Browsing by Subject "ROOM-TEMPERATURE"

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  • Donsbach, Carsten; Reiter, Kevin; Sundholm, Dage; Weigend, Florian; Dehnen, Stefanie (2018)
    The use of ionic liquids (C(n)C(1)Im)[BF4] with long alkyl chains (n=10,12) in the ionothermal treatment of Na-2[HgTe2] led to lamellar crystal structures with molecular macrocyclic anions [Hg8Te16](8-) (1), the heaviest known topological relative of porphyrin. [Hg8Te16](8-) differs from porphyrin by the absence of an electronic pi-system, which prevents a global aromaticity. Quantum chemical studies reveal instead small ring currents in the pyrrole-type five-membered rings that indicate weak local (sigma) aromaticity. As a result of their lamellar nature, the compounds are promising candidates for the formation of sheets containing chalcogenidometalate anions.
  • de Oliveira, Paulo F. M.; Torresi, Roberto M.; Emmerling, Franziska; Camargo, Pedro H. C. (2020)
    Mechanochemistry is a promising alternative to solution-based protocols across the chemical sciences, enabling different types of chemistries in solvent-free and environmentally benign conditions. The use of mechanical energy to promote physical and chemical transformations has reached a high level of refinement, allowing for the design of sophisticated molecules and nanostructured materials. Among them, the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles deserves special attention due to their catalytic applications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress on the development of mechanochemical strategies for the controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. We start by covering the fundamentals of different preparation routes, namely top-down and bottom-up approaches. Next, we focus on the key examples of the mechanochemical synthesis of non-supported and supported metal nanoparticles as well as hybrid nanomaterials containing noble metals. In these examples, in addition to the principles and synthesis mechanisms, their performances in catalysis are discussed. Finally, a perspective of the field is given, where we discuss the opportunities for future work and the challenges of mechanochemical synthesis to produce well-defined noble metal nanoparticles.
  • Jäppinen, Luke; Jalkanen, Tero; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Heinonen, Markku; Kukk, Edwin; Radevici, Ivan; Paturi, Petriina; Peurla, Markus; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Santos, Hélder A.; Boukherroub, Rabah; Santos, Hellen; Lastusaari, Mika; Salonen, Jarno (2016)
    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were manufactured using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method, and the effect of thermal acetylene treatment on their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties was investigated. Changes in the elemental content of the treated rods were found to be different than in previous reports, possibly due to the different defect concentrations in the samples, highlighting the importance of synthesis method selection for the process. Acetylene treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the ultraviolet photoluminescence of the rods. The greatest increase in emission intensity was recorded on ZnO rods treated at the temperature of 825 degrees C. The findings imply that the changes brought on by the treatment are limited to the surface of the ZnO rods.
  • Carvalho, Danila M.d.; Berglund, Jennie; Marchand, Célia; Lindström, Mikael E.; Vilaplana, Francisco; Sevastyanova, Olena (2019)
    The impact of various degrees of acetylation on improving the thermal stability of xylan isolated from different botanical source has been studied; methylglucuronoxylan from birch and eucalyptus, arabinoglucuronoxylan from spruce and glucuronoarabinoxylan from sugarcane bagasse and straw. The lower molecular weight of nonacetylated methylglucuronoxylan (17.7-23.7 kDa) and arabinoglucuronoxylan (16.8 kDa) meant that they were more soluble in water than glucuronoarabinoxylan (43.0-47.0 kDa). The temperature at the onset of degradation increased by 17-61 degrees C and by 75-145 degrees C for low and high acetylated xylans respectively, as a result of acetylation. A glass transition temperature in the range of 121-132 degrees C was observed for the samples non-acetylated and acetylated at low degree of acetylation (0.0-0.6). The acetylation to higher degrees (1.4-1.8) increased the glass transition temperature of the samples to 189-206 degrees C. Acetylation proved to be an efficient method for functionalization of the xylan to increase the thermal stability.
  • Luehmann, Tobias; Raatz, Nicole; John, Roger; Lesik, Margarita; Rödiger, Jasper; Portail, Marc; Wildanger, Dominik; Kleissler, Felix; Nordlund, Kai; Zaitsev, Alexander; Roch, Jean-Francois; Tallaire, Alexandre; Meijer, Jan; Pezzagna, Sebastien (2018)
    We present a high throughput and systematic method for the screening of colour centres in diamond with the aim of searching for and reproducibly creating new optical centres down to the single defect level, potentially of interest for a wide range of diamond-based quantum applications. The screening method presented here should, moreover, help to identify some already indexed defects among hundreds in diamond (Zaitsev 2001 Optical Properties of Diamond (Berlin: Springer)) but also some promising defects of a still unknown nature, such as the recently discovered ST1 centre (Lee et al 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 487; John et al 2017 New J. Phys. 19 053008). We use ion implantation in a systematic manner to implant several chemical elements. Ion implantation has the advantage of addressing single atoms inside the bulk with defined depth and high lateral resolution, but the disadvantage of producing intrinsic defects. The implanted samples are annealed in vacuum at different temperatures (between 600 degrees C and 1600 degrees C with 200 degrees C steps) and fully characterised at each step in order to follow the evolution of the defects: formation, dissociation, diffusion, re-formation and charge state, at the ensemble level and, if possible, at the single centre level. We review the unavoidable ion implantation defects (such as the GR1 and 3H centres), discuss ion channeling and thermal annealing and estimate the diffusion of the vacancies, nitrogen and hydrogen. We use different characterisation methods best suited for our study (from widefield fluorescence down to subdiffraction optical imaging of single centres) and discuss reproducibility issues due to diamond and defect inhomogeneities. Nitrogen is also implanted for reference, taking advantage of the considerable knowledge on NV centres as a versatile sensor in order to retrieve or deduce the conditions and local environment in which the different implanted chemical elements are embedded. We show here the preliminary promising results of a long-term study and focus on the elements O, Mg, Ca, F and P from which fluorescent centres were found.