Browsing by Subject "ROLES"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 32
  • Ovaskainen, Otso; Somervuo, Panu; Finkelshtein, Dmitri (2020)
    Agent-based models are used to study complex phenomena in many fields of science. While simulating agent-based models is often straightforward, predicting their behaviour mathematically has remained a key challenge. Recently developed mathematical methods allow the prediction of the emerging spatial patterns for a general class of agent-based models, whereas the prediction of spatio-temporal pattern has been thus far achieved only for special cases. We present a general and mathematically rigorous methodology that allows deriving the spatio-temporal correlation structure for a general class of individual-based models. To do so, we define an auxiliary model, in which each agent type of the primary model expands to three types, called the original, the past and the new agents. In this way, the auxiliary model keeps track of both the initial and current state of the primary model, and hence the spatio-temporal correlations of the primary model can be derived from the spatial correlations of the auxiliary model. We illustrate the agreement between analytical predictions and agent-based simulations using two example models from theoretical ecology. In particular, we show that the methodology is able to correctly predict the dynamical behaviour of a host-parasite model that shows spatially localized oscillations.
  • Lechuga, Susana; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.; Khan, Afshin; Crawford, Bert; Narayanan, Vani; Conway, Daniel E.; Lehtimäki, Jaakko; Lappalainen, Pekka; Rieder, Florian; Longworth, Michelle S.; Ivanov, Andrei I. (2022)
    The actomyosin cytoskeleton serves as a key regulator of the integrity and remodeling of epithelial barriers by controlling assembly and functions of intercellular junctions and cell-matrix adhesions. Although biochemical mechanisms that regulate the activity of non-muscle myosin II (NM-II) in epithelial cells have been extensively investigated, little is known about assembly of the contractile myosin structures at the epithelial adhesion sites. UNC-45A is a cytoskeletal chaperone that is essential for proper folding of NM-II heavy chains and myofilament assembly. We found abundant expression of UNC-45A in human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines and in the epithelial layer of the normal human colon. Interestingly, protein level of UNC-45A was decreased in colonic epithelium of patients with ulcerative colitis. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-out of UNC-45A in HT-29cf8 and SK-CO15 IEC disrupted epithelial barrier integrity, impaired assembly of epithelial adherence and tight junctions and attenuated cell migration. Consistently, decreased UNC-45 expression increased permeability of the Drosophila gut in vivo. The mechanisms underlying barrier disruptive and anti-migratory effects of UNC-45A depletion involved disorganization of the actomyosin bundles at epithelial junctions and the migrating cell edge. Loss of UNC-45A also decreased contractile forces at apical junctions and matrix adhesions. Expression of deletion mutants revealed roles for the myosin binding domain of UNC-45A in controlling IEC junctions and motility. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism that regulates integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which may be impaired during mucosal inflammation.
  • NBCS Collaborators; ABCTB Investigators; kConFab Investigators; Morra, Anna; Escala-Garcia, Maria; Beesley, Jonathan; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
    Background Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. Methods We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15). Results Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy. Conclusions We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.
  • Trela, Ewelina; Lan, Qiang; Myllymäki, Satu-Marja; Villeneuve, Clémentine; Lindström, Riitta; Kumar, Vinod; Wickström, Sara A.; Mikkola, Marja L. (2021)
    The mammary gland develops from the surface ectoderm during embryogenesis and proceeds through morphological phases defined as placode, hillock, bud, and bulb stages followed by branching morphogenesis. During this early morphogenesis, the mammary bud undergoes an invagination process where the thickened bud initially protrudes above the surface epithelium and then transforms to a bulb and sinks into the underlying mesenchyme. The signaling pathways regulating the early morphogenetic steps have been identified to some extent, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain ill defined. Here, we use 3D and 4D confocal microscopy to show that the early growth of the mammary rudiment is accomplished by migration-driven cell influx, with minor contributions of cell hypertrophy and proliferation. We delineate a hitherto undescribed invagination mechanism driven by thin, elongated keratinocytes-ring cells-that form a contractile rim around the mammary bud and likely exert force via the actomyosin network. Furthermore, we show that conditional deletion of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) impairs invagination, resulting in abnormal mammary bud shape.
