Browsing by Subject "RIBOSOMAL-PROTEINS"

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  • Gawronski, Piotr; Burdiak, Pawel; Scharff, Lars B.; Mielecki, Jakub; Gorecka, Magdalena; Zaborowska, Magdalena; Leister, Dario; Waszczak, Cezary; Karpinski, Stanislaw (2021)
    Chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling is essential for cell function, acclimation to fluctuating environmental conditions, plant growth and development. The vast majority of chloroplast proteins are nuclear-encoded, and must be imported into the organelle after synthesis in the cytoplasm. This import is essential for the development of fully functional chloroplasts. On the other hand, functional chloroplasts act as sensors of environmental changes and can trigger acclimatory responses that influence nuclear gene expression. Signaling via mobile transcription factors (TFs) has been recently recognized as a way of communication between organelles and the nucleus. In this study, we performed a targeted reverse genetic screen to identify dual-localized TFs involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling during stress responses. We found that CHLOROPLAST IMPORT APPARATUS 2 (CIA2) has a functional plastid transit peptide, and can be located both in chloroplasts and the nucleus. Further, we found that CIA2, along with its homolog CIA2-like (CIL) are involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis responses to UV-AB, high light and heat shock. Finally, our results suggest that both CIA2 and CIL are crucial for chloroplast translation. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of signaling events in the chloroplast-nucleus cross-talk.
  • Costantini, Alice; Muurinen, Mari H.; Mäkitie, Outi (2021)
    In the last decade, the widespread use of massively parallel sequencing has considerably boosted the number of novel gene discoveries in monogenic skeletal diseases with short stature. Defects in genes playing a role in the maintenance and function of the growth plate, the site of longitudinal bone growth, are a well-known cause of skeletal diseases with short stature. However, several genes involved in extracellular matrix composition or maintenance as well as genes partaking in various biological processes have also been characterized. This review aims to describe the latest genetic findings in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias, and some monogenic forms of isolated short stature. Some examples of novel genetic mechanisms leading to skeletal conditions with short stature will be described. Strategies on how to successfully characterize novel skeletal phenotypes with short stature and genetic approaches to detect and validate novel gene-disease correlations will be discussed in detail. In summary, we review the latest gene discoveries underlying skeletal diseases with short stature and emphasize the importance of characterizing novel molecular mechanisms for genetic counseling, for an optimal management of the disease, and for therapeutic innovations.
  • Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    BackgroundInfection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.ResultsIn this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.ConclusionsOur results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.