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.; Tate, John; Punta, Marco (2014)
  • Wang, Ziyu; Satka, Mirja; Julkunen, Ilse (2021)
    Building on the relational approaches, particularly social relational theory, this study investigates how Chinese adolescents plan their transition to post-compulsory education through relational influences between themselves and their parents. By examining the family and school lives of 25 Chinese adolescents from a small Chinese town, it has been found that they exercise their agency when negotiating their educational future with their parents. Their mixed agentic strategies are embedded in multiple parenting styles and they result in differing levels of agreement. Despite such variation, the adolescent-parent relationship is interpreted as the reliable interdependence across the participants. The findings provide new insights into parental influence on young Chinese people's educational future and stress the value of the relational approach in studying the family-education nexus.
  • Liesto, Sanna; Sipilä, Reetta; Aho, Tommi; Harno, Hanna; Hietanen, Marja; Kalso, Eija (2020)
    Background and aims: Psychological resilience refers to successful adaptation or a positive outcome in the context of significant life adversity, such as chronic pain. On the other hand, anxiety closely associates with pain. The aim of this study was to explore how anxiety and psychological resilience together associate with persistent and experimental pain. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, we studied 160 patients who had previously been treated for breast cancer and who now reported at least moderate pain (NRS >= 4) in any area of the body. Psychological resilience was measured on the Resilience Scale-14, anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and intensity and interference of persistent pain by means of the Brief Pain Inventory. The cold pressor test was conducted to assess sensitivity to experimental cold pain. Results: The results showed that resilience associated with pain interference in persistent pain, and that anxiety moderated this effect. Higher psychological resilience was associated with lower pain interference and this association was stronger in patients with low anxiety than among patients with high anxiety. These effects were visible with regard to persistent pain but not in experimental cold pain. Conclusions: These results indicate that chronic pain and experimental pain as well as pain severity and pain interference are psychologically different phenomena. Psychological resilience protects against pain interference but effectively only in patients with low anxiety. It is necessary also to consider protective factors in addition to vulnerability factors in cases of persistent pain.
  • Ulaş, Ali; Tunca, Sezgin; Aydin, İlker (2019)
    In this study, we analyzed social and economic dimensions of shore-based recreational fishing (RF) along Izmir Inner Bay in the Metropolitan Province Izmir of Turkey. 634 shore-based recreational fishers were interviewed via on-site face-to-face interviews during the fishing activity from January to December in 2016. Market value approach was utilized to calculate net economic values and expenses of recreational fishers along in eight coastal districts, Goztepe, Karatas, Konak, Pasaport, Alsancak, Bayrakli, Karsiyaka and Bostanli along the coast of the inner bay. The annual fishing efforts demonstrated significant differences among districts. For example; Bostanli fishers that have higher education levels with higher income spent higher time for RF but, finally, this attitude of Bostanli fishers resulted in low CPUE levels. Considering the RF experience of Bostanli fishers, they are either not likely or able to target or catch bigger or more fish. In contrast, Goztepe fishers seems much professional compared to fishers by having the highest amount of catch in shortest time compared to rest of the districts. The highest mean CPUE was observed for Goztepe, Karatas and Konak fishers even so, these CPUE amounts were much under the ones determined in previous studies in Turkey. Considering the catch composition of fishers, S. auratus was the most common catch for all fishers. Secondly, D. labrax and Mugilid species constituted the majority. High fishing related expenditures were observed in all districts, then harvesting values reached quite high levels considering the previous studies. To conclude, RF in Izmir Inner Bay of Turkey is great social and economic activity by generating increase in RF related expenditures, jobs and indirect economic activity in services sector. The results of this study provide an update information of the recreational fishers' profile to help regulate recreational fishery.
