Browsing by Subject "Rectal Neoplasms"

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  • Jernman, Juha (2015)
    Neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum were regarded as benign, when Oberndorfer originally described the entity in 1907. Later, he acknowledged that some neuroendocrine tumors (or carcinoids, the term at that time) behave in a more aggressive manner, and a few of them even had the potential to metastasize with poor outcome. In the novel World Health Organization (WHO) classification launched in 2010, all neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are malignant. In this classification, tumors of every part of the GI tract are graded uniformly according to proliferation index and mitotic frequency, whereas the TNM-classification (tumor, node, metastasis) is specific for each site. Around 10% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) occur in the rectum. The tumor series comprised 73 rectal NETs, with the main objective being to study the prognostic value of the WHO 2010 classification in rectal NETs: additionally, as the WHO classification has been used for a rather short time, tumor markers were tested to find a good, reliable prognostic tool. The WHO 2010 had excellent prognostic significance; none of the G1- NETs (grade 1) metastasized, whereas G2-NETs were often disseminated, some of them at initial presentation. Metastatic NETs have a poor prognosis. Cell-cycle antigen cyclin A also correlated with prognosis, and G2-NETs with high cyclin A expression were all metastatic. Transcription factor prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) was immunohistochemically positive in a significant proportion of rectal NETs, and showed a correlation with metastatic potential and survival. It was also possible to conclude that the novel stem cell-associated factor HES77 (human embryonic stem cell factor 77) correlated well with rectal NETs metastatic potential and prognosis. These results support the validity of the WHO 2010 classification in rectal NETs. In view of this study, for patients with a rectal G1-NET, one follow-up endoscopy to exclude local recurrence might suffice. Intensive follow-up does not seem indicated, as metastatic potential is very low. As to G2-NETs, a thorough work-up is recommended, since most of these tumors disseminate eventually, some after several years, and a standard 5-year follow-up may not suffice. PROX1-positivity suggests that colorectal adenocarcinoma and rectal NET may, to some extent, share the same pathway in oncogenesis, which could lead to future therapeutic applications.
  • Annanmäki, Tua (2020)