Browsing by Subject "RICHNESS"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Halliday, Fletcher W.; Rohr, Jason R.; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2020)
    The dilution effect predicts increasing biodiversity to reduce the risk of infection, but the generality of this effect remains unresolved. Because biodiversity loss generates predictable changes in host community competence, we hypothesised that biodiversity loss might drive the dilution effect. We tested this hypothesis by reanalysing four previously published meta-analyses that came to contradictory conclusions regarding generality of the dilution effect. In the context of biodiversity loss, our analyses revealed a unifying pattern: dilution effects were inconsistently observed for natural biodiversity gradients, but were commonly observed for biodiversity gradients generated by disturbances causing losses of biodiversity. Incorporating biodiversity loss into tests of generality of the dilution effect further indicated that scale-dependency may strengthen the dilution effect only when biodiversity gradients are driven by biodiversity loss. Together, these results help to resolve one of the most contentious issues in disease ecology: the generality of the dilution effect.
  • Kuussaari, Mikko; Toivonen, Marjaana; Heliola, Janne; Poyry, Juha; Mellado, Jorge; Ekroos, Johan; Hyyrylainen, Vesa; Vähä-Piikkiö, Inkeri; Tiainen, Juha (2021)
    Good knowledge on how increasing urbanization affects biodiversity is essential in order to preserve biodiversity in urban green spaces. We examined how urban development affects species richness and total abundance of butterflies as well as the occurrence and abundance of individual species within the Helsinki metropolitan area in Northern Europe. Repeated butterfly counts in 167 separate 1-km-long transects within Helsinki covered the entire urbanization gradient, quantified by human population density and the proportion of built-up area (within a 50-m buffer surrounding each butterfly transect). We found consistently negative effects of both human population density and built-up area on all studied butterfly variables, though butterflies responded markedly more negatively to increasing human population density than to built-up area. Responses in butterfly species richness and total abundance showed higher variability in relation to proportion of built-up area than to human density, especially in areas of high human density. Increasing human density negatively affected both the abundance and the occurrence of 47% of the 19 most abundant species, whereas, for the proportion of built-up area, the corresponding percentages were 32% and 32%, respectively. Species with high habitat specificity and low mobility showed higher sensitivity to urbanization (especially high human population density) than habitat generalists and mobile species that dominated the urban butterfly communities. Our results suggest that human population density provides a better indicator of urbanization effects on butterflies compared to the proportion of built-up area. The generality of this finding should be verified in other contexts and taxonomic groups.
  • Halme, Panu; Purhonen, Jenna; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Komonen, Atte; Juutilainen, Katja; Abrego, Nerea (2019)
    Dead wood profile of a forest is a useful tool for describing forest characteristics and assessing forest disturbance history. Nevertheless, there are few studies on dead wood profiles, including both coarse and fine dead wood, and on the effect of sampling intensity on the dead wood estimates. In a semi-natural boreal forest, we measured every dead wood item over 2 cm in diameter from 80 study plots. From eight plots, we further recorded dead wood items below 2 cm in diameter. Based on these data we constructed the full dead wood profile, i.e. the overall number of dead wood items and their distribution among different tree species, volumes of different size and decay stage categories. We discovered that while the number of small dead wood items was immense, their number dropped drastically from the diameter below 1 cm to diameters 2-3 cm. Different tree species had notably different abundance-diameter distribution patterns: spruce dead wood comprised most strikingly the smallest diameter fractions, whereas aspen dead wood comprised a larger share of large-diameter items. Most of the dead wood volume constituted of large pieces (>10 cm in diameter), and 62% of volume was birch. The variation in the dead wood estimates was small for the numerically dominant tree species and smallest diameter categories, but high for the sub-dominant tree species and larger size categories. In conclusion, the more the focus is on rare tree species and large dead wood items, the more comprehensive should the sampling be.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    The use ofn-dimensional hypervolumes in trait-based ecology is rapidly increasing. By representing the functional space of a species or community as a Hutchinsonian niche, the abstract Euclidean space defined by a set of independent axes corresponding to individuals or species traits, these multidimensional techniques show great potential for the advance of functional ecology theory. In the panorama of existing methods for delineating multidimensional spaces, therpackagehypervolume(Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 2014, 595-609) is currently the most used. However, functions for calculating the standard set of functional diversity (FD) indices-richness, divergence and regularity-have not been developed within thehypervolumeframework yet. This gap is delaying its full exploitation in functional ecology, meanwhile preventing the possibility to compare its performance with that of other methods. We develop a set of functions to calculate FD indices based onn-dimensional hypervolumes, including alpha (richness), beta (and respective components), dispersion, evenness, contribution and originality. Altogether, these indices provide a coherent framework to explore the primary mathematical components of FD within a multidimensional setting. These new functions can work either with hypervolume objects or with raw data (species presence or abundance and their traits) as input data, and are versatile in terms of input parameters and options. These functions are implemented withinbat(Biodiversity Assessment Tools), anrpackage for biodiversity assessments. As a coherent corpus of functional indices based on a common algorithm, it opens the possibility to fully explore the strengths of the Hutchinsonian niche concept in community ecology research.
