Browsing by Subject "RISK PERCEPTION"

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  • Bombieri, G.; Naves, J.; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Selvas, N.; Fernandez-Gil, A.; Lopez-Bao, J.; Ambarli, H.; Bautista, C.; Bespalova, T.; Bobrov, Alexander; Bolshakov, Vladimir N.; Bondarchuk, S.; Camarra, J. J.; Chiriac, S.; Ciucci, P.; Dutsov, A.; Dykyy; Fedriani, J. M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Garrote, P. J.; Gashev, S.; Groff, C.; Gutleb, B.; Haring, M.; Harkonen, S.; Huber, D.; Kaboli, M.; Kalinkin, Y.; Karamanlidis, A. A.; Karpin, Miika; Kastrikin; Khlyap, L.; Khoetsky, P.; Kojola, Soili; Kozlow, Y.; Korolev, A.; Korytin, N.; Kozsheechkin, V.; Krofel, M.; Kurhinen, J.; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Larin, E.; Levykh, A.; Mamontov, Viktor N.; Mannil, P.; Melovski, D.; Mertzanis, Y.; Meydus, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Norberg, H.; Palazon, S.; Patrascu, L. M.; Pavlova, K.; Pedrini, P.; Quenette, P. Y.; Revilla, E.; Rigg, R.; Rozhkov, Y.; Russo, L. F.; Rykov, A.; Saburova, L.; Sahlen, Veronica; Saveljev, A. P.; Seryodkin, I.; Shelekhov, A.; Shishikin, A.; Shkvyria, M.; Sidorovich, Anna A.; Sopin; Stoen, O.; Stofik, J.; Swenson, J. E.; Tirski, D.; Vasin, A.; Wabakken, P.; Yarushine, L.; Zwijacz-Kozica, T.; Delgado, M. M. (2019)
    The increasing trend of large carnivore attacks on humans not only raises human safety concerns but may also undermine large carnivore conservation efforts. Although rare, attacks by brown bears Ursus arctos are also on the rise and, although several studies have addressed this issue at local scales, information is lacking on a worldwide scale. Here, we investigated brown bear attacks (n = 664) on humans between 2000 and 2015 across most of the range inhabited by the species: North America (n = 183), Europe (n = 291), and East (n = 190). When the attacks occurred, half of the people were engaged in leisure activities and the main scenario was an encounter with a female with cubs. Attacks have increased significantly over time and were more frequent at high bear and low human population densities. There was no significant difference in the number of attacks between continents or between countries with different hunting practices. Understanding global patterns of bear attacks can help reduce dangerous encounters and, consequently, is crucial for informing wildlife managers and the public about appropriate measures to reduce this kind of conflicts in bear country.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Nanni, Veronica; Pantini, Paolo; Isaia, Marco (2020)
    1. Spiders are able to arouse strong emotional reactions in humans. While spider bites are statistically rare events, our perception is skewed towards the potential harm spiders can cause to humans. Nevertheless, there is still limited understanding of the role of the media in spreading (mis)information about them thereby promoting this distorted perception of risk. 2. We examined the human dimension of spiders through the lens of traditional media, by analysing spider-related news published online in Italian newspapers between 2010 and 2020 (n = 314). We assessed the accuracy, circulation and sensationalistic content of each article, and assessed how each of these features drove news' share on social media. 3. We observed a recent, exponential increase in the frequency of the news, particularly those focused on medically important spiders-the Mediterranean black widow Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and the Mediterranean recluse Loxosceles rufescens. The news quality was generally poor: 70% contained different types of error, 32% were sensationalistic, and in virtually none was an expert consulted. 4. The risk scenario depicted by the media reports was unnecessarily alarmist, especially with regard to L. rufescens. A conservative estimate would suggest that less than 10% of the bites reported in the media reports analysed here were delivered by the species described in the report. Moreover, two out of three casualties associated with a bite of the Mediterranean recluse were fake news, while the third was unverifiable. 5. Overstated news referring to spider bites was shared significantly more on social media, thus contributing to frame a distorted perception of the risk. This is important given that these negative sentiments may ultimately lead to lowering public tolerance towards spiders and reducing conservation efforts towards them. We discuss open questions and avenues for future research concerning the media coverage of widely feared animals, that will help bridge knowledge gaps regarding the role of traditional and social media in framing our perception of the natural world.
  • Nissilä, Juho-Jooel; Savelieva, Kateryna; Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (2019)
    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is related to increased symptom reporting in students. We investigated whether parental worry about school IAQ influences this association. Data came from survey collected from five Finnish primary schools with observed IAQ problems and five control schools. Parents (n = 1868) of primary school students reported worry about IAQ in schools and symptoms of their children. Associations between observed IAQ problems, worry, and five symptom scores (ie, respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptoms) were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and mediation analysis. Parents were on average more worried in schools with observed IAQ problems. Observed IAQ problems were strongly associated with increased worry and all symptoms under study (unadjusted ORs ranged between 1.48 [95% CI 1.48-2.16] and 2.70 [95% CI 1.52-5.17]). Parental worry was associated with all symptoms (unadjusted ORs ranged between 2.49 [95% CI 1.75-3.60] and 4.92 [95% CI 2.77-9.40]). Mediation analyses suggested that parental worry might partially explain the association between observed IAQ problems and symptom reporting (proportion mediated ranged between 67% and 84% for the different symptoms). However, prospective studies are needed to assess causal relationships between observed IAQ problems, worry, and symptom reporting in schools.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Ollila, Sari; Vainio, Annukka; Lunden, Janne (2021)
    In many countries, food safety inspection disclosure systems have been implemented in order to improve food control. However, criticism has also been levelled at these systems, especially regarding grading. Moreover, only a few studies have focused on inspectors, despite the fact that they are responsible, in practice, for applying the disclosure system and grading. To investigate inspectors' perceptions of disclosure, disagreements experienced with food business operators (FBOs) over grading and the factors possibly related to such disagreements, we conducted a questionnaire-based study with Finnish inspectors in 2017. We received 148 answers from 52 out of 62 Finnish local food control units. Most inspectors (90.8%, N = 131) considered that Oiva, the disclosure system introduced in 2013, was at least a somewhat positive change, and almost all inspectors (95.1%, N = 143) considered that disclosure enhanced, at least to some degree, the correction of non-compliances. In general, inspectors had experienced a small number of disagreements over grading with FBOs, but, in relation to some topics, over 20% of inspectors had encountered a high number of disagreements. In our multiple linear regression model, disagreements over grading were associated with the perceived openness to interpretation of grading (B = 0.37, p < 0.001) and differences experienced in risk perception between inspectors and FBOs (B = 0.12, p = 0.001). Most inspectors (67.4%; N = 144) preferred the grading guidelines to contain a small amount of openness to interpretation. Inspectors supported disclosure and considered that the Oiva system had improved food control. However, especially related to grading topics where inspectors perceived the greatest degree of openness to interpretation and the largest number of disagreements over grading with FBOs, inspectors should be further trained and supported. In addition, this study highlights the need for improved consistency in grading especially between the food control units.