  • Lund, Virpi; Juujärvi, Soile (2018)
    In this case study, we aimed to investigate residents' agency through their participation in the development of their residential area in the city of Espoo, Finland. With the aid of seven themes, we identified by thematic analysis five types of residents in terms of agency: free floaters, home troops and helpers, representative information brokers, informed reviewers, and change agents. Relational agency, rooted from the cultural-historical activity theory, necessitated recognizing the available resources, understanding the motives of others, and collaborating in joint activities. The results of 30 interviews showed that residents are willing to participate, and they need space and structure to exploit their relational agency in order to build common interests in their neighbourhood. The findings are discussed with reference to the potential of residents' agency while participating in neighbourhood governance and volunteering. Our study contributes to the understanding of residents' relational agency in community development and in volunteering.
  • Kaltiainen, Janne; Lipponen, Jukka; Fugate, Mel; Vakola, Maria (2020)
    In this longitudinal field study, we examine reciprocal relationships between within-person changes in work engagement and cognitive appraisals of change (threat and challenge) across an organizational merger. Examination of these cyclical relationships provides a more accurate understanding of the complexity of employees' experience of change and a new test of spiraling work engagement and cognitive appraisals. Latent change score modeling is used to analyze 3 waves of longitudinal survey data (N = 623). Our findings showed that engagement mitigated threat appraisals and enhanced challenge appraisals through pre- and postmerger phases. A reciprocal relationship between threat appraisal and engagement was also observed, such that threat fueled decreases in engagement throughout the merger. Challenge appraisal was associated with enhanced work engagement during the first merger phase. This examination advocates managers of change to foster employees' work engagement already prior to change endeavors, along with mitigating threat appraisals throughout organizational change events. Fostering positive challenge appraisals appears to be particularly important for employees' work engagement during times of major changes. Findings suggest that upward spiral of work engagement, as postulated on the basis of the broaden-and-build theory, may be more likely to occur through engagement mitigating negative cognitions (threat) than promoting positive cognitions (challenge).
  • Cortes Arevalo, Vivian Juliette; Verbrugge, Laura; Sools, Anneke; Brugnach, Marcela; Wolterink, Rik; van Denderen, Pepijn; Candel, Jasper; Hulscher, Suzanne (2020)
    A growing number of scientifc publications is available to promote sustainable river management. However, these publications target researchers rather than water management professionals who are responsible for the implementation of management practices. To bridge this science-to-practice gap, we conceptualize and propose a series of steps to prepare efective storylines targeted at a practitioner audience. We developed this approach within a research program that supports integrated and collaborative river management. We prepared three storylines, each based on one scientifc publication. The storylines combined text and interactive visuals using the ESRI StoryMaps tool to make them available online. Via focus groups with 44 participants from research and practice, we evaluated the perceived usefulness of and engagement with the content and design. We collected feedback from participants using a survey as well as via audio and screen recordings. Our fndings show that we should narrow down the audience of the storylines by tailoring them to the needs of project managers rather than specialized advisors. Therefore, the content should ofer more than a visual summary of the research by showing examples of the management application. A more engaging sequence with a clear protagonist is further required to better relate to the problem and the potential application. Although visuals and interactive elements were considered attractive, a multi-disciplinary editorial team is necessary to better complement the visuals’ design to the text. The level of detail of participants’ feedback shows that involving project managers to co-create storylines can be an important step for improvement.
