Browsing by Subject "RETRIEVAL"

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  • Pulliainen, Outi Unni Inkeri; Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Sundström, Liselotte (2018)
    The ability to distinguish friends from foe is a widespread phenomenon among social animals. In ants, recognition of intruders is important for the maintenance of colony integrity and survival. Intruders are typically adult, but the acceptance of non-nestmate brood could result in severe fitness costs, depending on the caste of the brood. Accepting non-nestmate worker brood may not carry a cost, as they should not drain resources of the adoptive colony but may instead add to the workforce. Sexual brood, however, would typically not contribute to colony performance, yet require resources, and should thus be rejected. Here, we tested whether workers of the narrow-headed ant, Formica exsecta, which strongly discriminate between adult nestmates and non-nestmates, also discriminate between nestmate and non-nestmate pupae. Furthermore, we investigated whether the caste of the brood (workers/sexuals) affects discrimination. We carried out analysis of surface chemicals to investigate whether the chemical distance between colonies was associated with the propensity to accept non-nestmate pupae. We show that worker pupae were retrieved irrespective of their origin, whereas nestmate sexual pupae were retrieved at a slightly higher rate than non-nestmates. Our chemical data, however, suggest that both the reproductive and the worker brood carry sufficient chemical information for discrimination, as they both express colony signatures. However, this information is acted upon only in the case of sexual brood. Our results thus suggest that workers selectively capitalize on the chemical information in agreement with fitness predictions, albeit to a lower extent than during discrimination between adult individuals.
  • Sundström, A. -M.; Nikandrova, A.; Atlaskina, K.; Nieminen, T.; Vakkari, V.; Laakso, L.; Beukes, J. P.; Arola, A.; van Zyl, P. G.; Josipovic, M.; Venter, A. D.; Jaars, K.; Pienaar, J. J.; Piketh, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Chiloane, E. K.; de Leeuw, G.; Kulmala, Markku (2015)
    Proxies for estimating nucleation mode number concentrations and further simplification for their use with satellite data have been presented in Kulmala et al. (2011). In this paper we discuss the underlying assumptions for these simplifications and evaluate the resulting proxies over an area in South Africa based on a comparison with a suite of ground-based measurements available from four different stations. The proxies are formulated in terms of sources (concentrations of precursor gases (NO2 and SO2) and UVB radiation intensity near the surface) and a sink term related to removal of the precursor gases due to condensation on pre-existing aerosols. A-Train satellite data are used as input to compute proxies. Both the input data and the resulting proxies are compared with those obtained from ground-based measurements. In particular, a detailed study is presented on the substitution of the local condensation sink (CS) with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is a column-integrated parameter. One of the main factors affecting the disagreement between CS and AOD is the presence of elevated aerosol layers. Overall, the correlation between proxies calculated from the in situ data and observed nucleation mode particle number concentrations (N-nuc) remained low. At the time of the satellite overpass (13: 00-14: 00 LT) the highest correlation is observed for SO2/CS (R-2 D 0.2). However, when the proxies are calculated using satellite data, only NO2/AOD showed some correlation with N-nuc (R-2 D 0.2). This can be explained by the relatively high uncertainties related especially to the satellite SO2 columns and by the positive correlation that is observed between the ground-based SO2 and NO2 concentrations. In fact, results show that the satellite NO2 columns compare better with in situ SO2 concentration than the satellite SO2 column. Despite the high uncertainties related to the proxies calculated using satellite data, the proxies calculated from the in situ data did not better predict N-nuc. Hence, overall improvements in the formulation of the proxies are needed.
