Browsing by Subject "RESPONSE-INHIBITION"

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  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan; van Beurden, Samantha Barbara; Haukkala, Ari; Lawrence, Natalia S. (2021)
    Food Go/No-Go training aims to alter implicit food biases by creating associations between perceiving unhealthy foods and withholding a dominant response. Asking participants to repeatedly inhibit an impulse to approach unhealthy foods can decrease unhealthy food intake in laboratory settings. Less is known about how people engage with app-based Go/No-Go training in real-world settings and how this might relate to dietary outcomes. This pragmatic observational study investigated associations between the number of completed app-based food Go/No-Go training trials and changes in food intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire; FFQ) for different healthy and unhealthy food categories from baseline to one-month follow-up. In total, 1234 participants (m(BMI) = 29 kg/ m2, m(age) = 43years, 69% female) downloaded the FoodT app and completed food-Go/No-Go training at their own discretion (mean number of completed sessions = 10.7, sd = 10.3, range: 1-122). In pre-registered analyses, random-intercept linear models predicting intake of different foods, and controlled for baseline consumption, BMI, age, sex, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and dieting status, revealed small, significant associations between the number of completed training trials and reductions in unhealthy food intake (b = -0.0005, CI95 = [-0.0007;0.0003]) and increases in healthy food intake (b = 0.0003, CI95 = [0.0000; 0.0006]). These relationships varied by food category, and exploratory analyses suggest that more temporally spaced training was associated with greater changes in dietary intake. Taken together, these results imply a positive association between the amount of training completed and beneficial changes in food intake. However, the results of this pragmatic study should be interpreted cautiously, as self-selection biases, motivation and other engagement-related factors that could underlie these associations were not accounted for. Experimental research is needed to rule out these possible confounds and establish causal dose-response relationships between patterns of engagement with food Go/No-Go training and changes in dietary intake.
  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Haukkala, Ari Heikki (2019)
    Dual-process models integrate deliberative and impulsive mental systems and predict dietary behaviours better than deliberative processes alone. Computerised tasks such as the Go/No-Go, Stop-Signal, Approach-Avoidance, and Evaluative Conditioning have been used as interventions to directly alter implicit biases. This meta-analysis examines the effects of these tasks on dietary behaviours, explores potential moderators of effectiveness, and examines implicit bias change as a proposed mechanism. Thirty randomised controlled trials testing implicit bias interventions (47 comparisons) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis, which indicated small cumulative effects on eating-related behavioural outcomes (g = -0.17, CI95 = [-0.29; -0.05], p = .01) and implicit biases (g = -0.18, CI95 = [-0.34; -0.02], p = .02). Task type moderated these effects, with Go/No-Go tasks producing larger effects than other tasks. Effects of interventions on implicit biases were positively related to effects on eating behaviour (B = 0.42, CI95 = [0.02; 0.81], p = .03). Go/No-Go tasks seem to have most potential for altering dietary behaviours through implicit processes. While changes in implicit biases seem related to the effects of these interventions on dietary outcomes, more research should explore whether repeated exposure to implicit bias interventions may have any practical intervention value in real world settings.
  • Tiira, Katriina; Tikkanen, Antti; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Working dogs are used for a range of important operational tasks. Identifying potentially successful working dogs as early as possible is important as rejection rates are high and training is costly. Earlier research has mainly concentrated on personality traits such as boldness, and there is only little knowledge on the possible association between cognitive traits and the actual working dog performance. This study investigated whether motor inhibition, persistence, problem-solving strategies, and spatial problem-solving are associated with explosive detection success in specially trained police dogs. Dogs (N = 24) were tested with a cognitive test battery, and subsequently they participated in an explosive detection test. The explosive searching situation and the location of the test was such that it would reflect as much as possible a real-life situation. Canine handlers also filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog's working behaviour. We found that those dogs that were more successful in explosive detection task had better motor inhibition in a cylinder task compared to dogs with lower success in an explosive search task. Furthermore, we found that dogs that made more errors in the cylinder task were generally more likely to give up searching sooner, as reported by their handlers, and also abandon sooner the problem-solving task in behavioural test. This study suggests that inhibitory control, specifically motor inhibition, may be an important aspect to consider when selecting suitable dogs for explosive detection tasks. Cylinder task is an easy and quick way to assess inhibitory control, although a larger dataset is needed to verify its association with working performance.