  • Rigal, Francois; Cardoso, Pedro; Lobo, Jorge M.; Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Amorim, Isabel R.; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2018)
    Aim: Land-use change typically goes hand in hand with the introduction of exotic-species, which mingle with indigenous species to form novel assemblages. Here, we compare the functional structure of indigenous and exotic elements of ground-dwelling arthropod assemblages across four land-uses of varying management intensity. Location: Terceira Island (Azores, North Atlantic). Methods: We used pitfall traps to sample arthropods in 36 sites across the four land-uses and collated traits related to dispersal ability, body size and resource use. For both indigenous and exotic species, we examined the impact of land-uses on trait diversity and tested for the existence of non-random assembly processes using null models. We analysed differences in trait composition among land-uses for both indigenous and exotic species with multivariate analyses. We used point-biserial correlations to identity traits significantly correlated with specific land-uses for each element. Results: We recorded 86 indigenous and 116 exotic arthropod species. Under high-intensity land-use, both indigenous and exotic elements showed significant trait clustering. Trait composition strongly shifted across land-uses, with indigenous and exotic species being functionally dissimilar in all land-uses. Large-bodied herbivores dominated exotic elements in low-intensity land-uses, while small-bodied spiders dominated exotic elements in high-intensity land-uses. In contrast, with increasing land-use intensity, indigenous species changed from functionally diverse to being dominated by piercing and cutting herbivores. Main conclusions: Our study revealed two main findings: first, in high-intensity - land-uses, trait clustering characterized both indigenous and exotic elements; second, exotic species differed in their functional profile from indigenous species in all land-use types. Overall, our results provide new insights into the functional role of exotic species in a land-use context, suggesting that, in agricultural landscape, exotic species may contribute positively to the maintenance of some ecosystem functions.
  • Plassais, Jonathan; Gbikpi-Benissan, Guillaume; Figarol, Marine; Scheperjans, Filip; Gorochov, Guy; Derkinderen, Pascal; Cervino, Alessandra C. L. (2021)
    The gut-brain axis may play a central role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Dozens of case-control studies have been carried out to identify bacterial markers by the use of targeted metagenomics. Alterations of several taxonomic profiles have been confirmed across several populations, however, no consensus has been made regarding alpha-diversity. A recent publication has described and validated a novel method based on richness and evenness measures of the gut microbiome in order to reduce the complexity and multiplicity of alpha-diversity indices. We used these recently described richness and evenness composite measures to investigate the potential link between gut microbiome alpha-diversity and neurological disorders and to determine to what extent it could be used as a marker to diagnose neurological disorders from stool samples. We performed an exhaustive review of the literature to identify original published clinical studies including 16S rRNA gene sequencing on Parkinson's disease, multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Richness and evenness factors loadings were quantified from sequencing files in addition with the Shannon diversity index. For each disease, we performed a meta-analysis comparing the indices between patients and healthy controls. Seven studies were meta-analysed for Parkinson's disease, corresponding to 1067 subjects (631 Parkinson's Disease/436 healthy controls). Five studies were meta-analysed for multiple sclerosis, corresponding to 303 subjects (164 Multiple Sclerosis/139 healthy controls). For Alzheimer's disease, the meta-analysis was not done as only two studies matched our criteria. Neither richness nor evenness was significantly altered in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis patients in comparison to healthy controls (P-value > 0.05). Shannon index was neither associated with neurological disorders (P-value > 0.05). After adjusting for age and sex, none of the alpha-diversity measures were associated with Parkinson's Disease. This is the first report investigating systematically alpha-diversity and its potential link to neurological disorders. Our study has demonstrated that unlike in other gastro-intestinal, immune and metabolic disorders, loss of bacterial diversity is not associated with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.
