Browsing by Subject "Rehabilitation"

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  • Tani, Pekka; Kara, Sanna; Grönfors, Sami; Lindberg, Nina (2021)
    Autismikirjon häiriöön voi liittyä erityispiirteitä, jotka voivat alentaa kynnystä väkivaltaiselle käyttäytymiselle ja väkivaltarikoksille sekä myös rikoksen uhriksi joutumiselle. Väkivaltarikollisuus ei tutkimusten valossa ole autismikirjon potilailla muuta väestöä yleisempää. Toisaalta vankipopulaatioon ja oikeuspsykiatriseen hoitoon kertyy autismikirjon potilaita jonkin verran enemmän, kuin mikä heidän osuutensa on väestössä. Potilaiden psyykkisen hyvinvoinnin kohentaminen ja rikosten uusimisen vähentäminen edellyttävät nimenomaan tälle potilasryhmälle suunniteltuja interventioita. Suomessa on kehitetty kehityksellisen neuropsykiatrisen diagnoosin saaneiden vankien kuntoutuksen mallia.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Long, Kathryn; McGowan, Catherine M.; Hyytiäinen, Heli K. (2020)
    Direct muscular attachment from lumbar vertebrae to the caudal vertebrae of the tail suggests that caudal traction, also described as a tail pull, may affect lumbar vertebral segments and/or associated soft tissues in horses. Traction is a commonly used human manual therapy technique used for pain relief and anecdotally observed to relieve pain in horses. However, research is lacking validating the efficacy of manual caudal traction on the horse. The objective of this study was to determine if caudal traction has an effect on mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) in a group of horses with clinical signs of back pain. Pressure algometry was used to measure MNTs of five bilateral anatomical sites in the epaxial and pelvic musculature of 11 horses referred to physiotherapy because of clinical signs of back pain. Measurements were recorded both before and immediately after traction. A significant difference (P
  • Rintala, Aki; Päivärinne, Ville; Hakala, Sanna; Paltamaa, Jaana; Heinonen, Ari; Karvanen, Juha; Sjögren, Tuulikki (2019)
    Objective: To study the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning in stroke. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases from January 2000 to May 2018. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria applied the patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design framework as follows: (P) stroke; (I) technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions; (C) any comparison without the use of technology; (0) physical functioning; (S) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search identified in total 693 studies, and the screening of 162 full-text studies revealed 13 eligible studies. Data Extraction: The studies were screened using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and assessed for methodological quality and quality of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed if applicable. Data Synthesis: A total of 13 studies were included, and online video monitoring was the most used technology. Seven outcomes of physical functioning were identified-activities of daily living (ADL), upper extremity functioning, lower extremity functioning, balance, walking, physical activity, and participation. A meta-analysis of 6 RCTs indicated that technology-based distance physical rehabilitation had a similar effect on ADL (standard mean difference 0.06; 95% confidence interval: -0.22 to 0.35, P=.67) compared to the combination of traditional treatments (usual care, similar and other treatment). Similar results were obtained for other outcomes, except inconsistent findings were noted for walking. Methodological quality of the studies and quality of evidence were considered low. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning might be similar compared to traditional treatments in stroke. Further research should be performed to confirm the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions for improving physical functioning of persons with stroke. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2018)
    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. Methods: Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP >= 2 times, LBP >= 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence. A random sample was extracted from the cohort as a control group (Control, n = 50), representing the natural course of LBP. The remaining 143 employees were invited to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of three 1:1:1 allocated parallel intervention arms: multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Rehab, n = 43); progressive exercises (Physio, n = 43) and self-care advice (Advice, n = 40). Seventeen employees declined participation in the intervention. The primary outcome measures were physical impairment (PHI), LBP intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), health related quality of life (QoL), and accumulated sickness absence days. We imputed missing values with multiple imputation procedure. We assessed all comparisons between the intervention groups and the Control group by analysing questionnaire outcomes at 2 years with ANOVA and sickness absence at 4 years by using negative binomial model with a logarithmic link function. Results: Mean differences between the Rehab and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, - 13 [- 24 to - 1] for pain intensity, and 0.06 [0.00 to 0.12] for QoL. Mean differences between the Physio and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, -13 [- 29 to 2] for pain intensity, and 0.07 [0.01 to 0.13] for QoL. The main effects sizes were from 0.4 to 0.6. The interventions were not effective in reducing sickness absence. Conclusions: Rehab and Physio interventions improved health related quality of life, decreased low back pain and physical impairment in non-acute, moderate LBP, but we found no differences between the Advice and Control group results. No effectiveness on sickness absence was observed.
