Browsing by Subject "Radiation"

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  • Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka (2011)
    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) with almost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfu lradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species have shifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.
  • Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F. (2017)
    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic") have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Levo, Emil; Granberg, Fredric; Utt, Daniel; Albe, Karsten; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    In search of materials with better properties, polycrystalline materials are often found to be superior to their respective single crystalline counterparts. Reduction of grain size in polycrystalline materials can drastically alter the properties of materials. When the grain sizes reach the nanometer scale, the improved mechanical response of the materials make them attractive in many applications. Multicomponent solid-solution alloys have shown to have a higher radiation tolerance compared with pure materials. Combining these advantages, we investigate the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline multicomponent alloys. We find that these alloys withstand a much higher irradiation dose, compared with nanocrystalline Ni, before the nanocrystallinity is lost. Some of the investigated alloys managed to keep their nanocrystallinity for twice the irradiation dose as pure Ni.
  • Metsälä, Olli; Kreutzer, Joose; Högel, Heidi; Miikkulainen, Petra; Kallio, Pasi; Jaakkola, Panu M (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Cells in solid tumours are variably hypoxic and hence resistant to radiotherapy - the essential role of oxygen in the efficiency of irradiation has been acknowledged for decades. However, the currently available methods for performing hypoxic experiments in vitro have several limitations, such as a limited amount of parallel experiments, incapability of keeping stable growth conditions and dependence on CO2 incubator or a hypoxia workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a novel portable system (Minihypoxy) in performing in vitro irradiation studies under hypoxia, and present supporting biological data. Materials and methods This study was conducted on cancer cell cultures in vitro. The cells were cultured in normoxic (~ 21% O2) or in hypoxic (1% O2) conditions either in conventional hypoxia workstation or in the Minihypoxy system and irradiated at dose rate 1.28 Gy/min ± 2.9%. The control samples were sham irradiated. To study the effects of hypoxia and irradiation on cell viability and DNA damage, western blotting, immunostainings and clonogenic assay were used. The oxygen level, pH, evaporation rate and osmolarity of the culturing media on cell cultures in different conditions were followed. Results The oxygen concentration in interest (5, 1 or 0% O2) was maintained inside the individual culturing chambers of the Minihypoxy system also during the irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the cells cultured in Minihypoxy chambers was declined measured as lower phosphorylation rate of H2A.X and increased clonogenic capacity compared to controls (OER~ 3). Conclusions The Minihypoxy system allows continuous control of hypoxic environment in multiple wells and is transportable. Furthermore, the system maintains the low oxygen environment inside the individual culturing chambers during the transportation and irradiation in experiments which are typically conducted in separate facilities.
  • Metsälä, Olli; Kreutzer, Joose; Högel, Heidi; Miikkulainen, Petra; Kallio, Pasi; Jaakkola, Panu M. (2018)
    BackgroundCells in solid tumours are variably hypoxic and hence resistant to radiotherapy - the essential role of oxygen in the efficiency of irradiation has been acknowledged for decades. However, the currently available methods for performing hypoxic experiments in vitro have several limitations, such as a limited amount of parallel experiments, incapability of keeping stable growth conditions and dependence on CO2 incubator or a hypoxia workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a novel portable system (Minihypoxy) in performing in vitro irradiation studies under hypoxia, and present supporting biological data.Materials and methodsThis study was conducted on cancer cell cultures in vitro. The cells were cultured in normoxic (similar to 21% O-2) or in hypoxic (1% O-2) conditions either in conventional hypoxia workstation or in the Minihypoxy system and irradiated at dose rate 1.28Gy/min2.9%. The control samples were sham irradiated. To study the effects of hypoxia and irradiation on cell viability and DNA damage, western blotting, immunostainings and clonogenic assay were used. The oxygen level, pH, evaporation rate and osmolarity of the culturing media on cell cultures in different conditions were followed.ResultsThe oxygen concentration in interest (5, 1 or 0% O-2) was maintained inside the individual culturing chambers of the Minihypoxy system also during the irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the cells cultured in Minihypoxy chambers was declined measured as lower phosphorylation rate of H2A.X and increased clonogenic capacity compared to controls (OER similar to 3).Conclusions The Minihypoxy system allows continuous control of hypoxic environment in multiple wells and is transportable. Furthermore, the system maintains the low oxygen environment inside the individual culturing chambers during the transportation and irradiation in experiments which are typically conducted in separate facilities.
  • Hatano, Y.; Lee, S.E.; Likonen, J.; Koivuranta, S.; Hara, M.; Masuzaki, M.; Asakura, N.; Isobe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Ikonen, J.; Widdowson, A.; EUROfusion Consortium, JET; Ahlgren, Tommy (2019)
    Tritium (T) distributions on tungsten (W)-coated plasma-facing tiles used in the third ITER-like wall campaign (2015-2016) of the Joint European Torus (JET) were examined by means of an imaging plate technique and beta-ray induced x-ray spectrometry, and they were compared with the distributions after the second (2013-2014) campaign. Strong enrichment of T in beryllium (Be) deposition layers was observed after the second campaign. In contrast, T distributions after the third campaign was more uniform though Be deposition layers were visually recognized. The one of the possible explanations is enhanced desorption of T from Be deposition layers due to higher tile temperatures caused by higher energy input in the third campaign.
  • Peltonen, Juha (2020)
    Röntgentutkimukseen lähettävän lääkärin tulee pystyä viestimään säteilyn riskeistä potilaalle.