Browsing by Subject "RESTORATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 35
  • Tammiste, Triin; Kask, Keiu; Padrik, Peeter; Idla, Kulli; Rosenstein, Karin; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Veerus, Piret; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    BackgroundOvarian insufficiency is a major concern for long-term cancer survivors. Although semen freezing is well established to preserve male fertility, the possibilities to secure post-cancer female fertility are mostly limited to oocyte or embryo freezing. These methods require time-consuming ovarian stimulation with or without in vitro fertilization (IVF) that evidently delays cancer therapy. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and subsequent thawed tissue autotransplantation are considered the most promising alternative strategy for restoring the fertility of oncology patients, which has not yet received the full clinical acceptance. Therefore, all successful cases are needed to prove its reliability and safety.Case presentationHere we report a single case in Estonia, where a 28-year-old woman with malignant breast neoplasm had ovarian cortex cryopreserved before commencing gonadotoxic chemo- and radiotherapy. Two years after cancer therapy, the patient underwent heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation into the lateral pelvic wall. The folliculogenesis was stimulated in the transplanted tissue by exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone and oocytes were collected under ultrasound guidance for IVF and embryo transfer. The healthy boy was born after full-term gestation in 2014, first in Eastern Europe.ConclusionDespite many countries have reported the first implementation of the ovarian tissue freezing and transplantation protocols, the data is still limited on the effectiveness of heterotopic ovarian transplant techniques. Thus, all case reports of heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation and long-term follow-ups to describe the children's health are valuable source of clinical experience.
  • Moilanen, Atte; Kujala, Heini; Mikkonen, Ninni (2020)
    Biodiversity offsetting is a tool to balance ecological damage caused by human activity with new benefits created elsewhere. Offsetting is implemented by protecting, restoring or managing sufficiently large areas of habitat. While there are concerns about the true feasibility of offsetting, they are becoming a common policy tool world-wide. Operationally uncomplicated, quantitative approaches to spatial analysis of offsets are rare and their use is often restricted by the availability of suitable spatial data. We describe a practical method for offsets that builds upon two layers of relatively easily sourced spatial data, a balanced spatial priority ranking and a weighted range size rarity map. Together with (a) spatial information about impact and offset areas, and (b) extra parameters for the effectiveness of avoided loss and the amount of leakage expected, we can evaluate whether the proposed offset exchange represents a credible no net loss or net positive impact with an upward trade. The priority ranking and range size rarity maps can be produced in various ways, most notably using existing conservation planning tools. Here we used the standard outputs of the Zonation spatial prioritization software. We illustrate the method and associated visualization in the context of offsetting of boreal forests in Finland, where forests experience high and increasing pressures from forestry and bioenergy sectors. The example is timely as there is political demand for the uptake of biodiversity offset policies in Finland, and boreal forests are the most common biotope. The methods described here are applicable to biomes around the world. The described tools are made available as r scripts that utilize standard Zonation outputs, thus providing direct linkage to any past or future Zonation applications. As a limitation, the present methods only apply to avoided loss offsets.
