Browsing by Subject "RICH"

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  • Cinderby, Steve; Archer, Diane; Mehta, Vishal K.; Neale, Chris; Opiyo, Romanus; Pateman, Rachel M.; Muhoza, Cassilde; Adelina, Charrlotte; Tuhkanen, Heidi (2021)
    To ensure future sustainability, cities need to consider concepts of livability and resident wellbeing alongside environmental, economic and infrastructure development equity. The current rapid urbanization experienced in many regions is leading to sustainability challenges, but also offers the opportunity to deliver infrastructure supporting the social aspects of cities and the services that underpin them alongside economic growth. Unfortunately, evidence of what is needed to deliver urban wellbeing is largely absent from the global south. This paper contributes to filling this knowledge gap through a novel interdisciplinary mixed methods study undertaken in two rapidly changing cities (one Thai and one Kenyan) using qualitative surveys, subjective wellbeing and stress measurements, and spatial analysis of urban infrastructure distribution. We find the absence of basic infrastructure (including waste removal, water availability and quality) unsurprisingly causes significant stress for city residents. However, once these services are in place, smaller variations (inequalities) in social (crime, tenure) and environmental (noise, air quality) conditions begin to play a greater role in determining differences in subjective wellbeing across a city. Our results indicate that spending time in urban greenspaces can mitigate the stressful impacts of city living even for residents of informal neighborhoods. Our data also highlights the importance of places that enable social interactions supporting wellbeing-whether green or built. These results demonstrate the need for diversity and equity in the provision of public realm spaces to ensure social and spatial justice. These findings strengthen the need to promote long term livability in LMIC urban planning alongside economic growth, environmental sustainability, and resilience.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Le Moing, Vincent; Blain, Hubert; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; Zuberbier, Torsten; Torre, Raphael de la; Lozano, Nieves Pizarro; Reynes, Jacques; Bedbrook, Anna; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Haahtela, Tari; Iaccarino, Guido; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Melén, Erik; Mullol, Joaquim; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Valiulis, Arunas; Anto, Josep M. (2021)
    COVID-19 is described in a clinical case involving a patient who proposed the hypothesis that Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-interacting nutrients may help to prevent severe COVID-19 symptoms. Capsules of broccoli seeds containing glucoraphanin were being taken before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were continued daily for over a month after the first COVID-19 symptoms. They were found to reduce many of the symptoms rapidly and for a duration of 6-12 h by repeated dosing. When the patient was stable but still suffering from cough and nasal obstruction when not taking the broccoli capsules, a double-blind induced cough challenge confirmed the speed of onset of the capsules (less than 10 min). A second clinical case with lower broccoli doses carried out during the cytokine storm confirmed the clinical benefits already observed. A third clinical case showed similar effects at the onset of symptoms. In the first clinical trial, we used a dose of under 600 mmol per day of glucoraphanin. However, such a high dose may induce pharmacologic effects that require careful examination before the performance of any study. It is likely that the fast onset of action is mediated through the TRPA1 channel. These experimental clinical cases represent a proof-of-concept confirming the hypothesis that Nrf2interacting nutrients are effective in COVID-19. However, this cannot be used in practice before the availability of further safety data, and confirmation is necessary through proper trials on efficacy and safety.
  • Niemela, Tytti Maaria; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Uriel Carmona, Jorge; Lopez, Catalina (2019)
    Background: Inflammatory and degenerative activity inside the joint can be studied in vivo by analysis of synovial fluid biomarkers. In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, several anabolic and anti-inflammatory substances are produced during the disease process. They counteract the catabolic effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus diminish the cartilage damage. The response of synovial fluid biomarkers after intra-articular hyaluronan injection, alone or in combination with other substances, has been examined only in a few equine studies. The effects of hyaluronan on some pro-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E-2, have been documented but especially the effects on synovial fluid anti-inflammatory mediators are less studied. In animal models hyaluronan has been demonstrated to reduce pain via protecting nociceptive nerve endings and by blocking pain receptor channels. However, the results obtained for pain-relief of human osteoarthritis are contradictory. The aim of the study was to measure the synovial fluid IL-1ra, PDGF-BB, TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha concentrations before and after surgically induced cartilage defect, and following intra-articular hyaluronan injection in horses. Eight Standardbred horses underwent bilateral arthroscopic surgeries of their intercarpal joints under general anaesthesia, and cartilage defect was created on the dorsal edge of the third carpal bone of one randomly selected intercarpal joint of each horse. Five days post-surgery, one randomly selected intercarpal joint was injected intra-articular with 3 mL HA (20 mg/mL). Results: Operation type had no significant effect on the synovial fluid IL-1ra, PDGF-BB, TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha concentrations but compared with baseline, synovial fluid IL-1ra and TNF-alpha concentrations increased. Intra-articular hyaluronan had no significant effect on the biomarker concentrations but a trend of mild improvement in the clinical signs of intra-articular inflammation was seen. Conclusions: Creation of the cartilage defect and sham-operation lead to an increase of synovial fluid IL-1ra and TNF-alpha concentrations but changes in concentrations of anabolic growth factors TGF-beta(1) and PDGF-BB could not be documented 5 days after the arthroscopy. Intra-articular hyaluronan was well tolerated. Further research is needed to document possible treatment effects of intra-articular hyaluronan on the synovial fluid biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism.