  • Harjunpää, Katariina; Deppermann, Arnulf; Sorjonen, Marja-Leena (2021)
    Using video-recordings from one day of a theater project for young adults, this paper investigates how the meaning of novel verbal expressions is interactionally constituted and elaborated over the interactional history of a series of activities. We examine how the theater director introduces and instructs the group in the Chekhovian technique of acting, which is based on "imagining with the body," and how the imaginary elements of the technique are "brought into existence" in the language of the instructions. By tracking shifts in the instructor's use of the key expressions invisible/imaginary/inner body or movement through a series of exercises, we demonstrate how they are increasingly treated as real and perceivable bodily conduct. The analyses focus on the instructor's attribution of factual and agentive properties to these expressions, and the changes that these properties undergo over the series of instructions. This case demonstrates the significance of longitudinal processes for the establishment of shared meaning in social interaction. The study thereby contributes to the field of interactional semantics and to longitudinal studies of social interaction.
  • Ye, Lingling; Wang, Xin; Lyu, Munan; Siligato, Riccardo; Eswaran, Gugan; Vainio, Leo; Blomster, Tiina; Zhang, Jing; Mähönen, Ari Pekka (2021)
    During primary growth, plant tissues increase their length, and as these tissues mature, they initiate secondary growth to increase thickness.(1) It is not known what activates this transition to secondary growth. Cytokinins are key plant hormones regulating vascular development during both primary and secondary growth. During primary growth of Arabidopsis roots, cytokinins promote procambial cell proliferation(2,3) and vascular patterning together with the hormone auxin.(4-7) In the absence of cytokinins, secondary growth fails to initiate.(8) Enhanced cytokinin levels, in turn, promote secondary growth.(8,9) Despite the importance of cytokinins, little is known about the downstream signaling events in this process. Here, we show that cytokinins and a few downstream LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) family of transcription factors are rate limiting components in activating and further promoting secondary growth in Arabidopsis roots. Cytokinins directly activate transcription of two homologous LBD genes, LBD3 and LBD4. Two other homologous LBDs, LBD1 and LBD11, are induced only after prolonged cytokinin treatment. Our genetic studies revealed a two stage mechanism downstream of cytokinin signaling: while LBD3 and LBD4 regulate activation of secondary growth, LBD1, LBD3, LBD4, and LBD11 together promote further radial growth and maintenance of cambial stem cells. LBD overexpression promoted rapid cell growth followed by accelerated cell divisions, thus leading to enhanced secondary growth. Finally, we show that LBDs rapidly inhibit cytokinin signaling. Together, our data suggest that the cambium-promoting LBDs negatively feed back into cytokinin signaling to keep root secondary growth in balance.
  • Sanz-Navarro, Maria; Delgado, Irene; Torres, Miguel; Mustonen, Tuija; Michon, Frederic; Rice, David P. (2019)
    MEIS1 is a key developmental regulator of several organs and participates in stem cell maintenance in different niches. However, despite the murine continuously growing incisor being a well described model for the study of adult stem cells, Meis1 has not been investigated in a dental context. Here, we uncover that Meis1 expression in the tooth is confined to the epithelial compartment. Its expression arises during morphogenesis and becomes restricted to the mouse incisor epithelial stem cell niche, the labial cervical loop. Meis1 is specifically expressed by Sox2(+) stem cells, which give rise to all dental epithelial cell lineages. Also, we have found that Meis1 in the incisor is coexpressed with potential binding partner Pbx1 during both embryonic and adult stages. Interestingly, Meis2 is present in different areas of the forming tooth and it is not expressed by dental epithelial stem cells, suggesting different roles for these two largely homologous genes. Additionally, we have established the expression patterns of Meis1 and Meis2 during tongue, hair, salivary gland and palate formation. Finally, analysis of Meis1-null allele mice indicated that, similarly, to SOX2, MEIS1 is not essential for tooth initiation, but might have a role during adult incisor renewal.