  • Brown, Hugh C. A.; Berninger, Frank A.; Larjavaara, Markku; Appiah, Mark (2020)
    High deforestation rates, especially in the tropics, currently result in the annual emission of large amounts of carbon, contributing to global climate change. There is therefore an urgent need to take actions to mitigate climate change both by slowing down deforestation and by initiating new sinks. Tropical forest plantations are generally thought to sequester carbon rapidly during the initial years but there is limited knowledge on their long-term potential. In this study, we assessed the carbon sequestration in old (42-47 years) timber plantations of Aucoumea klaineana, Cedrela odorata, Tarrietia utilis, and Terminalia ivorensis, and secondary forests of similar ages, by comparing their basal areas and above-ground carbon stocks (AGC) to that of nearby primary forests. Additionally, we estimated and compared timber volume and stumpage value in the three forest types. Systematic random sampling of ninety-three 20 m x 20 m plots in eleven forest sites (2 secondary forests, 2 primary forests, and 7 timber plantations) was undertaken to determine the effect of forest type on AGC, basal area, timber volume, and stumpage value. After 42 years of growth, mean AGC of the timber plantations (159.7 +/- 14.3 Mg ha(-1)) was similar to that of primary forests (173.0 +/- 25.1 Mg ha(-1)) and both were significantly higher than the mean AGC of the secondary forests (103.6 +/- 12.3 Mg ha(-1)). Mean basal area and timber volume of the timber plantations and secondary forests were similar to that of the primary forests, though in each case the timber plantations had significantly higher values compared to the secondary forests. Mean timber value of the plantations ($8577 ha(-1)) was significantly higher than both secondary ($1870 ha(-1)) and primary forests ($3112 ha(-1)). Contrary to our expectations, naturally regenerated trees (woody recruits) within the timber plantations had similar AGC levels, basal area, timber volume, and value compared to the secondary forests. Long-rotation tropical forest plantations under low-intensity management could achieve higher AGC levels and thus have higher climate change mitigation potential and timber values compared to naturally regenerated secondary forests, and are able to reach values similar to primary forests. Monoculture timber plantations could facilitate the successful colonization of their understoreys by native woody recruits that contribute considerably to stand AGC and timber values. Long-rotation forest plantations in the tropics therefore have a critical role to play in forest rehabilitation and climate change mitigation while having the potential to provide modest financial returns to landowners through selective harvesting of timber and/or payments for carbon sequestration.
  • Li, Xuefei; Wahlroos, Outi Marjatta; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan (2020)
    Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in a loss of their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and storm water quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in Southern Finland in the boreal climate. We conducted measurements of ecosystem CO2 flux and CH4 flux (FCH4) at the created storm water wetland Gateway in Nummela, Vihti, Southern Finland, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The measurements were commenced the fourth year after construction and lasted for 1 full year and two subsequent growing seasons. Besides ecosystemscale fluxes measured by the EC tower, the diffusive CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the open-water areas (FwCO(2) and FwCH(4), respectively) were modelled based on measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the water. Fluxes from the vegetated areas were estimated by applying a simple mixing model using the above-mentioned fluxes and the footprintweighted fractional area. The half-hourly footprint-weighted contribution of diffusive fluxes from open water ranged from 0% to 25.5% in 2013. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the studied wetland was 8.0 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 18:9 and 34.9 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), and FCH4 was 3.9 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 3.75 and 4.07 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The ecosystem sequestered CO2 during summer months (June-August), while the rest of the year it was a CO2 source. CH4 displayed strong seasonal dynamics, higher in summer and lower in winter, with a sporadic emission episode in the end of May 2013. Both CH4 and CO2 fluxes, especially those obtained from vegetated areas, exhibited strong diurnal cycles during summer with synchronized peaks around noon. The annual FwCO(2) was 297.5 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1) and FwCH(4) was 1.73 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The peak diffusive CH4 flux was 137.6 nmol C-CH4 m(-2) s(-1), which was synchronized with the FCH4. Overall, during the monitored time period, the established storm water wetland had a climate-warming effect with 0.263 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1) of which 89% was contributed by CH4. The radiative forcing of the open-water areas exceeded that of the vegetation areas (1.194 and 0.111 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1), respectively), which implies that, when considering solely the climate impact of a created wetland over a 100-year horizon, it would be more beneficial to design and establish wetlands with large patches of emergent vegetation and to limit the areas of open water to the minimum necessitated by other desired ecosystem services.
  • Hällfors, Maria H.; Vaara, Elina M.; Hyvärinen, Marko; Oksanen, Markku; Schulman, Leif E.; Siipi, Helena; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2014)
    Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications) was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40) and definitions (N = 75), and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept.