  • Abera, Temesgen; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri; Adhikari, Hari; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Bushlands (Acacia-Commiphora) constitute the largest and one of the most threatened ecosystems in East Africa. Although several studies have investigated the climatic impacts of land changes on local and global climate, the main focus has been on forest loss and the impacts of bushland clearing thus remain poorly understood. Measuring the impacts of bushland loss on local climate is challenging given that changes often occur at fragmented and small patches. Here, we apply high-resolution satellite imagery and land surface flux modeling approaches to unveil the impacts of bushland clearing on surface biophysical properties and its associated effects on surface energy balance and land surface temperature. Our results show that bushland clearing leads to an average reduction in evapotranspiration of 0.4 mm day(-1). The changes in surface biophysical properties affected the surface energy balance components with different magnitude. The reduction in latent heat flux was stronger than other surface energy fluxes and resulted in an average net increase in daytime land surface temperature (LST) of up to 1.75 K. These results demonstrate the important impact of bushland-to-cropland conversion on the local climate, as they reveal increases in LST of a magnitude comparable to those caused by forest loss. This finding highlights the necessity of bushland conservation for regulating the land surface temperature in East Africa and, at the same time, warns of the climatic impacts of clearing bushlands for agriculture. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Wang, Qingkai; Lu, Peng; Zu, Yongheng; Li, Zhijun; Lepparanta, Matti; Zhang, Guiyong (2019)
    Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) has been studied extensively using passive microwave (PM) remote sensing. This technology could be used to improve navigation along vessel cruise paths; however, investigations on this topic have been limited. In this study, shipborne photographic observation (P-OBS) of sea ice was conducted using oblique-oriented cameras during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in the summer of 2016. SIC and the areal fractions of open water, melt ponds, and sea ice (A(w), A(p), and A(i), respectively) were determined along the cruise path. The distribution of SIC along the cruise path was U-shaped, and open water accounted for a large proportion of the path. The SIC derived from the commonly used PM algorithms was compared with the moving average (MA) P-OBS SIC, including Bootstrap and NASA Team (NT) algorithms based on Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) data; and ARTIST sea ice, Bootstrap, Sea Ice Climate Change Initiative, and NASA Team 2 (NT2) algorithms based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) data. P-OBS performed better than PM remote sensing at detecting low SIC (<10%). Our results indicate that PM SIC overestimates MA P-OBS SIC at low SIC, but underestimates it when SIC exceeds a turnover point (TP). The presence of melt ponds affected the accuracy of the PM SIC; the PM SIC shifted from an overestimate to an underestimate with increasing A(p), compared with MA P-OBS SIC below the TP, while the underestimation increased above the TP. The PM algorithms were then ranked; SSMIS-NT and AMSR2-NT2 are the best and worst choices for Arctic navigation, respectively.
  • Xiu, Yuanren; Li, Zhijun; Lei, Ruibo; Wang, Qingkai; Lu, Peng; Lepparanta, Matti (2020)
    In order to apply satellite data to guiding navigation in the Arctic more effectively, the sea ice concentrations (SIC) derived from passive microwave (PM) products were compared with ship-based visual observations (OBS) collected during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions (CHINARE). A total of 3 667 observations were collected in the Arctic summers of 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018. PM SIC were derived from the NASA-Team (NT), Bootstrap (BT) and Climate Data Record (CDR) algorithms based on the SSMIS sensor, as well as the BT, enhanced NASA-Team (NT2) and ARTIST Sea Ice (ASI) algorithms based on AMSR-E/AMSR-2 sensors. The daily arithmetic average of PM SIC values and the daily weighted average of OBS SIC values were used for the comparisons. The correlation coefficients (CC), biases and root mean square deviations (RMSD) between PM SIC and OBS SIC were compared in terms of the overall trend, and under mild/normal/severe ice conditions. Using the OBS data, the influences of floe size and ice thickness on the SIC retrieval of different PM products were evaluated by calculating the daily weighted average of floe size code and ice thickness. Our results show that CC values range from 0.89 (AMSR-E/AMSR-2 NT2) to 0.95 (SSMIS NT), biases range from -3.96% (SSMIS NT) to 12.05% (AMSR-E/AMSR-2 NT2), and RMSD values range from 10.81% (SSMIS NT) to 20.15% (AMSR-E/AMSR-2 NT2). Floe size has a significant influence on the SIC retrievals of the PM products, and most of the PM products tend to underestimate SIC under smaller floe size conditions and overestimate SIC under larger floe size conditions. Ice thickness thicker than 30 cm does not have a significant influence on the SIC retrieval of PM products. Overall, the best (worst) agreement occurs between OBS SIC and SSMIS NT (AMSR-E/AMSR-2 NT2) SIC in the Arctic summer.