  • Wang, Jinhui; Haapalainen, Minna; Nissinen, Anne I.; Pirhonen, Minna (2021)
    The interactions between the phloem-limited pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C and carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) were studied at 4, 5, and 9 weeks postinoculation (wpi), by combining dual RNA-Seq results with data on bacterial colonization and observations of the plant phenotype. In the infected plants, genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis, salicylate signaling, pathogen-associated molecular pattern- and effector-triggered immunity, and production of pathogenesis-related proteins were up-regulated. At 4 wpi, terpenoid synthesis-related genes were up-regulated, presumably as a response to the psyllid feeding, whereas at 5 and 9 wpi, genes involved in both the terpenoid and flavonoid production were down-regulated and phenylpropanoid genes were up-regulated. Chloroplast-related gene expression was down-regulated, in concordance with the observed yellowing of the infected plant leaves. Both the RNA-Seq data and electron microscopy suggested callose accumulation in the infected phloem vessels, likely to impair the transport of photosynthates, while phloem regeneration was suggested by the formation of new sieve cells and the upregulation of cell wall-related gene expression. The 'Ca. L. solanacearum' genes involved in replication, transcription, and translation were expressed at high levels at 4 and 5 wpi, whereas, at 9 wpi, the Flp pilus genes were highly expressed, suggesting adherence and reducedmobility of the bacteria. The 'Ca. L. solanacearum' genes encoding ATP and C4-dicarboxylate uptake were differentially expressed between the early and late infection stages, suggesting a change in the dependence on different host-derived energy sources. HPE1 effector and salicylate hydroxylasewere expressed, presumably to suppress host cell death and salicylic acid-dependent defenses during the infection.
  • He, Siwen; Soininen, Janne; Chen, Kai; Wang, Beixin (2020)
    Metacommunity theory provides a useful framework to describe the underlying factors (e.g., environmental and dispersal-related factors) influencing community structure. The strength of these factors may vary depending on the properties of the region studied (e.g., environmental heterogeneity and spatial location) and considered biological groups. Here, we examined environmental and dispersal-related controls of stream macroinvertebrates and diatoms in three regions in China using the distance-decay relationship analysis. We performed analyses for the whole stream network and separately for two stream network locations (headwater and downstream sites) to test the network position hypothesis (NPH), which states that the strength of environmental and dispersal-related controls varies between headwater and downstream communities. Community dissimilarities were significantly related to environmental distances, but not geographical distances. These results suggest that communities are structured strongly by environmental filtering, but weakly by dispersal-related factors such as dispersal limitation. More importantly, we found that, at the whole network scale, environmental control was the highest in the regions with highest environmental heterogeneity. Results further showed that the influence of environmental control was strong in both headwaters and downstream sites, whereas spatial control was generally weak in all sites. This suggests a lack of consistent support for the NPH in our studied stream networks. Moreover, we found that local-scale variables relative to basin-scale variables better explained community dissimilarities for diatoms than for macroinvertebrates. This indicates that diatoms and macroinvertebrates responded to environment at different scales. Collectively, these results suggest that the importance of drivers behind the metacommunity assembly varied among regions with different level of environmental heterogeneity and between organism groups, potentially indicating context dependency among stream systems and taxa.
  • Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A; Cohen, Idan; Ezhkova, Elena; Wickström, Sara A (2019)
    The skin epidermis is a constantly renewing stratified epithelium that provides essential protective barrier functions throughout life. Epidermal stratification is governed by a step-wise differentiation program that requires precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression. How epidermal self-renewal and differentiation are regulated remains a fundamental open question. Cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms that modify chromatin structure and interactions have been identified as key regulators of epidermal differentiation and stratification. Here, we will review the recent advances in our understanding of how chromatin modifiers, tissue-specific transcription factors, and force-induced nuclear remodeling processes function to shape chromatin and to control epidermal tissue development and homeostasis.
