Browsing by Subject "RNAS"

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  • kConFab Investigators; ABCTB Investigators; Baxter, Joseph S.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
    A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30-to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 x 10(-31)).
  • Konovalova, Julia; Gerasymchuk, Dmytro; Arroyo, Sergio Navarette; Kluske, Sven; Mastroianni, Francesca; Pereyra, Alba Vargas; Domanskyi, Andrii (2021)
    Mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) are novel evolutionary conserved trophic factors, which exhibit cytoprotective activity via negative regulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammation. Despite multiple reports demonstrating detrimental effect of MANF/CDNF downregulation, little is known about the control of their expression. miRNAs-small non-coding RNAs-are important regulators of gene expression. Their dysregulation was demonstrated in multiple pathological processes and their ability to modulate levels of other neurotrophic factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), was previously reported. Here, for the first time we demonstrated direct regulation of MANF and CDNF by miRNAs. Using bioinformatic tools, reporter assay and analysis of endogenous MANF and CDNF, we identified that miR-144 controls MANF expression, and miR-134 and miR-141 downregulate CDNF levels. We also demonstrated that this effect is human-specific and is executed via predicted binding sites of corresponding miRNAs. Finally, we found that miR-382 suppressed hCDNF expression indirectly. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time direct regulation of MANF and CDNF expression by specific miRNAs, despite the fact their binding sites are not strongly evolutionary conserved. Furthermore, we demonstrate a functional effect of miR-144 mediated regulation of MANF on ER stress response markers. These findings emphasize that (1) prediction of miRNA targets based on evolutionary conservation may miss biologically meaningful regulatory pairs; and (2) interpretation of miRNA regulatory effects in animal models should be cautiously validated.
  • Putkonen, Noora; Laiho, Asta; Ethell, Doug; Pursiheimo, Juha; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Pitkonen, Juho; Gentile, Adriana M.; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Castren, Maija L. (2020)
    A triplet repeat expansion leading to transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene results in fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is a common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. Phenotypic variation requires personalized treatment approaches and hampers clinical trials in FXS. We searched for microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for FXS using deep sequencing of urine and identified 28 differentially regulated miRNAs when 219 reliably identified miRNAs were compared in dizygotic twin boys who shared the same environment, but one had an FXS full mutation, and the other carried a premutation allele. The largest increase was found in miR-125a in the FXS sample, and the miR-125a levels were increased in two independent sets of urine samples from a total of 19 FXS children. Urine miR-125a levels appeared to increase with age in control subjects, but varied widely in FXS subjects. Should the results be generalized, it could suggest that two FXS subgroups existed. Predicted gene targets of the differentially regulated miRNAs are involved in molecular pathways that regulate developmental processes, homeostasis, and neuronal function. Regulation of miR-125a has been associated with type I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling (mGluR), which has been explored as a treatment target for FXS, reinforcing the possibility that urine miR-125a may provide a novel biomarker for FXS.