  • Siqueira, Tadeu; Saito, Victor S.; Bini, Luis M.; Melo, Adriano S.; Petsch, Danielle K.; Landeiro, Victor L.; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Jyrkänkallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Soininen, Janne; Heino, Jani (2020)
    Ecological drift can override the effects of deterministic niche selection on small populations and drive the assembly of some ecological communities. We tested this hypothesis with a unique data set sampled identically in 200 streams in two regions (tropical Brazil and boreal Finland) that differ in macroinvertebrate community size by fivefold. Null models allowed us to estimate the magnitude to which beta-diversity deviates from the expectation under a random assembly process while taking differences in richness and relative abundance into account, i.e., beta-deviation. We found that both abundance- and incidence-based beta-diversity was negatively related to community size only in Brazil. Also, beta-diversity of small tropical communities was closer to stochastic expectations compared with beta-diversity of large communities. We suggest that ecological drift may drive variation in some small communities by changing the expected outcome of niche selection, increasing the chances of species with low abundance and narrow distribution to occur in some communities. Habitat destruction, overexploitation, pollution, and reductions in connectivity have been reducing the size of biological communities. These environmental pressures might make smaller communities more vulnerable to novel conditions and render community dynamics more unpredictable. Incorporation of community size into ecological models should provide conceptual and applied insights into a better understanding of the processes driving biodiversity.
  • Danquah, Jones Abrefa; Appiah, Mark; Ari, Pappinen (2011)
  • Moilanen, Atte; Kotiaho, Janne S. (2018)
    Many development projects, whether they are about construction of factories, mines, roads, railways, new suburbs, shopping malls, or even individual houses, have negative environmental consequences. Biodiversity offsetting is about compensating that damage, typically via habitat restoration, land management, or by establishment of new protected areas. Offsets are the fourth step of the so-called mitigation hierarchy, in which ecological damage is first avoided, minimized second, and third restored locally. Whatever residual damage remains is then offset. Offsetting has been increasingly adopted all around the world, but simultaneously serious concerns are expressed about the validity of the approach. Failure of offsetting can follow from either inappropriate definition of the size and kind of offset, or, from failure in implementation. Here we address planning of offsets, and identify fundamental operational design decisions that define the intended outcome of an offsetting project, and organize these decisions around objectives, offset actions, and the three fundamental ecological axes of ecological reality: space, time and biodiversity. We also describe how the offset ratio of a project (size of offset areas compared to impact area) can be constructed based on several partial multipliers that arise from factors such as degree of compensation required relative to no net loss, partial and delayed nature of restoration or avoided loss gains, time discounting, additionality, leakage, uncertainty, and factors associated with biodiversity measurement and offset implementation. Several of these factors are partially subjective and thus negotiable. The overall purpose of this effort is to allow systematic, well informed and transparent discussion about these critical decisions in any offset project.
  • Aakala, Tuomas (2018)
    Wildfires virtually disappeared from the Fennoscandian forests in the 20th century, but have left persistent legacies in forest structure. Here, I reconstructed past fires in three northern boreal landscapes (each 2 km x 2 km) from fire scars, and described the fire regime for the past 300 years. The average fire cycles (1700-1999) were 72 and 156 years in Pinus sylvestris-dominated landscapes, and 579 years in a Picea abies-dominated landscape. At the site level, the number of fires was clearly related to soil hydraulic properties. Age structures from 1800 live and dead trees showed strong cohorts associated with large fires in two of the landscapes. Although tree growth and regeneration in sub-arctic regions are considered highly climate-sensitive, fires have been a major driver of forest dynamics in these areas. Continued absence of fires will lead to considerable changes in the forest structure and species composition in the future.
  • Koskinen, Markku; Maanavilja, Liisa Maria; Nieminen, Mika; Minkkinen, Kari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2016)
    Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained) state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4) dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1)), contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1)) and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-(2) d(-1)). More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.