  • Evsyukov, Valentin; Domanskyi, Andrii; Bierhoff, Holger; Gispert, Suzana; Mustafa, Rasem; Schlaudraff, Falk; Liss, Birgit; Parlato, Rosanna (2017)
    Genetic mutations underlying neurodegenerative disorders impair ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription suggesting that nucleolar dysfunction could be a novel pathomechanism in polyglutamine diseases and in certain forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia. Here, we investigated nucleolar activity in pre-symptomatic digenic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) that model the multifactorial aetiology of this disease. To this end, we analysed a novel mouse model mildly overexpressing mutant human alpha-synuclein (hA53T-SNCA) in a PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1/ PARK6) knockout background and mutant mice lacking both DJ-1 (also known as PARK7) and PINK1. We showed that overexpressed hA53T-SNCA localizes to the nucleolus. Moreover, these mutants show a progressive reduction of rDNA transcription linked to a reduced mouse lifespan. By contrast, rDNA transcription is preserved in DJ-1/PINK1 double knockout (DKO) mice. mRNA levels of the nucleolar transcription initiation factor 1A (TIF-IA, also known as RRN3) decrease in the substantia nigra of individuals with PD. Because loss of TIF-IA, as a tool to mimic nucleolar stress, increases oxidative stress and because DJ-1 and PINK1 mutations result in higher vulnerability to oxidative stress, we further explored the synergism between these PD-associated genes and impaired nucleolar function. By the conditional ablation of TIF-IA, we blocked ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis in adult dopaminergic neurons in a DJ-1/PINK1 DKO background. However, the early phenotype of these triple knockout mice was similar to those mice exclusively lacking TIF-IA. These data sustain a model in which loss of DJ-1 and PINK1 does not impair nucleolar activity in a pre-symptomatic stage. This is the first study to analyse nucleolar function in digenic PD models. We can conclude that, at least in these models, the nucleolus is not as severely disrupted as previously shown in DA neurons from PD patients and neurotoxin-based PD mouse models. The results also show that the early increase in rDNA transcription and nucleolar integrity may represent specific homeostatic responses in these digenic pre-symptomatic PD models.
  • Göös, Helka; Kinnunen, Matias; Salokas, Kari; Tan, Zenglai; Liu, Xiaonan; Yadav, Leena; Zhang, Qin; Wei, Gong-Hong; Varjosalo, Markku (2022)
    Transcription factors (TFs) interact with several other proteins in the process of transcriptional regulation. Here the authors identify 6703 and 1536 protein-protein interactions for 109 different human TFs through BioID and AP-MS analyses, respectively. Transcription factors (TFs) interact with several other proteins in the process of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify 6703 and 1536 protein-protein interactions for 109 different human TFs through proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) and affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), respectively. The BioID analysis identifies more high-confidence interactions, highlighting the transient and dynamic nature of many of the TF interactions. By performing clustering and correlation analyses, we identify subgroups of TFs associated with specific biological functions, such as RNA splicing or chromatin remodeling. We also observe 202 TF-TF interactions, of which 118 are interactions with nuclear factor 1 (NFI) family members, indicating uncharacterized cross-talk between NFI signaling and other TF signaling pathways. Moreover, TF interactions with basal transcription machinery are mainly observed through TFIID and SAGA complexes. This study provides a rich resource of human TF interactions and also act as a starting point for future studies aimed at understanding TF-mediated transcription.