  • Mäkelä, Jakke Sakari; Lakkala, Kaisa; Koskela, Tapani; Karppinen, Tomi; Karhu, Juha Matti; Savastiouk, Vladimir; Suokanerva, Hanne; Kaurola, Jussi; Arola, Antti; Lindfors, Anders Vilhelm; Meinander, Outi; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Heikkilä, Anu (2016)
    The data flow involved in a long-term continuous solar spectral UV irradiance monitoring program is investigated and structured to provide an overall view on the multiphase process from data acquisition to the final products. The program employing Brewer spectrophotometers as measuring instruments is maintained by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) ever since the 1990s at two sites in Finland: Sodankyla (67 degrees N) and Jokioinen (61 degrees N). It is built upon rigorous operation routines, processing procedures, and tools for quality control (QC) and quality analysis (QA) under continuous development and evaluation. Three distinct levels of data emerge, each after certain phase in the data flow: Level 0 denoting raw data, Level 1 meaning calibrated data processed in near-real time, and Level 2 comprising of postprocessed data corrected for all distinguishable errors and known inaccuracies. The final products disseminated to the users are demonstrated to result from a process with a multitude of separate steps, each required in the production of high-quality data on solar UV radiation at the Earth's surface.
  • Popp, Thomas; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Bingen, Christine; Bruehl, Christoph; Capelle, Virginie; Chedin, Alain; Clarisse, Lieven; Dubovik, Oleg; Grainger, Roy; Griesfeller, Jan; Heckel, Andreas; Kinne, Stefan; Klueser, Lars; Kosmale, Miriam; Kolmonen, Pekka; Lelli, Luca; Litvinov, Pavel; Mei, Linlu; North, Peter; Pinnock, Simon; Povey, Adam; Robert, Charles; Schulz, Michael; Sogacheva, Larisa; Stebel, Kerstin; Zweers, Deborah Stein; Thomas, Gareth; Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert; Vandenbussche, Sophie; Veefkind, Pepijn; Vountas, Marco; Xue, Yong (2016)
    Producing a global and comprehensive description of atmospheric aerosols requires integration of ground-based, airborne, satellite and model datasets. Due to its complexity, aerosol monitoring requires the use of several data records with complementary information content. This paper describes the lessons learned while developing and qualifying algorithms to generate aerosol Climate Data Records (CDR) within the European Space Agency (ESA) Aerosol_cci project. An iterative algorithm development and evaluation cycle involving core users is applied. It begins with the application-specific refinement of user requirements, leading to algorithm development, dataset processing and independent validation followed by user evaluation. This cycle is demonstrated for a CDR of total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from two subsequent dual-view radiometers. Specific aspects of its applicability to other aerosol algorithms are illustrated with four complementary aerosol datasets. An important element in the development of aerosol CDRs is the inclusion of several algorithms evaluating the same data to benefit from various solutions to the ill-determined retrieval problem. The iterative approach has produced a 17-year AOD CDR, a 10-year stratospheric extinction profile CDR and a 35-year Absorbing Aerosol Index record. Further evolution cycles have been initiated for complementary datasets to provide insight into aerosol properties (i.e., dust aerosol, aerosol absorption).
