Browsing by Subject "RETURNS"

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  • Bijwaard, Govert E.; Myrskylä, Mikko; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn (2017)
    A negative educational gradient has been found for many causes of death. This association may be partly explained by confounding factors that affect both educational attainment and mortality. We correct the cause-specific educational gradient for observed individual background and unobserved family factors using an innovative method based on months lost due to a specific cause of death re-weighted by the probability of attaining a higher educational level. We use data on men with brothers from the Swedish Military Conscription Registry (1951-1983), linked to administrative registers. This dataset of some 700,000 men allows us to distinguish between five education levels and many causes of death. The empirical results reveal that raising the educational level from primary to tertiary would result in an additional 20 months of survival between ages 18 and 63. This improvement in mortality is mainly attributable to fewer deaths from external causes. The highly educated gain more than nine months due to the reduction in deaths from external causes, but gain only two months due to the reduction in cancer mortality and four months due to the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Ignoring confounding would lead to an underestimation of the gains by educational attainment, especially for the less educated. Our results imply that if the education distribution of 50,000 Swedish men from the 1951 cohort were replaced with that of the corresponding 1983 cohort, 22% of the person-years that were lost to death between ages 18 and 63 would have been saved for this cohort. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kerr, Sari; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope (2020)
    We examine the impact of an information intervention offered to 97 randomly chosen high schools on post-secondary education applications and enrollment in Finland. Graduating students in treatment schools were surveyed and given information on the labor market prospects associated with detailed post-secondary programs. We find that students who were the most likely to update their beliefs due to the intervention started to apply to programs associated with higher earnings. However, this subgroup is too small to give rise to a statistically or economically significant impact on the overall application or enrollment patterns.
  • Koster, Jeremy; McElreath, Richard; Hill, Kim; Yu, Douglas; Shepard, Glenn; Van Vliet, Nathalie; Gurven, Michael; Trumble, Benjamin; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas; Codding, Brian; Coad, Lauren; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Winterhalder, Bruce; Lupo, Karen; Schmitt, Dave; Sillitoe, Paul; Franzen, Margaret; Alvard, Michael; Venkataraman, Vivek; Kraft, Thomas; Endicott, Kirk; Beckerman, Stephen; Marks, Stuart A.; Headland, Thomas; Pangau-Adam, Margaretha; Siren, Anders; Kramer, Karen; Greaves, Russell; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Gueze, Maximilien; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Ellen, Roy; Ziker, John; Nielsen, Martin R.; Ready, Elspeth; Healey, Christopher; Ross, Cody (2020)
    Human adaptation depends on the integration of slow life history, complex production skills, and extensive sociality. Refining and testing models of the evolution of human life history and cultural learning benefit from increasingly accurate measurement of knowledge, skills, and rates of production with age. We pursue this goal by inferring hunters' increases and declines of skill from approximately 23,000 hunting records generated by more than 1800 individuals at 40 locations. The data reveal an average age of peak productivity between 30 and 35 years of age, although high skill is maintained throughout much of adulthood. In addition, there is substantial variation both among individuals and sites. Within study sites, variation among individuals depends more on heterogeneity in rates of decline than in rates of increase. This analysis sharpens questions about the coevolution of human life history and cultural adaptation.