Browsing by Subject "Radiotherapy"

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  • Seibold, Petra; Schmezer, Peter; Behrens, Sabine; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Seynaeve, Caroline; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Dunning, Alison M.; Rhenius, Valerie; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Hamann, Ute; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Purrington, Kristen S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Popanda, Odilia (2015)
    Background: Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. Methods: We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p <0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. Results: rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p = 0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p = 0.009; combined analysis p = 0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency = 0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, 95 % 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR = 1.42, 95 % 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. Conclusions: Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.
  • Wysokinski, T.W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. (2013)
    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ∼30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 μm to 150 μm. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
  • Koivunoro, Hanna; Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppälä, Tiina; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Mäkitie, Antti; Joensuu, Heikki (2019)
    Background and purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that recurs locally is a therapeutic challenge. We investigated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such patients and the factors associated with treatment response and survival. Methods and materials: Seventy-nine patients with inoperable, locally recurred HNSCC were treated with L-boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT in Espoo, Finland, between February, 2003 and January, 2012. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a median cumulative dose of 66 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 59-70 Gy) administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using the RECISTv. 1.0 criteria. Results: Forty patients received BNCT once (on 1 day), and 39 twice. The median time between the 2 treatments was 6 weeks. Forty-seven (68%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57-79%) of the 69 evaluable patients responded; 25 (36%) had a complete response, 22 (32%) a partial response, 17 (25%) a stable disease lasting for a median of 4.2 months, and 5 (7%) progressed. The patients treated with BNCT twice responded more often than those treated once. The median follow-up time after BNCT was 7.8 years. The 2-year locoregional progression-free survival rate was 38% and the overall survival rate 21%. A high minimum tumor dose and a small volume were independently associated with long survival in a multi-variable analysis. Conclusions: Most patients responded to BNCT. A high minimum tumor dose from BNCT was predictive for response and survival. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Mäkitie, Antti A.; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Baujat, Bertrand; Almangush, Alhadi; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Laryngeal sarcomas constitute an extremely rare entity among head and neck malignancies. Furthermore, most of them are chondrosarcomas, and the osteogenic form remains a true rarity. In general, there is a lack of information on the characteristics of laryngeal osteosarcoma. Thus, we sought to critically review the existing world literature on laryngeal osteosarcoma in order to develop a more accurate clinicopathological profile of this malignancy. Laryngeal osteosarcoma has a predilection for elderly male patients, as 87% were male in the present series and the mean age was 62 years (range 32-80), and without a direct association with tobacco exposure. Osteosarcoma of the larynx is typically a highly malignant neoplasm that metastasizes early, has a propensity for hematogenous spread and also has a marked tendency to recur. Twelve (41%) out of the 29 cases in the present review with follow-up data had metastatic disease. The aspects that distinguish osteosarcoma from its differential diagnostic alternatives are discussed in this review.
  • Kontio, R.; Hagström, J.; Lindholm, P.; Böhling, T.; Sampo, M.; Mesimäki, K.; Saarilahti, K.; Koivunen, P.; Mäkitie, A. A. (2019)
    Background: Osteosarcomas (OS) in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) region are typically diagnosed at later age than long-bone OS, but they are reported to have better 5-year survival. Curative treatment warrants wide surgical resection, which is often not possible in the CMF region. The purpose of this article is to present a nationwide series of CMF in Finland to discuss the role of surgery. Patients and methods: All 21 CMF OS patients managed in Finland from 1992 to 2009 were included. The mean age was 40 years (range 15e72). Data on patient and tumor characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival were recorded. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 5 years or until death. Results: OS was evenly represented in the mandible and maxillary bones, which together constituted 76% of all sites. Surgery with curative intent was carried out in 20 patients. Clear margins were achieved in only five cases. Eight (40%) of these 20 patients died due to OS, and their average survival time was 1.3 years. Seven (35%) out of the 20 patients received radiotherapy due to close/intralesional surgical margins, and four of them did not develop recurrences during the follow-up. Conclusions: The results suggest that postoperative radiotherapy may alter the prognosis in CMF OS, particularly in cases with close or intralesional margins. This may increase the survival rates achieved by prompt action in performing radical surgery. (C) 2019 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Aula, Hanna; Skyttä, Tanja; Tuohinen, Suvi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Virtanen, Vesa; Raatikainen, Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa (2018)