  • Maarala, Altti Ilari; Arasalo, Ossi; Valenzuela, Daniel; Mäkinen, Veli; Heljanko, Keijo (2021)
    Computational pan-genomics utilizes information from multiple individual genomes in large-scale comparative analysis. Genetic variation between case-controls, ethnic groups, or species can be discovered thoroughly using pan-genomes of such subpopulations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data volumes are growing rapidly, making genomic data compression and indexing methods very important. Despite current space-efficient repetitive sequence compression and indexing methods, the deployed compression methods are often sequential, computationally time-consuming, and do not provide efficient sequence alignment performance on vast collections of genomes such as pan-genomes. For performing rapid analytics with the ever-growing genomics data, data compression and indexing methods have to exploit distributed and parallel computing more efficiently. Instead of strict genome data compression methods, we will focus on the efficient construction of a compressed index for pan-genomes. Compressed hybrid-index enables fast sequence alignments to several genomes at once while shrinking the index size significantly compared to traditional indexes. We propose a scalable distributed compressed hybrid-indexing method for large genomic data sets enabling pan-genome-based sequence search and read alignment capabilities. We show the scalability of our tool, DHPGIndex, by executing experiments in a distributed Apache Spark-based computing cluster comprising 448 cores distributed over 26 nodes. The experiments have been performed both with human and bacterial genomes. DHPGIndex built a BLAST index for n = 250 human pan-genome with an 870:1 compression ratio (CR) in 342 minutes and a Bowtie2 index with 157:1 CR in 397 minutes. For n = 1,000 human pan-genome, the BLAST index was built in 1520 minutes with 532:1 CR and the Bowtie2 index in 1938 minutes with 76:1 CR. Bowtie2 aligned 14.6 GB of paired-end reads to the compressed (n = 1,000) index in 31.7 minutes on a single node. Compressing n = 13,375,031 (488 GB) GenBank database to BLAST index resulted in CR of 62:1 in 575 minutes. BLASTing 189,864 Crispr-Cas9 gRNA target sequences (23 MB in total) to the compressed index of human pan-genome (n = 1,000) finished in 45 minutes on a single node. 30 MB mixed bacterial sequences were (n = 599) were blasted to the compressed index of 488 GB GenBank database (n = 13,375,031) in 26 minutes on 25 nodes. 78 MB mixed sequences (n = 4,167) were blasted to the compressed index of 18 GB E. coli sequence database (n = 745,409) in 5.4 minutes on a single node.
  • Nichol, Caroline J.; Drolet, Guillaume; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Wade, Tom; Sabater, Neus; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; MacLellan, Chris; Levula, Janne; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Atherton, Jon (2019)
    Solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be increasingly an useful proxy for the estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP), at a range of spatial scales. Here, we explore the seasonality in a continuous time series of canopy solar induced fluorescence (hereafter SiF) and its relation to canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy light use efficiency (LUE), and direct estimates of leaf level photochemical efficiency in an evergreen canopy. SiF was calculated using infilling in two bands from the incoming and reflected radiance using a pair of Ocean Optics USB2000+ spectrometers operated in a dual field of view mode, sampling at a 30 min time step using custom written automated software, from early spring through until autumn in 2011. The optical system was mounted on a tower of 18 m height adjacent to an eddy covariance system, to observe a boreal forest ecosystem dominated by Scots pine. (Pinus sylvestris) A Walz MONITORING-PAM, multi fluorimeter system, was simultaneously mounted within the canopy adjacent to the footprint sampled by the optical system. Following correction of the SiF data for O-2 and structural effects, SiF, SiF yield, LUE, the photochemicsl reflectance index (PRI), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) exhibited a seasonal pattern that followed GPP sampled by the eddy covariance system. Due to the complexities of solar azimuth and zenith angle (SZA) over the season on the SiF signal, correlations between SiF, SiF yield, GPP, and LUE were assessed on SZA <50 degrees and under strictly clear sky conditions. Correlations found, even under these screened scenarios, resulted around similar to r(2) = 0.3. The diurnal responses of SiF, SiF yield, PAM estimates of effective quantum yield (Delta F/Delta F-m(')), and meteorological parameters demonstrated some agreement over the diurnal cycle. The challenges inherent in SiF retrievals in boreal evergreen ecosystems are discussed.