  • Moisala, M.; Salmela, V.; Hietajarvi, L.; Salo, E.; Carlson, S.; Salonen, O.; Lonka, K.; Hakkarainen, K.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Alho, K. (2016)
    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive mediamultitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the othermodality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Carlson, Synnöve; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lonka, Kirsti; Hakkarainen, Kai; Alho, Kimmo (2018)
    Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.
  • Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri (2018)
    Musical training has been associated with superior performance in various executive function tasks. To date, only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates of the supposed "musician advantage" in executive functions, precluding definite conclusions about its neural basis. Here, we provide a selective review of neuroimaging studies on plasticity and typical maturation of executive functions, with the aim of investigating how proficient performance in executive function tasks is reflected in brain activity. Specifically, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced or mature executive functions are manifested as efficient use of neural systems supporting those functions. We also present preliminary results from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggesting-in line with this hypothesis-that musically trained adolescents recruit frontoparietal regions less strongly during executive functions tasks than untrained peers.
  • Suzuki, Kota; Kita, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Yuka; Egashira, Yuka; Mitsuhashi, Shota; Kitamura, Yuzuki; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kaga, Yoshimi; Inagaki, Masumi (2020)
    Nogo-N2 is associated with the premotor cognitive process that precedes motor response (e.g., conflict monitoring), whereas Nogo-P3 is related to the inhibition of the actual motor response. We examined the influence of motor clumsiness of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on components of the event-related potential in a Go/Nogo task. Participants were healthy adults (N = 81) that were classified into control and DCD groups based on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition. We manipulated the difficulty in stopping a response by varying the frequency of Nogo stimuli in a response task into rare (20%) and frequent (80%) conditions, and Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 were calculated from electroencephalograms (EEGs) during the Go/Nogo tasks. The commission error rate in the rare condition was significantly higher in the DCD group than in the control group, indicating that motor clumsiness decreases task performance. There were no differences in Nogo-N2 between DCD and control groups. However, Nogo-P3 in the rare condition was reduced in the DCD group compared to the control group. These results suggest that the influence of motor clumsiness is limited to the cognitive process after the initiation of the actual motor response.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Pudas, Juho; Björnholm, Lassi; Jukuri, Tuomas; Tohka, Jussi; Granö, Niklas; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Veijola, Juha; Hintsanen, Mirka; Lieslehto, Johannes (2020)
    Objective: We conducted a multimodal coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) to investigate structural and functional brain alterations in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FRs). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from electronic databases to find studies that examined differences between FRs and healthy controls using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A CBMA of 30 fMRI (754 FRs; 959 controls) and 11 VBM (885 FRs; 775 controls) datasets were conducted using the anisotropic effect-size version of signed differential mapping. Further, we conducted separate meta-analyses about functional alterations in different cognitive tasks: social cognition, executive functioning, working memory, and inhibitory control. Results: FRs showed higher fMRI activation in the right frontal gyrus during cognitive tasks than healthy controls. In VBM studies, there were no differences in gray matter density between FRs and healthy controls. Furthermore, multi-modal meta-analysis obtained no differences between FRs and healthy controls. By utilizing the BrainMap database, we showed that the brain region which showed functional alterations in FRs (i) overlapped only slightly with the brain regions that were affected in the meta-analysis of schizophrenia patients and (ii) correlated positively with the brain regions that exhibited increased activity during cognitive tasks in healthy individuals. Conclusions: Based on this meta-analysis, FRs may exhibit only minor functional alterations in the brain during cognitive tasks, and the alterations are much more restricted and only slightly overlapping with the regions that are affected in schizophrenia patients. The familial risk did not relate to structural alterations in the gray matter. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.