  • Salmiheimo, Aino N. E.; Mustonen, Harri K.; Vainionpaa, Sanna A. A.; Shen, Zhanlong; Kemppainen, Esko A. J.; Seppanen, Hanna E.; Puolakkainen, Pauli A. (2016)
    Recent studies suggest that pro-inflammatory type M1 macrophages inhibit tumor progression and that anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages enhance it. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of type M1 and M2 macrophages with pancreatic cancer cells. We studied the migration rate of fluorescein stained pancreatic cancer cells on Matrigel cultured alone or with Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) differentiated macrophages or with Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) differentiated macrophages, skewing the phenotype towards pro- and anti-inflammatory direction, respectively. Macrophage differentiation was assessed with flow cytometry and the cytokine secretion in cell cultures with cytokine array. Both GM-CSF and M-CSF differentiated macrophages increased the migration rate of primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (MiaPaCa-2) and metastatic cell line (HPAF-II). Stimulation with IL6 or IL4+ LPS reversed the macrophages' increasing effect on the migration rate of Mi-aPaCa-2 completely and partly of HPAF-II. Co-culture with MiaPaCa-2 reduced the inflammatory cytokine secretion of GM-CSF differentiated macrophages. Co-culture of macrophages with pancreatic cancer cells seem to change the inflammatory cytokine profile of GM-CSF differentiated macrophages and this might explain why also GM-CSF differentiated macrophages promoted the invasion. Adding IL6 or IL4+ LPS to the cell culture with MiaPaCa-2 and GM-CSF or M-CSF differentiated macrophages increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and this could contribute to the reversion of the macrophage induced increase of cancer cell migration rate.
  • Kaivola, Juha; Nyman, Tuula Anneli; Matikainen, Sampsa (2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus that has caused worldwide pandemic. The disease induced by SARS-CoV-2 is called COVID-19. A majority of people with COVID-19 have relatively mild respiratory symptoms. However, a small percentage of COVID-19 patients develop a severe disease where multiple organs are affected. These severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, so called "cytokine storm". Inflammasomes, which are protein complexes of the innate immune system orchestrate development of local and systemic inflammation during virus infection. Recent data suggest involvement of inflammasomes in severe COVID-19. Activation of inflammasome exerts two major effects: it activates caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18, and induces inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis, via protein called gasdermin D. Here, we provide comprehensive review of current understanding of the activation and possible functions of different inflammasome structures during SARS-CoV-2 infection and compare that to response caused by influenza A virus. We also discuss how novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines activate innate immune response, which is a prerequisite for the activation of protective adaptive immune response.
  • Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tohmola, Tiialotta; Sutinen, Eva; Vartiainen, Ville; Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Renkonen, Risto (2020)
    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung parenchymal disease of unknown cause usually occurring in older adults. It is a chronic and progressive condition with poor prognosis and diagnosis is largely clinical. Currently, there exist few biomarkers that can predict patient outcome or response to therapies. Together with lack of markers, the need for novel markers for the detection and monitoring of IPF, is paramount. We have performed label-free plasma proteomics of thirty six individuals, 17 of which had confirmed IPF. Proteomics data was analyzed by volcano plot, hierarchical clustering, Partial-least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Ingenuity pathway analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis overlap identified haptoglobin-related protein as a possible marker of IPF when compared to control samples (Area under the curve 0.851, ROC-analysis). LXR/RXR activation and complement activation pathways were enriched in t-test significant proteins and oxidative regulators, complement proteins and protease inhibitors were enriched in PLS-DA significant proteins. Our pilot study points towards aberrations in complement activation and oxidative damage in IPF patients and provides haptoglobin-related protein as a new candidate biomarker of IPF.
  • Pang, Zan; Launonen, Hanna; Korpela, Riitta; Vapaatalo, Heikki (2022)
    Objective To investigate the regulation of local aldosterone synthesis by physiological stimulants in the murine gut. Methods Male mice were fed for 14 days with normal, high (1.6%) or low (0.01%) sodium diets. Tissue liver receptor homolog-1 and aldosterone in the colon and caecum were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Released corticosterone and aldosterone in tissue incubation experiments after stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) and dibutyryl-cAMP (DBA; the second messenger of adrenocorticotropic hormone) were assayed using an ELISA. Tissue aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) protein levels were measured using an ELISA and Western blots. Results In incubated colon tissues, aldosterone synthase levels were increased by a low-sodium diet; and by Ang II and DBA in the normal diet group. Release of aldosterone into the incubation buffer was increased from the colon by a low-sodium diet and decreased by a high-sodium diet in parallel with changes in aldosterone synthase levels. In mice fed a normal diet, colon incubation with both Ang II and DBA increased the release of aldosterone as well as its precursor corticosterone. Conclusion Local aldosterone synthesis in the large intestine is stimulated by a low-sodium diet, dibutyryl-cAMP and Ang II similar to the adrenal glands.