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. Methods Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP ≥ 2 times, LBP ≥ 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence. A random sample was extracted from the cohort as a control group (Control, n = 50), representing the natural course of LBP. The remaining 143 employees were invited to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of three 1:1:1 allocated parallel intervention arms: multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Rehab, n = 43); progressive exercises (Physio, n = 43) and self-care advice (Advice, n = 40). Seventeen employees declined participation in the intervention. The primary outcome measures were physical impairment (PHI), LBP intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), health related quality of life (QoL), and accumulated sickness absence days. We imputed missing values with multiple imputation procedure. We assessed all comparisons between the intervention groups and the Control group by analysing questionnaire outcomes at 2 years with ANOVA and sickness absence at 4 years by using negative binomial model with a logarithmic link function. Results Mean differences between the Rehab and Control groups were − 3 [95% CI -5 to − 1] for PHI, − 13 [− 24 to − 1] for pain intensity, and 0.06 [0.00 to 0.12] for QoL. Mean differences between the Physio and Control groups were − 3 [95% CI -5 to − 1] for PHI, − 13 [− 29 to 2] for pain intensity, and 0.07 [0.01 to 0.13] for QoL. The main effects sizes were from 0.4 to 0.6. The interventions were not effective in reducing sickness absence. Conclusions Rehab and Physio interventions improved health related quality of life, decreased low back pain and physical impairment in non-acute, moderate LBP, but we found no differences between the Advice and Control group results. No effectiveness on sickness absence was observed. Trial registration Number NCT00908102 Clinicaltrials.gov
  • Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Segura, Emma; Sanchez-Pinsach, David; Raghavan, Preeti; Münte, Thomas F; Palumbo, Anna M; Turry, Alan; Duarte, Esther; Särkämö, Teppo; Cerquides, Jesus; Arcos, Josep L; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Residual motor deficits of the upper limb in patients with chronic stroke are common and have a negative impact on autonomy, participation and quality of life. Music-Supported Therapy (MST) is an effective intervention to enhance motor and cognitive function, emotional well-being and quality of life in chronic stroke patients. We have adapted the original MST training protocol to a home-based intervention, which incorporates increased training intensity and variability, group sessions, and optimisation of learning to promote autonomy and motivation. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to test the effectiveness of this enriched MST (eMST) protocol in improving motor functions, cognition, emotional well-being and quality of life of chronic stroke patients when compared to a program of home-based exercises utilizing the Graded Repetitive Arm Supplementary Program (GRASP). Sixty stroke patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to an eMST group (n = 30) or a control GRASP intervention group (n = 30). Patients will be evaluated before and after a 10-week intervention, as well as at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome of the study is the functionality of the paretic upper limb measured with the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes include other motor and cognitive functions, emotional well-being and quality of life measures as well as self-regulation and self-efficacy outcomes. Discussion We hypothesize that patients treated with eMST will show larger improvements in their motor and cognitive functions, emotional well-being and quality of life than patients treated with a home-based GRASP intervention. Trial registration The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov and identified as NCT04507542 on 8 August 2020.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Segura, Emma; Sanchez-Pinsach, David; Raghavan, Preeti; Münte, Thomas F.; Palumbo, Anna Marie; Turry, Alan; Duarte, Esther; Särkämö, Teppo; Cerquides, Jesus; Arcos, Josep Lluis; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni (2021)