  • Heinzel, Sebastian; Aho, Velma T. E.; Suenkel, Ulrike; von Thaler, Anna-Katharina; Schulte, Claudia; Deuschle, Christian; Paulin, Lars; Hantunen, Sari; Brockmann, Kathrin; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Auvinen, Petri; Scheperjans, Filip (2020)
    Objective Alterations of the gut microbiome in Parkinson disease (PD) have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, little is known about whether such alterations precede disease onset and how they relate to risk and prodromal markers of PD. We investigated associations of these features with gut microbiome composition. Methods Established risk and prodromal markers of PD as well as factors related to diet/lifestyle, bowel function, and medication were studied in relation to bacterial alpha-/beta-diversity, enterotypes, and differential abundance in stool samples of 666 elderly TREND (Tubingen Evaluation of Risk Factors for Early Detection of Neurodegeneration) study participants. Results Among risk and prodromal markers, physical activity, occupational solvent exposure, and constipation showed associations with alpha-diversity. Physical activity, sex, constipation, possible rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and smoking were associated with beta-diversity. Subthreshold parkinsonism and physical activity showed an interaction effect. Among other factors, age and urate-lowering medication were associated with alpha- and beta-diversity. Physical inactivity and constipation were highest in individuals with theFirmicutes-enriched enterotype. Constipation was lowest and subthreshold parkinsonism least frequent in individuals with thePrevotella-enriched enterotype. Differentially abundant taxa were linked to constipation, physical activity, possible RBD, smoking, and subthreshold parkinsonism. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, olfactory loss, depression, orthostatic hypotension, urinary/erectile dysfunction, PD family history, and the prodromal PD probability showed no significant microbiome associations. Interpretation Several risk and prodromal markers of PD are associated with gut microbiome composition. However, the impact of the gut microbiome on PD risk and potential microbiome-dependent subtypes in the prodrome of PD need further investigation based on prospective clinical and (multi)omics data in incident PD cases. ANN NEUROL 2020
  • Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh Sadat; Farhadi Qomi, Masood; Naimi, Babak; Roedder, Dennis; Kazemi, Seyed Mandi (2018)
    Species distribution models estimate the relationship between species occurrences and environmental and spatial characteristics. Herein, we used maximum entropy distribution modelling (MaxEnt) for predicting the potential distribution of the Plateau Snake Skink Ophiomorus nuchalis on the Iranian Plateau, using a small number of occurrence records (i.e. 10) and environmental variables derived from remote sensing. The MaxEnt model had a high success rate according to test AUC scores (0.912). A remotely sensed enhanced vegetation index (39.1%), and precipitation of the driest month (15.4%) were the most important environmental variables that explained the geographical distribution of O. nuchalis. Our results are congruent with previous studies suggesting that suitable habitat of O. nuchalis is limited to the central Iranian Plateau, although mountain ranges in western and eastern Iran might be environmentally suitable but not accessible.
  • Aikio, Sami; Ramula, Satu; Muola, Anne; von Numers, Mikael (2020)
    The extrinsic determinants hypothesis emphasizes the essential role of environmental heterogeneity in species' colonization. Consequently, high resident species diversity can increase community susceptibility to colonizations because good habitats may support more species that are functionally similar to colonizers. On the other hand, colonization success is also likely to depend on species traits. We tested the relative importance of environmental characteristics and species traits in determining colonization success using census data of 587 vascular plant species collected about 70 yr apart from 471 islands in the archipelago of SW Finland. More specifically, we explored potential new colonization as a function of island properties (e.g. location, area, habitat diversity, number of resident species per unit area), species traits (e.g. plant height, life-form, dispersal vector, Ellenberg indicator values, association with human impact), and species' historical distributions (number of inhabited islands, nearest occurrence). Island properties and species' historical distributions were more effective than plant traits in explaining colonization outcomes. Contrary to the extrinsic determinants hypothesis, colonization success was neither associated with resident species diversity nor habitat diversity per se, although colonization was lowest on sparsely vegetated islands. Our findings lead us to propose that while plant traits related to dispersal and establishment may enhance colonization, predictions of plant colonizations primarily require understanding of habitat properties and species' historical distributions.
