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  • Kaukonen, Maria; Woods, Sean; Ahonen, Saija; Lemberg, Seppo; Hellman, Maarit; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Permi, Perttu; Glaser, Tom; Lohi, Hannes (2018)
    Maternally skewed transmission of traits has been associated with genomic imprinting and oocytederived mRNA. We report canine congenital eye malformations, caused by an amino acid deletion (K12deI) near the N terminus of retinol-binding protein (RBP4). The disease is only expressed when both dam and offspring are deletion homozygotes. RBP carries vitamin A (retinol) from hepatic stores to peripheral tissues, including the placenta and developing eye, where it is required to synthesize retinoic acid. Gestational vitamin A deficiency is a known risk factor for ocular birth defects. The K12del mutation disrupts RBP folding in vivo, decreasing its secretion from hepatocytes to serum. The maternal penetrance effect arises from an impairment in the sequential transfer of retinol across the placenta, via RBP encoded by maternal and fetal genomes. Our results demonstrate a mode of recessive maternal inheritance, with a physiological basis, and they extend previous observations on dominant-negative RBP4 alleles in humans.
  • Fu, Yu; Gaelings, Lana; Jalovaara, Petri; Kakkola, Laura; Kinnunen, Mervi T.; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Valkonen, Miia; Kantele, Anu; Kainov, Denis E. (2016)
    Influenza A viruses (IAV) mutate rapidly and cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics, which result in substantial number of patient visits to the doctors and even hospitalizations. We aimed here to identify inflammatory proteins, which levels correlated to clinical severity of the disease. For this we analysed 102 cytokines and growth factors in human nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples of 27 hospitalized and 27 outpatients diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. We found that the relative levels of monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), C-C-motif chemokine 20 (CCL20), CD147, urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (uPAR), pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were significantly lower (p <0.008), whereas levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5), interleukin-8 (IL-8), complement factor D (CFD), adiponectin, and chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) were significantly higher (p <0.008) in NPA samples of hospitalized than non-hospitalized patients. While changes in CD14, LCN2, CCL20, uPAR, EGF, MIF, CXCL5, IL-8, adiponectin and CHI3L1 levels have already been correlated with severity of IAV infection in mice and humans, our study is the first to describe association of CD147, RBP4, TFF3, and CFD with hospitalization of IAV-infected patients. Thus, we identified local innate immune profiles, which were associated with the clinical severity of influenza infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.