    BackgroundRadiation-induced heart disease is mainly caused by activation of the fibrotic process. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are pro-fibrotic mediators. The aim of our study was to evaluate the behavior of TGF-1 and PDGF during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer and the association of these cytokines with echocardiographic changes.MethodsOur study included 73 women with early-stage breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receiving post-operative RT but not chemotherapy. TGF-1 and PDGF levels in serum samples taken before and on the last day of RT were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Echocardiography was also performed at same time points. Patients were grouped according to a15% worsening in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and pericardium calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS).ResultsIn all patients, the median TGF-1 decreased from 25.0 (IQR 21.1-30.3) ng/ml to 23.6 (IQR 19.6-26.8) ng/ml (p=0.003), and the median PDGF decreased from 18.0 (IQR 13.7-22.7) ng/ml to 15.6 (IQR 12.7-19.5) ng/ml (p
  • Gregoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Quynh-Thu Le,; Bourhis, Jean; Budach, Volker; Chen, Amy; Eisbruch, Abraham; Feng, Mei; Giralt, Jordi; Gupta, Tejpal; Hamoir, Marc; Helito, Juliana K.; Hu, Chaosu; Hunter, Keith; Johansen, Jorgen; Kaanders, Johannes; Laskar, Sarbani Ghosh; Lee, Anne; Maingon, Philippe; Mäkitie, Antti; Micciche, Francesco; Nicolai, Piero; O'Sullivan, Brian; Poitevin, Adela; Porceddu, Sandro; Skiadowski, Krzysztof; Tribius, Silke; Waldron, John; Wee, Joseph; Yao, Min; Yom, Sue S.; Zimmermann, Frank; Grau, Cai (2018)
    Purpose: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Gregoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such recommendations are lacking for primary tumour delineation. For the latter, two main schools of thoughts are prevailing, one based on geometric expansion of the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) as promoted by DAHANCA, and the other one based on anatomical expansion of the GTV using compartmentalization of head and neck anatomy. Method: For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first proposal was put forward by the leading authors of this publication (VG and CG) and discussed with opinion leaders in head and neck radiation oncology from Europe, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, North America and South America to reach a worldwide consensus. Results: This consensus proposes two CTVs for the primary tumour, the so called CTV-P1 and CVT-P2, corresponding to a high and lower tumour burden, and which should be associated with a high and a lower dose prescription, respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of these guidelines in the daily practice of radiation oncology should contribute to reduce treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ferlito, Alfio; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Mäkitie, Antti A. (2019)
    The tissues of the laryngeal region only rarely harbor primary cartilaginous lesions, and squamous cell carcinoma remains the most frequently encountered malignant tumor in this area.
  • Myllykangas, Mikko; Reinikainen, Petri; Kouri, Mauri; Visapää, Harri (2017)
  • Trautinger, Franz; Eder, Johanna; Assaf, Chalid; Bagot, Martine; Cozzio, Antonio; Dummer, Reinhard; Gniadecki, Robert; Klemke, Claus-Detlev; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Papadavid, Evangelia; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Quaglino, Pietro; Ranki, Annamari; Scarisbrick, Julia; Stadler, Rudolf; Vakeva, Liisa; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Whittaker, Sean; Willemze, Rein; Knobler, Robert (2017)
    In order to provide a common standard for the treatment of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS), the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force (EORTC-CLTF) published in 2006 its consensus recommendations for the stage-adapted selection of management options for these neoplasms. Since then, the understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of MF/SS has advanced, the staging system has been revised, new outcome data have been published and novel treatment options have been introduced. The purpose of the present document is to update the original recommendations bearing in mind that there are still only a limited number of controlled studies to support treatment decisions for MF/SS and that often treatment is determined by institutional experience and availability. This consensus on treatment recommendations was established among the authors through a series of consecutive consultations in writing and a round of discussion. Recommended treatment options are presented according to disease stage, whenever possible categorised into first-and second-line options and supported with levels of evidence as devised by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). Skin-directed therapies are still the most appropriate option for early-stage MF, and most patients can look forward to a normal life expectancy. For patients with advanced disease, prognosis is still grim, and only for a highly selected subset of patients, prolonged survival can be achieved with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). There is a high need for the development and investigation in controlled clinical trials of treatment options that are based on our increasing understanding of the molecular pathology of MF/SS. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Huang, Shan; Li, Yuxing; Ma, Hongbing; Wang, Wenyu; Zheng, Shuyu; Ke, Yue; Li, Fang (2019)
    PurposeTo evaluate the survival benefit of combining radiotherapy with surgery in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients aged over 65.MethodsUsing the SEER database, we selected patients age >= 65 years that were diagnosed as locally advanced ESCC during 2004-2013. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was examined using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by the log-rank test. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were established to identify possible prognostic factors.ResultsA total of 972 cases were included in the study. For surgical patients aged 65-79 years, 74 patients (32.9%) were treated by surgery alone and 122 patients (54.2%) had received additional neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NRT). NRT+surgery was associated with improved CSS comparing with surgery alone (HR, 0.58; 95%CI, 0.39 to 0.85; P=0.005). In subgroup analysis, NRT was associated with improved CSS for patients aged 65-74 years (2-year CSS 56.6% versus 39.6%, P=0.026). No significant differences of progonosis was observed for different treatment groups in 75-79 years patients (P=0.972).ConclusionsIn this SEER-based study, the addition of neoadjuvant radiotherapy before surgery was associated with improved CSS for locally advanced ESCC patients aged 65 to 74 years.