  • Peltonen, Karita; Colis, Laureen; Liu, Hester; Jaamaa, Sari; Moore, Henna M.; Enback, Juulia; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Vaahtokari, Anne; Jones, Richard J.; af Hallstrom, Taija M.; Laiho, Marikki (2010)
  • Tammeorg, Olga; Nürnberg, Gertrud; Niemistö, Juha; Haldna, Marina; Horppila, Jukka (2020)
    Shallow lake sediments may be anoxic despite overlying aerated water. In the current study, we aimed to ascertain the contribution of shallow areas to internal phosphorus (P) loading due to sediment anoxia in stratifying lakes. Moreover, we analyzed relationships of the key water quality variables with internal P loading due to sediment anoxia originating solely from stratifying areas (IPobs) and that accounting also for the shallow areas (IPpred) for a set of Finnish lakes, including intentionally aerated and non-aerated lakes. Finally, using a broader set of lakes worldwide, we established a specific combination of lake characteristics that predict sediment P release due to sediment anoxia and linked it to the practices of aeration. Our results showed that shallow lake areas (a difference between IPpred and IPobs) contributed about half of the total P flux due to sediment anoxia. While all of the studied water quality variables related significantly to IPpred, only the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the near-bottom water layer related significantly to IPobs. This indicates the key importance of P release of shallow areas for water quality. The concentrations of TP in the surface water layer and chlorophyll a were significantly dependent on IPpred irrespectively of the treatment (aerated lakes or not). P supply from shallow areas may affect aeration effectiveness in stratifying lakes. IPpred was found to be dependent on the specific combination of lake characteristics (including mean and maximum depth, lake and catchment area, external P loading) PC3, driven mainly by external P loading. Hence, external load reduction should be considered as the first priority in lake water quality management. By linking the dependence of IPpred on PC3 to aeration practices, we determined the conditions that promise increased effectiveness of aeration treatments.
  • Kiani, Mina; Tammeorg, Priit; Niemistö, Juha; Simojoki, Asko; Tammeorg, Olga (2020)
    Mankind is taking advantage of numerous services by small shallow lakes such as drinking water supply, irrigation, and recreational function; however, many of these lakes suffer from eutrophication. Given the key role of phosphorus (P) in eutrophication process, one of the effective restoration methods especially for small shallow lakes is removal of sediments enriched with nutrients. In our study, we used interannual, seasonal, and spatial data to examine the changes in sediment P mobility after removal of sediments in 2016 from a 1-ha highly eutrophic lake. We measured the sediment redox potential, analyzed soluble reactive P (SRP) in the pore water and P fractional composition of the surface sediments, and calculated the P diffusive flux in three locations in two continuous years (2017 and 2018) after the excavation. Similar measurements were done before sediment removal at central site of the lake in 2015. Removing nutrient-rich sediment also removed 6400 kg of P, and thus the potential for release of P from sediments decreased on a long-term scale. However, a large pool of releasable P was rebuilt soon after the sediment removal due to high external P loading, resulting in extensive anoxia of sediment surface and associated internal P loading as high as 1450 mg m−2 summer−1. Moreover, the Fe-P and labile P fractions were the most important sources of P release, as evidenced by their considerable seasonal and interannual changes after the sediment removal. The sediment total Fe negatively correlated with sediment P diffusive flux, pore water SRP, and near-bottom water total P and SRP concentrations which indicated a strong linkage between sediment P dynamics and Fe after the restoration. Sediment removal could be a beneficial restoration approach, but the effects on lake water quality remain only short-term unless there is an adequate control on external loading to the lake.
  • Aikio, Sami; Ramula, Satu; Muola, Anne; von Numers, Mikael (2020)
    The extrinsic determinants hypothesis emphasizes the essential role of environmental heterogeneity in species' colonization. Consequently, high resident species diversity can increase community susceptibility to colonizations because good habitats may support more species that are functionally similar to colonizers. On the other hand, colonization success is also likely to depend on species traits. We tested the relative importance of environmental characteristics and species traits in determining colonization success using census data of 587 vascular plant species collected about 70 yr apart from 471 islands in the archipelago of SW Finland. More specifically, we explored potential new colonization as a function of island properties (e.g. location, area, habitat diversity, number of resident species per unit area), species traits (e.g. plant height, life-form, dispersal vector, Ellenberg indicator values, association with human impact), and species' historical distributions (number of inhabited islands, nearest occurrence). Island properties and species' historical distributions were more effective than plant traits in explaining colonization outcomes. Contrary to the extrinsic determinants hypothesis, colonization success was neither associated with resident species diversity nor habitat diversity per se, although colonization was lowest on sparsely vegetated islands. Our findings lead us to propose that while plant traits related to dispersal and establishment may enhance colonization, predictions of plant colonizations primarily require understanding of habitat properties and species' historical distributions.