  • Mohlin, Sofie; Kunttas, Ezgi; Persson, Camilla U.; Abdel-Haq, Reem; Castillo, Aldo; Murko, Christina; Bronner, Marianne E.; Kerosuo, Laura (2019)
    Neural crest cells have broad migratory and differentiative ability that differs according to their axial level of origin. However, their transient nature has limited understanding of their stem cell and self-renewal properties. While an in vitro culture method has made it possible to maintain cranial neural crest cells as self-renewing multipotent crestospheres (Kerosuo et al., 2015), these same conditions failed to preserve trunk neural crest in a stem-like state. Here we optimize culture conditions for maintenance of avian trunk crestospheres, comprised of both neural crest stem and progenitor cells. Our trunk-derived crestospheres are multipotent and display self-renewal capacity over several weeks. Trunk crestospheres display elevated expression of neural crest cell markers as compared to those characteristic of ventrolateral neural tube or mesodermal fates. Moreover, trunk crestospheres express increased levels of trunk neural crest-enriched markers as compared to cranial crestospheres. Finally, we use lentiviral transduction as a tool to manipulate gene expression in trunk crestospheres. Taken together, this method enables long-term in vitro maintenance and manipulation of multipotent trunk neural crest cells in a premigratory stem or early progenitor state. Trunk crestospheres are a valuable resource for probing mechanisms underlying neural crest sternness and lineage decisions as well as accompanying diseases.
  • Lassila, Riitta; Campbell, Robert (2019)
    Take home messages To understand the main interplay between coagulation system and inflammation and to recognize the key invasive infectious agents causing typical abnormalities in activation of blood platelets, coagulation and fibrinolysis. To capture, monitor and follow-up the clinical and laboratory phenotype and the management related to the pathophysiology of inflammation.
  • Isakova, Elena P.; Matushkina, Irina N.; Popova, Tatyana N.; Dergacheva, Darya; Gessler, Natalya N.; Klein, Olga; Semenikhina, Anastasya; Deryabina, Yulia; La Porta, Nicola; Saris, Nils-Eric L. (2020)
    In this study, we evaluated the metabolic profile of the aerobic microorganism of Endomyces magnusii with a complete respiration chain and well-developed mitochondria system during long-lasting cultivation. The yeast was grown in batches using glycerol and glucose as the sole carbon source for a week. The profile included the cellular biological and chemical parameters, which determined the redox status of the yeast cells. We studied the activities of the antioxidant systems (catalases and superoxide dismutases), glutathione system enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and reductase), aconitase, as well as the main enzymes maintaining NADPH levels in the cells (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase) during aging of Endomyces magnusii on two kinds of substrates. We also investigated the dynamics of change in oxidized and reduced glutathione, conjugated dienes, and reactive oxidative species in the cells at different growth stages, including the deep stationary stages. Our results revealed a similar trend in the changes in the activity of all the enzymes tested, which increased 2-4-fold upon aging. The yeast cytosol had a very high reduced glutathione content, 22 times than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and remained unchanged during growth, whereas there was a 7.5-fold increase in the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio. The much higher level of reactive oxidative species was observed in the cells in the late and deep stationary phases, especially in the cells using glycerol. Cell aging of the culture grown on glycerol, which promotes active oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, facilitated the functioning of powerful antioxidant systems (catalases, superoxide dismutases, and glutathione system enzymes) induced by reactive oxidative species. Moreover, it stimulated NADPH synthesis, regulating the cytosolic reduced glutathione level, which in turn determines the redox potential of the yeast cell during the early aging process.
  • Ylösmäki, Erkko; Lavilla Alonso, Sergio; Jäämaa, Sari Susanna; Vaha-Koskela, Markus; af Hällström, Taija Maria; Hemminki, Akseli; Arola, Johanna; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Saksela, Kalle (2013)