  • Huang, Gwo-Jong; Bringi, Viswanathan N.; Newman, Andrew J.; Lee, Gyuwon; Moisseev, Dmitri; Notaros, Branislav M. (2019)
    Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) of snowfall has generally been expressed in power-law form between equivalent radar reflectivity factor (Z(e)) and liquid equivalent snow rate (SR). It is known that there is large variability in the prefactor of the power law due to changes in particle size distribution (PSD), density, and fall velocity, whereas the variability of the exponent is considerably smaller. The dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) technique can improve SR accuracy by estimating one of the PSD parameters (characteristic diameter), thus reducing the variability due to the prefactor. The two frequencies commonly used in dual-wavelength techniques are Ku- and Kabands. The basic idea of DWR is that the snow particle size-to-wavelength ratio is falls in the Rayleigh region at Ku-band but in the Mie region at Ka-band. We propose a method for snow rate estimation by using NASA D3R radar DWR and Ka-band reflectivity observations collected during a long-duration synoptic snow event on 30-31 January 2012 during the GCPEx (GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment). Since the particle mass can be estimated using 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD) fall speed data and hydrodynamic theory, we simulate the DWR and compare it directly with D3R radar measurements. We also use the 2DVD-based mass to compute the 2DVD-based SR. Using three different mass estimation methods, we arrive at three respective sets of Z-SR and SR(Z(h), DWR) relationships. We then use these relationships with D3R measurements to compute radar-based SR. Finally, we validate our method by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a well-shielded Pluvio gauge for the entire synoptic event.
  • Zou, Xiaochen; Haikarainen, Iina; Haikarainen, Iikka P.; Mäkelä, Pirjo; Mõttus, Matti; Pellikka, Petri (2018)
    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important biophysical variable for understanding the radiation use efficiency of field crops and their potential yield. On a large scale, LAI can be estimated with the help of imaging spectroscopy. However, recent studies have revealed that the leaf angle greatly affects the spectral reflectance of the canopy and hence imaging spectroscopy data. To investigate the effects of the leaf angle on LAI-sensitive narrowband vegetation indices, we used both empirical measurements from field crops and model-simulated data generated by the PROSAIL canopy reflectance model. We found the relationship between vegetation indices and LAI to be notably affected, especially when the leaf mean tilt angle (MTA) exceeded 70 degrees. Of the indices used in the study, the modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) was most strongly affected by leaf angles, while the blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI), the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), the modified simple ratio using the wavelength of 705 nm (MSR705), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were only affected for sparse canopies (LAI < 3) and MTA exceeding 60°. Generally, the effect of MTA on the vegetation indices increased as a function of decreasing LAI. The leaf chlorophyll content did not affect the relationship between BNDVI, MSAVI, NDVI, and LAI, while the green atmospherically resistant index (GARI), GNDVI, and MSR705 were the most strongly affected indices. While the relationship between SR and LAI was somewhat affected by both MTA and the leaf chlorophyll content, the simple ratio (SR) displayed only slight saturation with LAI, regardless of MTA and the chlorophyll content. The best index found in the study for LAI estimation was BNDVI, although it performed robustly only for LAI > 3 and showed considerable nonlinearity. Thus, none of the studied indices were well suited for across-species LAI estimation: information on the leaf angle would be required for remote LAI measurement, especially at low LAI values. Nevertheless, narrowband indices can be used to monitor the LAI of crops with a constant leaf angle distribution. Keywords: LAI; leaf inclination angle; vegetation indices; imaging spectroscopy; field crops
  • Saponaro, Giulia; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; Virtanen, Timo; De Leeuw, Gerrit (2017)
    Retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board the Aqua satellite, 12 years (2003-2014) of aerosol and cloud properties were used to statistically quantify aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) over the Baltic Sea region, including the relatively clean Fennoscandia and the more polluted central-eastern Europe. These areas allowed us to study the effects of different aerosol types and concentrations on macro-and microphysical properties of clouds: cloud effective radius (CER), cloud fraction (CF), cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud-top height (CTH). Aerosol properties used are aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (AE) and aerosol index (AI). The study was limited to low-level water clouds in the summer. The vertical distributions of the relationships between cloud properties and aerosols show an effect of aerosols on low-level water clouds. CF, COT, LWP and CTH tend to increase with aerosol loading, indicating changes in the cloud structure, while the effective radius of cloud droplets decreases. The ACI is larger at relatively low cloud-top levels, between 900 and 700 hPa. Most of the studied cloud variables were unaffected by the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS), except for the cloud fraction. The spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud parameters and ACI, here defined as the change in CER as a function of aerosol concentration for a fixed LWP, shows positive and statistically significant ACI over the Baltic Sea and Fennoscandia, with the former having the largest values. Small negative ACI values are observed in central-eastern Europe, suggesting that large aerosol concentrations saturate the ACI.