  • Kyro, Kukka; Brenneisen, Stephan; Kotze, D. Johan; Szallies, Alexander; Gerner, Magdalena; Lehvavirta, Susanna (2018)
    Green roofs are a promising tool to return nature to cities and mitigate biodiversity loss brought about by urbanization. Yet, we lack basic information on how green roofs contribute to biodiversity and how their placement in the urban landscape affects different taxa and community composition. We studied the effects of local and landscape variables on beetle communities on green roofs. We expected that both local roof characteristics and urban landscape composition shape communities, but that their relative importance depends on species characteristics. Using pitfall traps, we collected beetles during two consecutive years from 17 green roofs in Basel, Switzerland. We evaluated the contribution of six local and six landscape variables to beetle community structure and to the responses of individual species. Communities on the roofs consisted of mobile and open dry-habitat species, with both local and landscape variables playing a role in structuring these communities. At the individual species level, local roof variables were more important than characteristics of the surrounding urban landscape. The most influential factors affecting the abundances of beetle species were vegetation, described as forb and grass cover (mainly positive), and roof age (mainly negative). Therefore, we suggest that the careful planning of green roofs with diverse vegetation is essential to increase their value as habitat for beetles. In addition, while beetle communities on green roofs can be diverse regardless of their placement in the urban landscape, the lack of wingless species indicates the need to increase the connectivity of green roofs to ground level habitats.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2018)
    Mining is one of the key industries in the world and mine water pollution is a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Historical monitoring data on the pollution history and impacts in aquatic ecosystems, however, are rarely available, so paleolimnological methods are required to explore the consequences of past pollution. We studied the history of cladoceran community dynamics in Lake Kirkkojarvi, southern Finland, including the periods before, during and after mining. We analyzed the geochemical composition and cladoceran subfossil remains in a Pb-210-dated sediment core to evaluate the magnitude, rate, and direction of cladoceran community changes through time. The cladoceran community was altered significantly by mining activity that occurred during the mid-twentieth century. During more recent times, however, eutrophication effects have overridden the impacts of mining. After mining ceased, the cladoceran community underwent an abrupt regime shift towards taxa that reflect more eutrophic conditions. This change was caused by intensive farming activity and fertilizer use over the past few decades. The recent history of Lake Kirkkojarvi is a textbook example of a regime shift triggered by multiple human-caused stressors. Our findings also highlight the utility of cladocerans as bio-indicators in pollution research and illustrate the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to anthropogenic modification.
  • Purhonen, Jenna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Halme, Panu; Komonen, Atte; Huhtinen, Seppo; Kotiranta, Heikki; Laessoe, Thomas; Abrego, Nerea (2020)
    Tree species is one of the most important determinants of wood-inhabiting fungal community composition, yet its relationship with fungal reproductive and dispersal traits remains poorly understood. We studied fungal communities (total of 657 species) inhabiting broadleaved and coniferous dead wood (total of 192 logs) in 12 semi-natural boreal forests. We utilized a trait-based hierarchical joint species distribution model to examine how the relationship between dead wood quality and species occurrence correlates with reproductive and dispersal morphological traits. Broadleaved trees had higher species richness than conifers, due to discomycetoids and pyrenomycetoids specializing in them. Resupinate and pileate species were generally specialized in coniferous dead wood. Fungi inhabiting broadleaved trees had larger and more elongated spores than fungi in conifers. Spore size was larger and spore shape more spherical in species occupying large dead wood units. These results indicate the selective effect of dead wood quality, visible not only in species diversity, but also in reproductive and dispersal traits. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.
  • Popov, S.; Milicic, M.; Diti, I.; Marko, O.; Sommaggio, D.; Markov, Z.; Vujic, A. (2017)
    Spatial and temporal differences in landscape patterns are of considerable interest for understanding ecological processes. In this study, we assessed habitat quality by using the Syrph The Net database and data on decreasing species richness over a 25-year period for the two largest phytophagous hoverfly genera (Merodon and Cheilosia). Furthermore, within this time frame, we explored congruence between ecological responses (species richness and Biodiversity Maintenance Function for these two genera) and landscape structural changes through correlation analysis. Our results indicate that landscapes have experienced changes in aggregation, isolation/connectivity and landscape diversity, with these parameters being significantly correlated with Cheilosia species richness loss and habitat quality. We conclude that the genus Cheilosia is a good bioindicator that can highlight not only the current quality of an area but also temporal changes in landscape patterns.