    Background: Residual motor deficits of the upper limb in patients with chronic stroke are common and have a negative impact on autonomy, participation and quality of life. Music-Supported Therapy (MST) is an effective intervention to enhance motor and cognitive function, emotional well-being and quality of life in chronic stroke patients. We have adapted the original MST training protocol to a home-based intervention, which incorporates increased training intensity and variability, group sessions, and optimisation of learning to promote autonomy and motivation. Methods: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to test the effectiveness of this enriched MST (eMST) protocol in improving motor functions, cognition, emotional well-being and quality of life of chronic stroke patients when compared to a program of home-based exercises utilizing the Graded Repetitive Arm Supplementary Program (GRASP). Sixty stroke patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to an eMST group (n = 30) or a control GRASP intervention group (n = 30). Patients will be evaluated before and after a 10-week intervention, as well as at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome of the study is the functionality of the paretic upper limb measured with the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes include other motor and cognitive functions, emotional well-being and quality of life measures as well as self-regulation and self-efficacy outcomes. Discussion: We hypothesize that patients treated with eMST will show larger improvements in their motor and cognitive functions, emotional well-being and quality of life than patients treated with a home-based GRASP intervention. Trial registration: The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov and identified as NCT04507542 on 8 August 2020.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo; Sihvonen, Aleksi J. (2018)
    During the last decades, there have been major advances in mapping the brain regions that underlie our ability to perceive, experience, and produce music and how musical training can shape the structure and function of the brain. This progress has fueled and renewed clinical interest towards uncovering the neural basis for the impaired or preserved processing of music in different neurological disorders and how music-based interventions can be used in their rehabilitation and care. This article reviews our contribution to and the state-of-the-art of this field. We will provide a short overview outlining the key brain networks that participate in the processing of music and singing in the healthy brain and then present recent findings on the following key music-related research topics in neurological disorders: (i) the neural architecture underlying deficient processing of music (amusia), (ii) the preservation of singing in aphasia and music-evoked emotions and memories in Alzheimer's disease, (iii) the mnemonic impact of songs as a verbal learning tool, and (iv) the cognitive, emotional, and neural efficacy of music-based interventions and activities in the rehabilitation and care of major ageing-related neurological illnesses (stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease). (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kullberg-Turtiainen, Marjo; Vuorela, Kaisa; Huttula, Lilli; Turtiainen, Petri; Koskinen, Sanna (2019)
    Few long-term studies report late outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury. New rehabilitation techniques are needed for this heterogenous patient group. We present a dance intervention six and half years after an extreme severe TBI including excessive diffuse axonal injury, which disconnects the brain networks. Given the fact, that efficient brain function depends on the integrated operation of large-scale brain networks like default mode network (DMN), we created an intervention with multisensory and multimodal approach and goal-directed behavior. The intervention lasted four months including weekly one-hour dance lessons with the help of a physiotherapist and dance teacher. The measures included functional independence measure (FIM), repeated electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis of three subnets of DMN and clinical evaluations and observations. The results showed clear improvement after the intervention, and FIM stayed in elevated level during several years after the intervention. We present suggestion for further studies using larger patient groups.
  • Autti-Rämö, Ilona (2021)
    Kuntoutuksen vaikuttavuuden arvioinnissa on huomioitava, että kuntoutus ei pysty itsenäisesti aiheuttamaan kuntoutujan toimintakyvyn muutosta. Prosessi edellyttää tarkkaa kuntoutumistarpeen juurisyiden tunnistamista, yksilöllisten tavoitteiden määrittämistä ja kuntoutujan motivaatiota sekä harjoitteiden tai toimintamallin muutoksen toteutukseen sitouttavaa ammatillista ohjausta ja seurantaa. Kuntoutuksen vaikuttavuuden tutkimus edellyttää usein monimenetelmäistä lähestymistä, jossa huomioidaan niin kuntoutumisen mahdollistavat kuin sitä estävät tai hidastavat tekijät. Kuntoutuksen vaikuttavuuden arviointi kliinisessä työssä edellyttää, että kuntoutujan toimintakyky, kuntoutuksen yksilöllinen tavoite ja sen sisältö ovat tarkkaan kirjatut.
  • Saramies, Jouko; Naukkarinen, Heli; Heikkonen, Kyösti; Helkala, Heidi; Hiltunen-Hahtola, Raija; Jaakkola, Marja-Riitta; Karppinen, Titta; Kuitto, Sari; Turppo, Anne; Hupli, Markku (2017)
    Prosessien sujuvoittaminen, hukan poistaminen ja valmentava johtaminen mahdollistivat kuntoutujalle enemmän toimintakykyä edistävää toimintaa. Kuntoutuksen kehittäminen Lean-ajattelun keinoin toi Armilan kuntoutuskeskukselle Lääkäriliiton laatupalkinnon 2015.
  • Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Liira, Helena (2019)
    Lääkärillä on tärkeä tehtävä liikunnan ottamisessa puheeksi.