  • Suominen, Anu; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2018)
    Lapsena kantasolusiirron yhteydessä annettu säde- tai solunsalpaajahoito vaurioittaa DNA:ta ja altistaa ennenaikaiselle vanhenemiselle. Vaarana ovat verisuonten ja sukurauhasten ennenaikainen vanheneminen sekä raihnaisuus aikuisiässä. Näiden potilaiden sydämen ja munasarjojen toimintaa, verenpainetta ja sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijöitä tulee seurata. Lapsena kantasolusiirron saaneita tulee aktiivisesti ohjata terveellisiin elämäntapoihin ja kuntoiluun.
  • Taskinen, Mervi; Antikainen, Marjatta; Pihkala, Jaana (2006)
  • Leea, Anne W. M.; Ng, Wai Tong; Chan, Jimmy Y. W.; Corry, June; Mäkitie, Antti; Mendenhall, William M.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Strojan, Primoz; Suarez, Carlos; Vermorken, Jan B.; Yom, Sue S.; Ferlito, Alfio (2019)
    As a consequence of the current excellent loco-regional control rates attained using the generally accepted treatment paradigms involving intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), only 10-20% of patients will suffer from local and/or nodal recurrence after primary treatment. Early detection of recurrence is important as localized recurrent disease is still potentially salvageable, but this treatment often incurs a high risk of major toxicities. Due to the possibility of radio-resistance of tumors which persist or recur despite adequate prior irradiation and the limited tolerance of adjacent normal tissues to sustain further additional treatment, the management of local failures remains one of the greatest challenges in this disease. Both surgical approaches for radical resection and specialized re-irradiation modalities have been explored. Unfortunately, available data are based on retrospective studies, and the majority of them are based on a small number of patients or relatively short follow-up. In this article, we will review the different salvage treatment options and associated prognostic factors for each of them. We will also propose a treatment algorithm based on the latest available evidence and discuss the future directions of treatment for locally recurrent NPC.
  • Nurmi, Heidi; Tenhunen, Mikko (2019)
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Colasanti, Roberto; Raj, Rahul; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions with particular features compared with other pineal parenchymal tumors. METHODS: We present a retrospective review of patients with histologically confirmed PPTIDs who were operated on in our department between 1997 and 2015. A demographic analysis and an evaluation of preoperative status, surgical treatment, as well as immediate and long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes were conducted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with PPTIDs were operated on between 1997 and 2015. Gross total removal was achieved in 11 cases; 2 patients underwent near-total resection, 1 partial resection, and 1 received brachytherapy after an endoscopic biopsy. Nine patients required external radiation therapy (4 due to a pleomorphic histology of their lesion including pineoblastoma features in 3 of them; 3 after a subtotal resection; and 2 for tumor recurrence). No patient received chemotherapy. The survival rate of our patients was 57.1% at a mean follow-up of 137.2 +/- 77.6 months (39-248 months). CONCLUSIONS: A proper multidisciplinary management of PPTIDs based on a gross total removal of the lesion, and an adjuvant radiotherapy in selected cases, may improve the overall survival of these aggressive tumors.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Colasanti, Roberto; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2019)
    Background Pineoblastomas are very rare malignant lesions with a bad prognosis and high mortality during the first five years from diagnosis. Report of cases We present a retrospective review of three patients with histologically confirmed pineoblastomas consecutively operated on between 1997 and 2015. One of our patients died >14 years after surgery, and the other 2 patients are still alive and in good condition without recurrence of the disease >12 years after surgery. All of them underwent gross total resection and craniospinal radiotherapy. Individualized scheme of chemotherapy was administered in two cases. The cornerstones for the surgical resection of pineoblastomas are reported. Conclusions A proper multidisciplinary management of pineoblastomas, which associates gross total microsurgical resection of the lesion and an adjuvant therapy determined by our neurooncology team based on accurate craniospinal adjuvant radiotherapy with boost of radiation on the tumoral bed, and when needed, an adequate but aggressive medulloblastoma-like chemotherapy, may improve the overall survival of these malignant lesions.