  • Tuononen, Minttu; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Sinclair, Victoria A. (2019)
    The presence of clouds and their characteristics have a strong impact on the radiative balance of the Earth and on the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Many applications require accurate forecasts of surface radiation on weather timescales, for example solar energy and UV radiation forecasts. Here we investigate how operational forecasts of low and mid-level clouds affect the accuracy of solar radiation forecasts. A total of 4 years of cloud and solar radiation observations from one site in Helsinki, Finland, are analysed. Cloud observations are obtained from a ceilometer and therefore we first develop algorithms to reliably detect cloud base, precipitation, and fog. These new algorithms are widely applicable for both operational use and research, such as in-cloud icing detection for the wind energy industry and for aviation. The cloud and radiation observations are compared to forecasts from the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) run operationally and developed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We develop methods to evaluate the skill of the cloud and radiation forecasts. These methods can potentially be extended to hundreds of sites globally. Over Helsinki, the measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is strongly influenced by its northerly location and the annual variation in cloudiness. Solar radiation forecast error is therefore larger in summer than in winter, but the relative error in the solar radiation forecast is more or less constant throughout the year. The mean overall bias in the GHI forecast is positive (8 W m(-2)). The observed and forecast distributions in cloud cover, at the spatial scales we are considering, are strongly skewed towards clear-sky and overcast situations. Cloud cover forecasts show more skill in winter when the cloud cover is predominantly overcast; in summer there are more clear-sky and broken cloud situations. A negative bias was found in forecast GHI for correctly forecast clear-sky cases and a positive bias in correctly forecast overcast cases. Temporal averaging improved the cloud cover forecast and hence decreased the solar radiation forecast error. The positive bias seen in overcast situations occurs when the model cloud has low values of liquid water path (LWP). We attribute this bias to the model having LWP values that are too low or the model optical properties for clouds with low LWP being incorrect.
  • Tripathi, Dhruv; Medlar, Alan; Glowacka, Dorota (ACM, 2019)
    Retrieval systems based on machine learning require both positive and negative examples to perform inference, which is usually obtained through relevance feedback. Unfortunately, explicit negative relevance feedback is thought to have poor user experience. Instead, systems typically rely on implicit negative feedback. In this study, we confirm that, in the case of binary relevance feedback, users prefer giving positive feedback ( and implicit negative feedback) over negative feedback ( and implicit positive feedback). These two feedback mechanisms are functionally equivalent, capturing the same information from the user, but differ in how they are framed. Despite users' preference for positive feedback, there were no significant differences in behaviour. As users were not shown how feedback influenced search results, we hypothesise that previously reported results could, at least in part, be due to cognitive biases related to user perception of negative feedback.
  • Rodriguez, E.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, Anu-Maija; de Leeuw, G. (2015)
    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the ENVISAT satellite is used to study aerosol properties. The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite data is based on the optimized fit of simulated and measured reflectances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The simulations are made using a radiative transfer model with a variety of representative aerosol properties. The retrieval process utilizes a combination of four aerosol components, each of which is defined by their (lognormal) size distribution and a complex refractive index: a weakly and a strongly absorbing fine-mode component, coarse mode sea salt aerosol and coarse mode desert dust aerosol). These components are externally mixed to provide the aerosol model which in turn is used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the AATSR aerosol retrieval algorithm, the mixing of these components is decided by minimizing the error function given by the sum of the differences between measured and calculated path radiances at 3-4 wavelengths, where the path radiances are varied by varying the aerosol component mixing ratios. The continuous variation of the fine-mode components allows for the continuous variation of the fine-mode aerosol absorption. Assuming that the correct aerosol model (i.e. the correct mixing fractions of the four components) is selected during the retrieval process, also other aerosol properties could be computed such as the single scattering albedo (SSA). Implications of this assumption regarding the ratio of the weakly/strongly absorbing fine-mode fraction are investigated in this paper by evaluating the validity of the SSA thus obtained. The SSA is indirectly estimated for aerosol plumes with moderate-to-high AOD resulting from wildfires in Russia in the summer of 2010. Together with the AOD, the SSA provides the aerosol absorbing optical depth (AAOD). The results are compared with AERONET data, i.e. AOD level 2.0 and SSA and AAOD inversion products. The RMSE (root mean square error) is 0.03 for SSA and 0.02 for AAOD lower than 0.05. The SSA is further evaluated by comparison with the SSA retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The SSA retrieved from both instruments show similar features, with generally lower AATSR-estimated SSA values over areas affected by wildfires.