  • La Mere, Kelsey Maggan; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Haapasaari, Päivi (2020)
    In the Baltic Sea region, salmon are valued for the ecological, economic, and cultural benefits they provide. However, these fish are threatened due to historical overfishing, disease, and reduced access to spawning rivers. Climate change may pose another challenge for salmon management. Therefore, we conducted a problem-framing study to explore the effects climate change may have on salmon and the socio-ecological system they are embedded within. Addressing this emerging issue will require the cooperation of diverse stakeholders and the integration of their knowledge and values in a contentious management context. Therefore, we conducted this problem framing as a participatory process with stakeholders, whose mental models and questionnaire responses form the basis of this study. By framing the climate change problem in this way, we aim to provide a holistic understanding of the problem and incorporate stakeholder perspectives into the management process from an early stage to better address their concerns and establish common ground. We conclude that considering climate change is relevant for Baltic salmon management, although it may not be the most pressing threat facing these fish. Stakeholders disagree about whether climate change will harm or benefit salmon, when it will become a relevant issue in the Baltic context, and whether or not management efforts can mitigate any negative impacts climate change may have on salmon and their fishery. Nevertheless, by synthesizing the stakeholders' influence diagrams, we found 15 themes exemplifying: (1) how climate change may affect salmon, (2) goals for salmon management considering climate change, and (3) strategies for achieving those goals. Further, the stakeholders tended to focus on the riverine environment and the salmon life stages occurring therein, potentially indicating the perceived vulnerability of these life stages to climate change. Interestingly, however, the stakeholders tended to focus on traditional fishery management measures, like catch quotas, to meet their goals for these fish considering climate change. Further, social variables, like “politics,” “international cooperation,” and “employment” comprised a large proportion of the stakeholders' diagrams, demonstrating the importance of these factors for salmon management.
  • Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Juutinen, Artti; Tyrvainen, Liisa (2020)
    Nature-based tourism (NBT) is a growing industry within regions rich in natural amenities worldwide. An important feature of NBT business is the dependence on the quality of surrounding environment. This paper addresses the role of the management of commercial forests owned by the state in Finnish Lapland. The paper explores the NBT entrepreneurs' willingness to participate in a proposed new landscape and recreational value trading (LRVT) and elaborates the effect of entrepreneur and enterprise characteristics, such as entrepreneurial attitude, venture size, and a variety of services offered to customers, on the experienced and expected growth of NBT enterprise. The survey data on NBT enterprises were analyzed with ordered and binary logit models. The willingness of enterprises to participate in LRVT depended on the venture size, entrepreneurial attitude, and type of activities offered to customers. The results show that relatively young and small-sized enterprises have faced difficulties in developing their business. Entrepreneurial experience, risk-taking and intention to develop new business associate positively with expected increase in turnover.
  • Sakakibara, Keiko; Shimazu, Akihito; Toyama, Hiroyuki; Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (2020)
    The current study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-J), a new burnout measure. We conducted an Internet survey to confirm the validity and reliability of the BAT-J, using registered monitors from a Japanese survey company. The first-wave survey was conducted in May 2018, with 1,032 monitors. Of these, 498 participated in the second-wave survey in June 2018 to confirm 1-month test-retest reliability. We examined the factorial validity of the BAT-J core symptoms (BAT-JC) and BAT-J secondary symptoms (BAT-JS), as well as their reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and construct validity. Factorial validity was examined using confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analyses. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined using multitrait-multimethod frameworks well as the average variance explained. Exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor solutions for the BAT-JC, BAT-JS, and BAT-J demonstrated the best fit to the data. They also indicated that the general factor accounted for over two-thirds of the common variance explained. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were confirmed. Convergent and internal discriminant validity of the BAT-JC were confirmed vis-vis burnout, as assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Moreover, external discriminant validity of the BAT-J was demonstrated for work engagement and workaholism. Finally, both BAT scales showed significant positive relationships with job demands and turnover intention. All validity results were in line with the job demands-resources model. The results of the current study provide the first evidence for the BAT-J's reliability and factorial and construct validity.
  • Virtanen, Viivi; Taina, Juha; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2017)
    This study explored the causes of student disengagement from their doctoral studies in the biological and environmental sciences. The data came from interviews of 40 doctoral students (male = 15, female = 25) and underwent qualitative analysis for content. Our results showed that doctoral studies provide multiple contexts for disengagement, such as the scholarly community and supervision, while doctoral students’ sense of distress, cynicism and inefficacy emerged as central components of disengagement. The study identified isolation, indifference, and lack of support and constructive feedback as sources of cynicism, while distress and inefficacy were more often related to failure or lack of progress in research. Our findings indicate that the source of disengagement can vary not only between individuals, but also between the academic activities at hand. Thus, while promoting an engaging doctoral experience, awareness of what typically triggers disengagement in the doctoral journey is vital.