  • Kangas, Johanna; Kullberg, Peter; Pekkonen, Minna; Kotiaho, Janne S; Ollikainen, Markku (2021)
    The rates of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss are alarming and current conservation efforts are not sufficient to stop them. The need for new tools is urgent. One approach is biodiversity offsetting: a developer causing habitat degradation provides an improvement in biodiversity so that the lost ecological value is compensated for. Accurate and ecologically meaningful measurement of losses and estimation of gains are essential in reaching the no net loss goal or any other desired outcome of biodiversity offsetting. The chosen calculation method strongly influences biodiversity outcomes. We compare a multiplicative method, which is based on a habitat condition index developed for measuring the state of ecosystems in Finland to two alternative approaches for building a calculation method: an additive function and a simpler matrix tool. We examine the different logic of each method by comparing the resulting trade ratios and examine the costs of offsetting for developers, which allows us to compare the cost-effectiveness of different types of offsets. The results show that the outcomes of the calculation methods differ in many aspects. The matrix approach is not able to consider small changes in the ecological state. The additive method gives always higher biodiversity values compared to the multiplicative method. The multiplicative method tends to require larger trade ratios than the additive method when trade ratios are larger than one. Using scoring intervals instead of using continuous components may increase the difference between the methods. In addition, the calculation methods have differences in dealing with the issue of substitutability.
  • Opedal, Øystein H.; von Numers, Mikael; Tikhonov, Gleb; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    Abstract Predicting the dynamics of biotic communities is difficult because species? environmental responses are not independent, but covary due to shared or contrasting ecological strategies and the influence of species interactions. We used latent-variable joint species distribution models to analyse paired historical and contemporary inventories of 585 vascular plant species on 471 islands in the south-west Finnish archipelago. Larger, more heterogeneous islands were characterized by higher colonisation rates and lower extinction rates. Ecological and taxonomical species groups explained small but detectable proportions of variance in species? environmental responses. To assess the potential influence of species interactions on community dynamics, we estimated species associations as species-to-species residual correlations for historical occurrences, for colonisations, and for extinctions. Historical species associations could to some extent predict joint colonisation patterns, but the overall estimated influence of species associations on community dynamics was weak. These results illustrate the benefits of considering metacommunity dynamics within a joint framework, but also suggest that any influence of species interactions on community dynamics may be hard to detect from observational data.
  • Laaksonen, Mervi; Punttila, Pekka; Siitonen, Juha; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    Boreal forests have been intensively managed, influencing the spatiotemporal occurrence of dead wood, and leading to changes in saproxylic species assemblages. Some particular traits, such as habitat specialization, can be expected to make species sensitive to alterations in the amount, dynamics and heterogeneity of dead-wood habitats. We compared the saproxylic beetle assemblages of 320 dead standing Scots pines within 52 pine forest stands in three regions in Finland and Russia with contrasting forest-use history. We used the joint species distribution model of Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) to analyze how the beetle communities respond to alteration of forest structure. We applied scenario simulations to examine relationships between selected species traits and environmental gradients. Our results show that tree-level characteristics were the most important variables shaping the community composition in dead standing pines, but that also the characteristics of the forest stand as well as the larger-scale landscape context affected assemblage composition. Most importantly, managed forest stands and managed forest landscapes had lost species that are specialized in their resource use. The generalist species thriving in managed forest stands and managed forest landscapes were able to utilize dead wood of small diameter and man-made dead wood types, such as cut stumps and logging residues. We conclude that forest management not only reduces the amount of resources for saproxylic beetles locally, but has also landscape-level effects so that the most vulnerable species with specialized resource use and short-lived substrates can be lost also from remnant natural forest patches embedded in managed landscapes.