  • Aalto, Juha; Tyystjärvi, Vilna; Niittynen, Pekka Oskari; Kemppinen, J.; Rissanen, Tuuli Katariina; Gregow, Hilppa; Luoto, Miska (2022)
    Microclimate varies greatly over short horizontal and vertical distances, and timescales. This multi-level heterogeneity influences terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem functions by determining the ambient environment where organisms live in. Fine-scale heterogeneity in microclimate temperatures is driven by local topography, land and water cover, snow, and soil characteristics. However, their relative influence over boreal and tundra biomes and in different seasons, has not been comprehensively quantified. Here, we aim to (1) quantify temperature variations measured at three heights: soil (-6 cm), near-surface (15 cm) and air (150 cm), and (2) determine the relative influence of the environmental variables in driving thermal variability. We measured temperature at 446 sites within seven focus areas covering large macroclimatic, topographic, and ecosystem gradients (tundra, mires, forests) of northern Europe. Our data, consisting of over 60 million temperature readings during the study period of 2019/11-2020/10, reveal substantial thermal variability within and across the focus areas. Near-surface temperatures in the tundra showed the greatest instantaneous differences within a given focus area (32.3 degrees C) while the corresponding differences for soil temperatures ranged from 10.0 degrees C (middle boreal forest) to 27.1 degrees C (tundra). Instantaneous differences in wintertime air temperatures were the largest in the tundra (up to 25.6 degrees C, median 4.2 degrees C), while in summer the differences were largest in the southern boreal forest (13.1 degrees C, median 4.8 degrees C). Statistical analyses indicate that monthly-aggregated temperature variations in boreal forests are closely linked to water bodies, wetlands, and canopy cover, whereas in the tundra, variation was linked to elevation, topographic solar radiation, and snow cover. The results provide new understanding on the magnitude of microclimate temperature variability and its seasonal drivers and will help to project local impacts of climate change on boreal forest and tundra ecosystems.
  • Mesimäki, Marja; Hauru, Kaisa; Kotze, D. Johan; Lehvavirta, Susanna (2017)
    Within the context of enhancing sustainable and livable urban environments, one aim is to establish multifunctional green infrastructure (GI). We argue that in order to successfully plan and manage the development of GI, an inclusive and future-oriented stance concerning the needs and expectations of urbanites is required. By using green roofs as an example, the aim of this paper was to offer insights into how people envisage novel GI in urban environments and to reveal the scope of meanings and values people attach to these kinds of green infrastructure. We present results based on 149 stories collected with the method of empathy-based stories. Respondents were asked to use their imagination to produce mental images of not-yet-existing green roofs in different urban situations. Our results reflect a rich set of dimensions of green roofs that the respondents vividly imagined. Green roofs may contribute to the livability of urban areas in multiple ways, such as strengthening social cohesion, providing space for everyday renewal and restoration, offering interesting sceneries and multisensory experiences, softening the hard cityscape, showing ephemeral events and making experiences of "height" possible, as well as increasing the "contact with nature" experiences for residents, e.g. through biodiverse nature in the middle of built environments. Furthermore, the need for local, customized solutions that offer different benefits and experiences was expressed. Using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, we idealized four green roof meta-types for understanding the diverse expectations people may have for green roofs in urban area: Urban farm, Oasis, Urban hill and Meadow. Based on our results we suggest that comprehensive experiences and needs of people should be taken into account when designing urban green roofs or urban green in general not only, e.g. visual pleasure. Also, site- and user-specific solutions should be considered instead of generally applied ones. Our results offer tools for, e.g. urban planners to understand the value of diverse green roof solutions to the user. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Waris, Eero; Palmgren-Soppela, Tove; Sommarhem, Antti (2022)
    Purpose: Reconstruction of finger motion is a therapeutic goal in tetraplegic patients. Although nerve transfer of the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to the anterior interosseus nerve has been previously described, this results in unreliable reinnervation because the donor nerve is proximal to the target muscle. We describe an alternative technique in which nerve transfer is performed using the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve as a vascular in situ nerve graft. The clinical results are reported. Methods: Nine upper limbs of 6 patients (mean age 25 years) with tetraplegia were subjected to brachialis-to-anterior interosseus nerve transfer using the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve as a vascular in situ nerve graft, at a mean of 6 months after injury. Additional supinator branch transfer to the posterior interosseous nerve was performed for 6 upper limbs and to the flexor digitorum superficialis motor branch for 1 upper limb. Results: At a mean of 2 years of follow-up, thumb and finger flexion strength scored M3-M4 in 5 of the 9 limbs according to the Medical Research Council scale. Key pinch and grip pinch averaged 0.6 kg (range, 0–1.0 kg) and 2.2 kg (range, 0–8 kg), respectively. No donor-site deficit was observed. Conclusions: Brachialis-to-anterior interosseus nerve transfer with an in situ lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve graft can be used to reconstruct thumb and finger flexion in tetraplegic patients. Combined with supinator-to- posterior interosseous nerve transfer, simultaneous active extension of the fingers can be achieved. Type of study/level of evidence: Therapeutic V.