  • Ye, Chaoxiong; Xu, Qianru; Liu, Xinyang; Astikainen, Piia; Zhu, Yongjie; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Qiang (2021)
    Previous studies have associated visual working memory (VWM) capacity with the use of internal attention. Retrocues, which direct internal attention to a particular object or feature dimension, can improve VWM performance (i.e., retrocue benefit, RCB). However, so far, no study has investigated the relationship between VWM capacity and the magnitudes of RCBs obtained from object-based and dimension-based retrocues. The present study explored individual differences in the magnitudes of object- and dimension-based RCBs and their relationships with VWM capacity. Participants completed a VWM capacity measurement, an object-based cue task, and a dimension-based cue task. We confirmed that both object- and dimension-based retrocues could improve VWM performance. We also found a significant positive correlation between the magnitudes of object- and dimension-based RCB indexes, suggesting a partly overlapping mechanism between the use of object- and dimensionbased retrocues. However, our results provided no evidence for a correlation between VWM capacity and the magnitudes of the object- or dimension-based RCBs. Although inadequate attention control is usually assumed to be associated with VWM capacity, the results suggest that the internal attention mechanism for using retrocues in VWM retention is independent of VWM capacity.
  • Petäjä, Tuukka; Tabakova, Ksenia; Manninen, Antti; Ezhova, Ekaterina; O'Connor, E.; Moisseev, Dmitri; Sinclair, Victoria; Backman, John; Levula, Janne; Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Paramonov, Mikhail; Räty, Meri; Äijälä, Mikko; Heikkinen, Liine; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Virtanen, A.; Ritsche, M.; Hickmon, N.; Pulik, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Worsnop, Douglas; Back, Jaana; Kulmala, Markku; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2022)
    Boreal forest acts as a carbon sink and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosols via emission of aerosol precursor compounds. However, these influences on the climate system are poorly quantified. Here we show direct observational evidence that aerosol emissions from the boreal forest biosphere influence warm cloud microphysics and cloud-aerosol interactions in a scale-dependent and highly dynamic manner. Analyses of in situ and ground-based remote-sensing observations from the SMEAR II station in Finland, conducted over eight months in 2014, reveal substantial increases in aerosol load over the forest one to three days after aerosol-poor marine air enters the forest environment. We find that these changes are consistent with secondary organic aerosol formation and, together with water-vapour emissions from evapotranspiration, are associated with changes in the radiative properties of warm, low-level clouds. The feedbacks between boreal forest emissions and aerosol-cloud interactions and the highly dynamic nature of these interactions in air transported over the forest over timescales of several days suggest boreal forests have the potential to mitigate climate change on a continental scale. Our findings suggest that even small changes in aerosol precursor emissions, whether due to changing climatic or anthropogenic factors, may substantially modify the radiative properties of clouds in moderately polluted environments. Emissions from the boreal forest biosphere can substantially increase aerosol load above the forest and influence the radiative properties of clouds, according to analysis of observations from a monitoring station in Finland.