  • Torppa, Ritva; Faulkner, Andrew; Laasonen, Marja; Lipsanen, Jari; Sammler, Daniela (2020)
    Objectives: A major issue in the rehabilitation of children with cochlear implants (CIs) is unexplained variance in their language skills, where many of them lag behind children with normal hearing (NH). Here we assess links between generative language skills and the perception of prosodic stress, and with musical and parental activities in children with CIs and NH. Understanding these links is expected to guide future research and towards supporting language development in children with a CI. Method: 21 unilaterally and early-implanted children and 31 children with NH, aged 5 to 13, were classified as musically active or non-active by a questionnaire recording regularity of musical activities, in particular singing, and reading and other activities shared with parents. Perception of word and sentence stress, performance in word finding, verbal intelligence (WISC vocabulary) and phonological awareness (PA; production of rhymes) were measured in all children. Comparisons between children with a CI and NH were made against a sub-set of 21 of the children with NH who were matched to children with CIs by age, gender, socio-economic background and musical activity. Regression analyses, run separately for children with CIs and NH, assessed how much variance in each language task was shared with each of prosodic perception, the child’s own music activity, and activities with parents, including singing and reading. All statistical analyses were conducted both with and without control for age and maternal education. Results: Musically active children with CIs performed similarly to NH controls in all language tasks, while those who were not musically active performed more poorly. Only musically non-active children with CIs made more phonological and semantic errors in word finding than NH controls, and word finding correlated with other language skills. Regression analysis results for word finding and VIQ were similar for children with CIs and NH. These language skills shared considerable variance with the perception of prosodic stress and musical activities. When age and maternal education were controlled for, strong links remained between perception of prosodic stress and VIQ (shared variance: CI, 32%/NH, 16%) and between musical activities and word finding (shared variance: CI, 53%/NH, 20%). Links were always stronger for children with CIs, for whom better phonological awareness was also linked to improved stress perception and more musical activity, and parental activities altogether shared significantly variance with word finding and VIQ. Conclusions: For children with CIs and NH, better perception of prosodic stress and musical activities with singing are associated with improved generative language skills. Additionally, for children with CIs, parental singing has a stronger positive association to word finding and VIQ than parental reading. These results cannot address causality, but they suggest that good perception of prosodic stress, musical activities involving singing, and parental singing and reading may all be beneficial for word finding and other generative language skills in implanted children.
  • Juvonen-Posti, Pirjo; Tarvainen, Kimmo; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Räsänen, Kimmo; Liira, Juha (2021)
    Työurien pidentäminen ja työhön osallistumisen lisääminen edellyttävät, että työkyvyltään erilaisista lähtökohdista työelämään osallistuvia tuetaan työhön kiinnittymisessä ja työssä jatkamisessa. Lääkäreiltä toivotaan lääketieteellistä työkykymallia kokonaisvaltaisempaa otetta ja panosta työkyvyn tukemiseen, joten lääkäreiden tulisi jatkossa erottaa tietoisemmin toisistaan työkyvyn arvioinnin ja tukemisen kontekstit. Työkyvyn tukemisen kontekstissa toimiessaan lääkäreiden tulisi omaksua laajempi ja moniulotteisempi työkyvyn malli, johon perustuvassa toiminnassa yksilölliseen tukeen yhdistyvät työhön ja työllistymiseen kohdistuva työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen. Työikäisen väestön pitäminen työkykyisenä ja ennenaikaisen työkyvyttömyyden ehkäisy edellyttävät myös sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollossa työkyvyn tukemisen ajattelu- ja toimintatapojen tarkistamista ja yhteisen osaamisen kehittämistä.