  • Vanquin, L.; Boydev, C.; Korhonen, J.; Rault, E.; Crop, F.; Lacornerie, T.; Wagner, A.; Laffarguette, J.; Pasquier, D.; Reynaert, N. (2019)
    Purpose.-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an increasing role in radiotherapy dose planning. Indeed, MRI offers superior soft tissue contrast compared to computerized tomography (CT) and therefore could provide a better delineation of target volumes and organs at risk than CT for radiotherapy. Furthermore, an MRI-only radiotherapy workflow would suppress registration errors inherent to the registration of MRI with CT. However, the estimation of the electronic density of tissues using MRI images is still a challenging issue. The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a pseudo-CT generation method for prostate cancer treatments. Materials and methods.-A pseudo-CT was generated for ten prostate cancer patients using an elastic deformation based method. For each patient, dose delivered to the patient was calculated using both the planning CT and the pseudo-CT. Dose differences between CT and pseudo-CT were investigated. Results.-Mean dose relative difference in the planning target volume is 0.9% on average and ranges from 0.1% to 1.7%. In organs at risks, this value is 1.8%, 0.8%, 0.8% and 1% on average in the rectum, the right and left femoral heads, and the bladder respectively. Conclusio.-The dose calculated using the pseudo-CT is very close to the dose calculated using the CT for both organs at risk and PTV. These results confirm that pseudo-CT images generated using the proposed method could be used to calculate radiotherapy treatment doses on MRI images. (C) 2019 Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Gomes-Silva, Wagner; Prado-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina; Brandao, Thais Bianca; Morais-Faria, Karina; de Castro Junior, Gilberto; Mak, Milena Perez; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Rocha, Marcelo Marques; Salo, Tuula; Tjaderhane, Leo; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger (2017)
    Recent evidence suggests that head-and-neck radiotherapy (HNRT) increases active forms of matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) in human tooth crowns, degrading the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) and leading to enamel delamination, which is a pivotal step in the formation of radiation-related caries (RRC). Additional participation of enzymatic degradation of organic matrix components in caries progression was attributed to MMP-20 in dentin. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes to the enamel and dentin. Thirty-six teeth were studied, including 19 post-HNRT specimens and 17 nonirradiated controls. Optical light microscopy was used to investigate the micromorphological components of the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. The samples were divided into 2 subgroups: nondemineralized ground sections (n = 20) and demineralized histological sections (n = 16). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using the immunoperoxidase technique was conducted to semiquantitatively assess MMP-20 expression in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. No apparent damage to the DEJ microstructure or other dentin-pulp complex components was observed and no statistically significant differences were detected in MMP-20 expression (p > 0.05) between the irradiated and control groups. This study rejected the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes. Hence, direct effects of radiation may not be regarded as an independent factor to explain aggressive clinical patterns of RRC. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Coca-Pelaz, Andres; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Strojan, Primoz; Corry, June; Eisbruch, Avraham; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Nuyts, Sandra; Smee, Robert; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Mendenhall, William M.; Piazza, Cesare; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio (2021)
    Introduction As a result of the increased use of radiotherapy (RT) and improved long-term overall survival of patients with cancers of the head and neck (HN), the frequency of radiation-induced sarcomas of the head and neck (RISHN) may be increasing. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the existing evidence on the frequency, treatment, and outcome of RISHN. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines we conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 2000 to 2020. Results Our review includes data of 560 patients from 64 articles. The total frequency of RISHNs among the reviewed series was 0.15%. The most frequent location of the primary tumor treated by RT was the nasopharynx. The mean RT dose used was 62 Gy, mean latency interval between irradiation and occurrence of RISHN was 11.1 years, and the most common RISHN location was the sinonasal region. Osteosarcoma was the principal histology, followed by fibrosarcoma. Surgery was the most frequently applied treatment modality. Of all patients with RISHN, 40.7% died of this disease after a mean interval of 13.9 months. Conclusions Notwithstanding the increased use of RT, the number of reported RISHNs has not increased substantially during the past two decades. Surgery with wide margins forms the best therapeutic option for these cases, but the outcome remains poor.