  • Belazzougui, Djamal; Cunial, Fabio; Karkkainen, Juha; Makinen, Veli (2020)
    The field of succinct data structures has flourished over the past 16 years. Starting from the compressed suffix array by Grossi and Vitter (STOC 2000) and the FM-index by Ferragina and Manzini (FOCS 2000), a number of generalizations and applications of string indexes based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) have been developed, all taking an amount of space that is close to the input size in bits. In many large-scale applications, the construction of the index and its usage need to be considered as one unit of computation. For example, one can compare two genomes by building a common index for their concatenation and by detecting common substructures by querying the index. Efficient string indexing and analysis in small space lies also at the core of a number of primitives in the data-intensive field of high-throughput DNA sequencing. We report the following advances in string indexing and analysis: We show that the BWT of a string T is an element of {1, . . . , sigma}(n) can be built in deterministic O(n) time using just O(n log sigma) bits of space, where sigma We also show how to build many of the existing indexes based on the BWT, such as the compressed suffix array, the compressed suffix tree, and the bidirectional BWT index, in randomized O(n) time and in O(n log sigma) bits of space. The previously fastest construction algorithms for BWT, compressed suffix array and compressed suffix tree, which used O(n log sigma) bits of space, took O(n log log sigma) time for the first two structures and O(n log(epsilon) n) time for the third, where. is any positive constant smaller than one. Alternatively, the BWT could be previously built in linear time if one was willing to spend O(n log sigma log log(sigma) n) bits of space. Contrary to the state-of-the-art, our bidirectional BWT index supports every operation in constant time per element in its output.
  • Atherton, Jon; Liu, Weiwei; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2019)
    Solar-induced chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SIF), which is distributed over a relatively broad (similar to 200 nm) spectral range, is a signal intricately connected to the efficiency of photosynthesis and is now observable from space. Variants of the Fraunhofer Line Depth/Discriminator (FLD) method are used as the basis of retrieval algorithms for estimating SIF from space. Although typically unobserved directly, recent advances in FLD-based algorithms now facilitate the prediction (by model inversion) of the canopy emitted fluorescence spectrum from the discrete-feature FLD retrievals. Here we present first canopy scale measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence spectra emitted from Scots pine at two times of year, and also from a lingonberry dominated understory. We used a high power mul-tispectral Light Emitting Diode (LED) array to illuminate the respective canopies at night and measured under standardised conditions using a field spectrometer mounted in the nadir position above the canopy. We refer to the technique, which facilitates the in situ upscaling of a commonly measured leaf scale quantity to the canopy, as nocturnal LED-Induced chlorophyll a Fluorescence (LEDIF). The shape of the LEDIF spectra was dependant on the colour of the excitation light and also on the dominant species. Because we measured pine at two different times of year we were also able to show an increase in the canopy scale apparent quantum yield of fluorescence which was consistent with leaf-level increase in fluorescence yield recorded with a monitoring PAM fluorometer. The automation of the LEDIF technique could be used to estimate seasonal changes in canopy fluorescence spectra and yield from fixed or mobile platforms and provide a window into functional traits across species and architectures. LEDIF could also be used to evaluate FLD and inversion-based retrievals of canopy spectra, as well as different irradiance normalisation schemes typically applied to SIF data to account for the dependence of SIF on ambient light conditions.
  • Conde, Vasco; Nico, Giovanni; Mateus, Pedro; Catalão, João; Kontu, Anna; Gritsevich, Maria (2019)
    In this work we present a methodology for the mapping of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) temporal variations based on the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry technique and Sentinel-1 data. The shift in the interferometric phase caused by the refraction of the microwave signal penetrating the snow layer is isolated and exploited to generate maps of temporal variation of SWE from coherent SAR interferograms. The main advantage of the proposed methodology with respect to those based on the inversion of microwave SAR backscattering models is its simplicity and the reduced number of required in-situ SWE measurements. The maps, updated up to every 6 days, can attain a spatial resolution up to 20 m with sub-centimetre ASWE measurement accuracy in any weather and sun illumination condition. We present results obtained using the proposed methodology over a study area in Finland. These results are compared with in-situ measurements of ASWE, showing a reasonable match with a mean accuracy of about 6 mm.