  • Pitkänen, Hanna; Jouppila, Annukka; Lemponen, Marja; Ilmakunnas , Minna; Ahonen, Jouni; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Introduction: Factor XIII (FXIII) cross-links fibrin, completing blood coagulation. Congenital FXIII deficiency is managed with plasma-derived FXIII (pdFXIII) or recombinant FXIII (rFXIII) concentrates. Aim: As the mechanisms protecting patients with low FXIII levels ( Methods: Patients received initially rFXIII (35 IU/kg, A-subunit) following with pdFXIII at 1250 IU or 2500 IU (1230 IU/kg) monthly. TG (CAT), thromboelastometry (ROTEM), prothrombin fragments F1 + 2, fibrinogen and FXIII activity (FXIII:C) were measured at baseline and one-hour recovery. Results: FXIII was at the target level of 20 +/- 6 IU/dL at the 4-week trough. rFXIII corrected FXIII to 98 +/- 15 and high-dose pdFXIII to a level of 90 +/- 6, whereas low-dose/half dose pdFXIII reached 45 +/- 4 IU/dL. Although fibrinogen (Clauss Method) was normal, coagulation in FIBTEM was impaired, which FXIII administration tended to correct. CAT implied 1.6- to 1.9-fold enhanced TG, which FXIII administration normalized. Inhibition of fibrin polymerization by Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro peptide mimicked FXIII deficiency in CAT by enhancing TG both in control and FXIII recovery plasma. Antithrombin, alpha 2-macroblobulin-thrombin complex and prothrombin were normal, whereas F1 + 2 were elevated compatible with in vivo TG. Discussion: FXIII deficiency impairs fibrinogen function and fibrin formation simultaneously enhancing TG on the poorly polymerizing fibrin strands, when fibrin's antithrombin I -like function is absent. Our study suggests an inverse link between low FXIII levels and enhanced TG modifying structure-function relationship of fibrin to support hemostasis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Srur-Lavi, Onit; Miikkulainen, Ville; Markovsky, Boris; Grinblat, Judith; Talianker, Michael; Fleger, Yafit; Cohen-Taguri, Gili; Mor, Albert; Tal-Yosef, Yosef; Aurbach, Doron (2017)
    In this paper, we studied the influence of LiAlO2 coatings of 0.5, 1 and 2 nm thickness prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition onto LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, on their electrochemical behavior at 30 and 60 degrees C. It was demonstrated that upon cycling, 2 nm LiAlO2 coated electrodes displayed similar to 3 times lower capacity fading and lower voltage hysteresis comparing to bare electrodes. We established a correlation among the thickness of the LiAlO2 coating and parameters of the self-discharge processes at 30 and 60 degrees C. Significant results on the elevated temperature cycling and aging of bare and LiAlO2 coated electrodes at 4.3 V were obtained and analyzed for the first time. By analyzing of X-ray diffraction patterns of bare and 2 nm coated LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes after cycling, we concluded that cycled materials preserved their original structure described by R-3m space group and no additional phases were detected. (c) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.
  • Ahaliabadeh, Zahra; Miikkulainen, Ville; Mäntymäki, Miia; Mousavihashemi, Seyedabolfazl; Lahtinen, Jouko; Lide, Yao; Jiang, Hua; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Kankaanpää, Timo; Kallio, Tanja (2021)
    Nickel-rich layered oxides, such as LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NMC622), are high-capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, this material faces issues, such as poor durability at high cut-off voltages (>4.4 V vs Li/Li+), which mainly originate from an unstable electrode-electrolyte interface. To reduce the side reactions at the interfacial zone and increase the structural stability of the NMC622 materials, nanoscale (