  • Rissanen, Tuuli Katariina; Niittynen, Pekka; Soininen, Janne; Luoto, Miska (2021)
    Aim To examine how snow cover and permafrost affect plant species distributions at a subcontinental extent. Location Mountain realm of Fennoscandia, northern Europe. Time period Species data from 1 January 1990-25 February 2019. Major taxa studied Arctic-alpine and boreal vascular plants. Methods We examined the effect of snow persistence and permafrost occurrence on the distributions of arctic-alpine and boreal plant species while controlling for climate, topography and geological factors. Data comprised 475,811 observations from 671 species in the Fennoscandian mountains. We investigated the relationships between species distributions and environmental variables using four modelling methods and ensemble modelling building on both non-spatial and spatial models. Results Snow persistence was the most important driver of plant species distributions, with the greatest variable importance for both arctic-alpine (38.2%) and boreal (49.9%) species. Permafrost had a consistent minor effect on the predicted distributions. Arctic-alpine plants occur in areas with long snow persistence and permafrost, whereas boreal species showed the opposite habitat preferences. Main conclusions Our results highlight the importance of snow persistence in driving the distribution of vascular plant species in cold environments at a subcontinental scale. The notable contribution of the cryosphere to plant species distribution models indicates that the inclusion of snow information in particular may improve our understanding and model predictions of biogeographical patterns in cold regions.
  • Reverte Saiz, Sara; Reverte Saiz, Sara; Arnan, Xavier; Roslin, Tomas; Stefanescu, Constanti; Antonio Calleja, Juan; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Hernández-Castellano, Carlos; Rodrigo, Anselm (2019)
    Large-scale spatial variability in plant-pollinator communities (e.g. along geographic gradients, across different landscapes) is relatively well understood. However, we know much less about how these communities vary at small scales within a uniform landscape. Plants are sessile and highly sensitive to microhabitat conditions, whereas pollinators are highly mobile and, for the most part, display generalist feeding habits. Therefore, we expect plants to show greater spatial variability than pollinators. We analysed the spatial heterogeneity of a community of flowering plants and their pollinators in 40 plots across a 40-km(2) area within an uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. We recorded 3577 pollinator visits to 49 plant species. The pollinator community (170 species) was strongly dominated by honey bees (71.8% of the visits recorded). Flower and pollinator communities showed similar beta-diversity, indicating that spatial variability was similar in the two groups. We used path analysis to establish the direct and indirect effects of flower community distribution and honey bee visitation rate (a measure of the use of floral resources by this species) on the spatial distribution of the pollinator community. Wild pollinator abundance was positively related to flower abundance. Wild pollinator visitation rate was negatively related to flower abundance, suggesting that floral resources were not limiting. Pollinator and flower richness were positively related. Pollinator species composition was weakly related to flower species composition, reflecting the generalist nature of flower-pollinator interactions and the opportunistic nature of pollinator flower choices. Honey bee visitation rate did not affect the distribution of the wild pollinator community. Overall, we show that, in spite of the apparent physiognomic uniformity, both flowers and pollinators display high levels of heterogeneity, resulting in a mosaic of idiosyncratic local communities. Our results provide a measure of the background of intrinsic heterogeneity within a uniform habitat, with potential consequences on low-scale ecosystem function and microevolutionary patterns.
  • Gafforov, Yusufjon; Ordynets, Alexander; Langer, Ewald; Yarasheva, Manzura; de Mello Gugliotta, Adriana; Schigel, Dmitry; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Zhou, Yu; Cai, Lei; Zhou, Li-Wei (2020)
    Uzbekistan, located in Central Asia, harbors high diversity of woody plants. Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in the country, however, remained poorly known. This study summarizes the wood-inhabiting basidiomycte fungi (poroid and corticoid fungi plus similar taxa such as Merismodes, Phellodon, and Sarcodon) (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) that have been found in Uzbekistan from 1950 to 2020. This work is based on 790 fungal occurrence records: 185 from recently collected specimens, 101 from herbarium specimens made by earlier collectors, and 504 from literature-based records. All data were deposited as a species occurrence record dataset in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and also summarized in the form of an annotated checklist in this paper. All 286 available specimens were morphologically examined. For 138 specimens, the 114 ITS and 85 LSU nrDNA sequences were newly sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In total, we confirm the presence of 153 species of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan, of which 31 species are reported for the first time in Uzbekistan, including 19 that are also new to Central Asia. These 153 fungal species inhabit 100 host species from 42 genera of 23 families. Polyporales and Hymenochaetales are the most recorded fungal orders and are most widely distributed around the study area. This study provides the first comprehensively updated and annotated the checklist of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan. Such study should be expanded to other countries to further clarify species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi around Central Asia.