  • Isokuortti, Harri; Luoto, Teemu (2019)
    Tavallisin syy aivovammaan on kaatuminen ja suurin osa vammoista on lieviä. Alkuvaiheessa tärkeintä on sulkea pois vakavan vamman mahdollisuus. Tapahtumatiedot, löydökset ja oireet kirjataan huolellisesti. Olennaisia ovat tajunnan muutokset, muistiaukko ja kuvantamislöydökset. Akuuttivaiheessa ensisijainen kuvantamismuoto on pään tietokonetomografia. Sillä voidaan sulkea pois vakavat kallonsisäiset verenvuodot. Toipumista voidaan edistää oireenmukaisella hoidolla ja potilasohjauksella. Ennuste on hyvä, mutta toipumisen pitkittyessä erikoissairaanhoidon arvio on usein tarpeen.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Musiikin havaitsemisen ja tuottamisen häiriö (amusia) ei ole tavanomaisessa kliinisessä työssä arvioitu oire, vaikka sitä esiintyy jopa puolella akuutin aivoverenkiertohäiriön sairastaneista potilaista. Amusiaa esiintyy yleisimmin oikean ohimo- ja otsalohkon sekä aivosaaren (insula) vaurioiden jälkeen, mutta sitä tavataan myös vasemman aivopuoliskon vaurion yhteydessä, joskin usein lievempänä ja ohimenevänä. Amusiaan liittyvät oikean aivopuoliskon valkean aineen ratojen, etenkin ventraalisen radaston, vaurio sekä ohimo- ja otsalohkon harmaan aineen atrofia ja toiminnalliset muutokset. Amusiassa myös puheen prosodisten piirteiden käsittely häiriintyy, mikä heikentää potilaiden arkipäivän kommunikointia ja sosiaalista kanssakäymistä. Laulaminen vaikuttaa lupaavalta amusian kuntoutusmuodolta, mutta aivovauriopotilaita käsitteleviä interventiotutkimuksia ei ole vielä julkaistu.
  • Pohjonen, Markus; Savolainen, Sarianna; Arokoski, Jari; Shulga, Anastasia (2021)
    Objectives: Earlier studies have shown how chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have benefitted from paired associative stimulation (PAS), consisting of high-frequency peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) and high-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Since high-frequency PNS is poorly characterized, its therapeutic effect without TMS should be evaluated. We tested the effect of PNS combined with motor imagery in chronic SCI patients using the same parameters of PNS as in earlier PAS-based studies that also used TMS. Methods: Five patients with chronic incomplete SCI and tetraplegia received a 6-week treatment of PNS combined with motor imagery to the weaker upper limb. Patients were evaluated with Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), hand function tests (Box and block, grip and pinch strength dynamometry), and spasticity. Results: There was no significant change in hand function tests or spasticity. MMT values improved significantly immediately after the PNS period (0.59 +/- 0.17, p = 0.043) and in the 1-month follow-up visit (0.87 +/- 0.18, p = 0.043). However, improvement of MMT values was weaker than in chronic tetraplegic patients in a corresponding PAS study that used identical PNS stimulation but also included the TMS component omitted here (Tolmacheva et al., 2019a, Clin Neurophysiol Pract). Conclusions: The lack of effect on functional hand tests with the protocol presented here suggests that the synergistic effect of PNS and TMS components is essential for the full therapeutic effect previously observed with PAS intervention. The moderate improvement of the MMT score suggests the possible usefulness of PNS and motor imagery for some of those tetraplegic SCI patients who have contraindications to TMS. Significance: These results add to the understanding of the PAS therapeutic mechanism by highlighting the importance of dual stimulation for achieving the full therapeutic effect of long-term PAS with a high-frequency PNS component. (C) 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Tolmacheva, Aleksandra; Savolainen, Sarianna; Kirveskari, Erika; Brandstack, Nina; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Shulga, Anastasia (2019)
    Objectives Long-term paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a non-invasive combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation and leads to improved hand motor function in individuals with incomplete traumatic tetraplegia. Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can also be induced by neurological diseases. We tested a similar long-term PAS approach in patients with nontraumatic neurological SCI. Methods In this case series five patients with nontraumatic tetraplegia received PAS to the weaker upper limb 3 to 5 times per week for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated with manual muscle testing (MMT) before and immediately after therapy and at the 1- and 6-month follow ups. Patients were also evaluated for spasticity, hand mechanical and digital dynamometry, pinch, and Box and Blocks tests. Results All patients had improved MMT values at all post-PAS evaluations. The mean±standard error MMT increase was 1.44±0.37 points (p=0.043) immediately after PAS, 1.57±0.4 points (p=0.043) at the 1-month follow-up, and 1.71±0.47 points (p=0.043) at the 6-month follow up. The pinch, digital dynamometry values, and Box and Blocks test results also improved in all patients. Conclusions Long-term PAS may be a safe and effective treatment for improving hand function in patients with nontraumatic tetraplegia. Significance This is the first report demonstrating the therapeutic potential of PAS for neurological SCI.