Browsing by Subject "Rectal cancer"

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  • Räsänen, Minna; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mustonen, Harri; Lepistö, Anna (2019)
    Background Neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy is used to reduce local recurrences in stage III rectal cancer. Radiotherapy is not harmless, and meticulous total mesorectal excision surgery alone has been reported to result in low local recurrence rate in favorable stage III tumors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of short-course (5 x 5 Gy) radiotherapy on the local recurrence risk in patients with pT3N1-2 rectal cancer. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study with 151 consecutive pT3N1-2M0 rectal cancer patients operated on at Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, during January 2005 to June 2014. Short-course radiotherapy was given to 94 patients, and 57 patients were operated on without neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The main outcome measurement was the effect of radiotherapy on local recurrence. Also, the risk factors for local recurrence were analyzed. Results Local recurrence occurred in a total 17 of 151 (11.3%) patients, 8 of 57 (14.0%) in surgery only group compared with 9 of 94 (9.6%) in radiotherapy plus surgery group (p = 0.44). In univariate Cox regression analysis, the risk factors for local recurrence were tumor location under 6 cm from the anal verge (p = 0.01), involved lateral margin (p <0.001), tumor perforation (p <0.001), and mucinous histology (p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, risk factors were tumor location under 6 cm from anal verge (p = 0.03) and involved lateral margin (p = 0.002). Conclusion Neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy did not affect the local recurrence risk of pT3N1-2M0 rectal cancer. Further studies with larger patient number are needed to evaluate the role of short-course radiotherapy in different T3 subgroups (3a-c) as well as in N1 and N2 cancers in separate.
  • Räsänen, Minna; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mustonen, Harri; Lepistö, Anna (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy is used to reduce local recurrences in stage III rectal cancer. Radiotherapy is not harmless, and meticulous total mesorectal excision surgery alone has been reported to result in low local recurrence rate in favorable stage III tumors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of short-course (5 × 5 Gy) radiotherapy on the local recurrence risk in patients with pT3N1-2 rectal cancer. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study with 151 consecutive pT3N1-2M0 rectal cancer patients operated on at Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, during January 2005 to June 2014. Short-course radiotherapy was given to 94 patients, and 57 patients were operated on without neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The main outcome measurement was the effect of radiotherapy on local recurrence. Also, the risk factors for local recurrence were analyzed. Results Local recurrence occurred in a total 17 of 151 (11.3%) patients, 8 of 57 (14.0%) in surgery only group compared with 9 of 94 (9.6%) in radiotherapy plus surgery group (p = 0.44). In univariate Cox regression analysis, the risk factors for local recurrence were tumor location under 6 cm from the anal verge (p = 0.01), involved lateral margin (p < 0.001), tumor perforation (p < 0.001), and mucinous histology (p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, risk factors were tumor location under 6 cm from anal verge (p = 0.03) and involved lateral margin (p = 0.002). Conclusion Neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy did not affect the local recurrence risk of pT3N1-2M0 rectal cancer. Further studies with larger patient number are needed to evaluate the role of short-course radiotherapy in different T3 subgroups (3a–c) as well as in N1 and N2 cancers in separate.
  • Podda, Mauro; Sylla, Patricia; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Adamina, Michel; Agnoletti, Vanni; Agresta, Ferdinando; Ansaloni, Luca; Arezzo, Alberto; Avenia, Nicola; Biffl, Walter; Biondi, Antonio; Bui, Simona; Campanile, Fabio C.; Carcoforo, Paolo; Commisso, Claudia; Crucitti, Antonio; De'Angelis, Nicola; De'Angelis, Gian Luigi; De Filippo, Massimo; De Simone, Belinda; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ercolani, Giorgio; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Gabrielli, Francesco; Gaiani, Federica; Guerrieri, Mario; Guttadauro, Angelo; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari K.; Loffredo, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Moore, Ernest E.; Ortenzi, Monica; Pata, Francesco; Parini, Dario; Pisanu, Adolfo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Polistena, Andrea; Puzziello, Alessandro; Rondelli, Fabio; Sartelli, Massimo; Smart, Neil; Sugrue, Michael E.; Tejedor, Patricia; Vacante, Marco; Coccolini, Federico; Davies, Justin; Catena, Fausto (2021)
    Background and aims Although rectal cancer is predominantly a disease of older patients, current guidelines do not incorporate optimal treatment recommendations for the elderly and address only partially the associated specific challenges encountered in this population. This results in a wide variation and disparity in delivering a standard of care to this subset of patients. As the burden of rectal cancer in the elderly population continues to increase, it is crucial to assess whether current recommendations on treatment strategies for the general population can be adopted for the older adults, with the same beneficial oncological and functional outcomes. This multidisciplinary experts' consensus aims to refine current rectal cancer-specific guidelines for the elderly population in order to help to maximize rectal cancer therapeutic strategies while minimizing adverse impacts on functional outcomes and quality of life for these patients. Methods The discussion among the steering group of clinical experts and methodologists from the societies' expert panel involved clinicians practicing in general surgery, colorectal surgery, surgical oncology, geriatric oncology, geriatrics, gastroenterologists, radiologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and endoscopists. Research topics and questions were formulated, revised, and unanimously approved by all experts in two subsequent modified Delphi rounds in December 2020-January 2021. The steering committee was divided into nine teams following the main research field of members. Each conducted their literature search and drafted statements and recommendations on their research question. Literature search has been updated up to 2020 and statements and recommendations have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. A modified Delphi methodology was implemented to reach agreement among the experts on all statements and recommendations. Conclusions The 2021 SICG-SIFIPAC-SICE-WSES consensus for the multidisciplinary management of elderly patients with rectal cancer aims to provide updated evidence-based statements and recommendations on each of the following topics: epidemiology, pre-intervention strategies, diagnosis and staging, neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgery, watch and wait strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy, synchronous liver metastases, and emergency presentation of rectal cancer.
  • Mäkäräinen-Uhlbäck, Elisa; Wiik, Heikki; Kössi, Jyrki; Ohtonen, Pasi; Rautio, Tero (2018)
    BackgroundA temporary loop ileostomy, which is used to decrease the risk of symptomatic anastamotic leakage after anterior resection and total mesorectal excision (TME), is traditionally closed without any mesh. However, as 44% of incisional site hernias need further repair after stoma closure, attention has increasingly been paid to the use of mesh. Research on the prevention of these hernias is scarce, and no studies comparing different meshes exist.Method/DesignThe Preloop trial (Clinical Trials NCT03445936) is a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare synthetic mesh (Parietene Macro, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and biological implants (Permacol, Medtronic) at a retromuscular sublay position for the prevention of incisional site hernias after loop-ileostomy closure. The main endpoints in this trial are infections at 30-day follow-up and the incidence of hernias clinically or on CT scan at 10months after closure of the stoma. The secondary endpoints are other complications within 30days of surgery graded with the Clavien-Dindo classification, reoperation rate, operating time, length of stay, quality of life measured with RAND-36, and incidence of hernia over a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 100 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio.DiscussionThis is a pilot trial that will be undertaken to provide some novel evidence on the safety profile and efficiency of both synthetic mesh and biological implants for the prevention of incisional hernias after closure by temporary loop ileostomy. The hypothesis is that synthetic mesh is economical but equally safe and at least as effective as biological implants in hernia prevention and in contaminated surgical sites.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03445936. Registered on 7 February 2018.