  • Brown, Hugh C. Adokwei; Appiah, Mark; Berninger, Frank A. (2022)
    Considering the high rate of primary forest degradation and loss in the tropics, the ability to conserve plant diversity within alternative forest landscape components is critical to biodiversity conservation. This study compares the restoration potential of old forest plantations and secondary forests. We assessed and compared the floristics, plant species diversity, conservation value, and structure of old (42-47 years) timber plantations of Aucoumea klaineana Pierre, Cedrela odorata L., Tarrietia utilis Sprague, and Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. and similar-aged secondary forests with nearby primary (old-growth) forests in the moist and wet forest zones of Ghana. We established a systematic sampling set-up of ninety-three 20 m x 20 m plots in total on 11 sites, with smaller nested subplots for saplings and ground vegetation. The floristic composition of the plantation and secondary forest stands were similar to that of the primary forests, with many rare and restricted-range species shared by the three forest types. Approximately 77% and 60% of primary forest plant species also occurred in plantation and secondary forests, respectively. Species diversity, measured by the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H') and Simpson Index (S), for the primary forest (H'=3.07, S = 0.91) was not statistically different from the plantation (H'=2.85, S = 0.87) or secondary (H'=2.95, S = 0.88) forests. Overall, species richness was higher in the primary and secondary forests compared to the plantations. At the tree stratum (>= 10 cm DBH), the assessed diversity indices were significantly different between the primary forest and the plantations. However, such differences did not exist among the saplings (10 cm > DBH >= 2 cm) and ground vegetation (< 2cm DBH). The plantations and secondary forests were similar to the primary forests for all the structural characteristics assessed. However, basal area and bole volume were significantly higher in the plantations compared with secondary forests. Conservation value (using Genetic Heat Index as an indicator) was highest in one of the C. odorata plantations (W-CO). Our study demonstrates that plantation and secondary forests can develop into structurally complex and floristically diverse self-organized stands similar to primary forests. Passive conversion of plantations to more natural ecosystems is an effective and low-cost forest restoration strategy leading to diverse ecosystems with high conservation value.
  • Norrman, Annika; Nylund, Karita; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Mauno, Jari; Mesimäki, Karri; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Lassus, Patrik; Helenius-Hietala, Jaana (2021)
    Objectives. Oral health and balanced occlusion are important aspects of a well-functioning face transplant. This study describes the oral and dental status, dental management, and sialoendoscopy of the first 2 patients in Helsinki who underwent face transplantations. Study Design. Two patients received near-full face transplantations in 2016 and 2018, respectively. The transplanted tissues included a Le Fort type II maxilla, angle-to-angle mandible, all oral mucosa, ventral tongue tissue, and the muscles of the floor of the mouth. Comprehensive oral examinations and all required dental treatment, including follow-up examinations, were performed for both patients after the transplantations. Results. Both patients rehabilitated well, and their quality of life improved. Stable, functioning dentition and occlusion were achieved for both patients. Hyposalivation and dental caries were issues for both patients. Patient 1 also experienced infections in the jaws. Implants were placed in the transplanted jaws of patient 2 with successful osseointegration. Conclusions. We report successful tooth-bearing face transplantations in 2 patients. Patient selection, particularly regarding oral health, is crucial in avoiding posttransplantation complications. Moreover, the oral and dental status of the donor should be examined by a dentist before transplantation, and regular follow-up dental examinations should be performed after transplantation.