Browsing by Subject "Resistance"

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  • Nieminen, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines the politics of language and d/Disability enacted by the participants in Kivimedia, a media workshop where d/Disabled persons are aided by media professionals in producing media content. Through an ethnographic analysis of Kivimedia radio broadcasts, the thesis develops a theoretical framework that weaves together linguistic anthropology with critical disability studies. My aim is to understand how ableist ideologies are both reproduced and challenged through linguistic practice. The thesis thus explores Kivimedia as a linguistic and discursive space where d/Disabled and a/Able-bodied interlocutors cooperate, interact and frame one another’s speech, thereby indexing the broader discursive field of d/Disability politics. Ultimately, the thesis contends that Kivimedia participants produce a d/Disability counterpublic through their radio broadcasting, that functions against the backdrop of an ableist public sphere. By establishing a public platform premised on the validity and value of d/Disabled experiences, Kivimedia allows d/Disabled speakers to “Crip” culture, that is, make evident, and possibly transform, the material positionalities of d/Disabled identities within an ableist structure and to interrogate their d/Disabled experiences outside ableist regimentation. In doing so, d/Disability becomes reconfigured as a valued, agentive interactional positionality, manifested relationally and dialogically with a/Able-bodied allies. Through this analysis, the thesis theorizes the interconnection between d/Disability and ableism as something emergent both in and across interaction, as both relational and dialogical. When perceived as interactional achievement, one can understand and scrutinize the dialectical relationship between the abstract institutions that perpetuate ableism and discourses on d/Disability and the interactional practices that comprise everyday life. Within such an interactional understanding, we can analyze and critique ableism and its everyday violence and recognize how both individuals and groups work to expose, challenge and transform ableist structures.
  • Kuosmanen, Soile (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The lower respiratory infection tuberculosis (TB) has been the leading cause of death for centuries causing millions of deaths worldwide. The development of antibiotic therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality during the 20th century, at least in the developed countries. However, tuberculosis is still the world's second leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Although TB can be treated and even cured with drug therapy, the treatment is extremely long and requires 6-9 months constant drug therapy. This prolonged treatment causes poor patient compliance, which is usually the reason for the selection of drug resistant and often multidrug (MDR-TB) or even extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) TB bacteria. Limitations of available therapies and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have intensified the search for new drugs from natural sources. Marine micro- and macro-organisms have proven to be an excellent source of structurally unique biologically active natural products. EU FP7 -funded MAREX project, launched in 2010, aims at identifying new biologically active compounds from marine sources. This Master's thesis was carried out as a part of the MAREX project. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate a reproducible method to determine antimicrobial activity of natural products against Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a widely used non-pathogenic surrogate model for TB. In the present study, spectrophotometric microplate assay was optimized and validated using existing antibacterial agents ciprofloxacin and rifampicin as reference compounds. The assay was performed on 96-well plate by using two detection techniques, absorbance measurement and a colorimetric indicator, for the antibacterial MIC end-point determination. The results obtained by the described methods were compared with each other in order to achieve the most optimal assay conditions. The quality control parameters S/B, S/N and Z' factor were used in order to determine the optimal experimental conditions for the assay. Obtaining reliable results with the turbidimetric method required incubation for two days in the case of ciprofloxacin, and for five days with rifampicin. Colorimetric measurement led to similar results as the turbidimetric measurement for both of the reference compounds. The method was further used for the screening of a group of marine extracts. None of the 21 samples tested showed significant activity against M. smegmatis.
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Bassiri, Hamid; Bousfiha, Ahmed A.; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Hagin, David; Lau, Yu L.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Moreira, Ileana; Pinto, Jorge A.; de Moraes-Pinto, M. Isabel; Rawat, Amit; Reda, Shereen M.; Lugo Reyes, Saul Oswaldo; Seppanen, Mikko; Tang, Mimi L. K. (2017)
    In today's global economy and affordable vacation travel, it is increasingly important that visitors to another country and their physician be familiar with emerging infections, infections unique to a specific geographic region, and risks related to the process of travel. This is never more important than for patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD). A recent review addressing common causes of fever in travelers provides important information for the general population Thwaites and Day (N Engl J Med 376:548-560, 2017). This review covers critical infectious and management concerns specifically related to travel for patients with PIDD. This review will discuss the context of the changing landscape of infections, highlight specific infections of concern, and profile distinct infection phenotypes in patients who are immune compromised. The organization of this review will address the environment driving emerging infections and several concerns unique to patients with PIDD. The first section addresses general considerations, the second section profiles specific infections organized according to mechanism of transmission, and the third section focuses on unique phenotypes and unique susceptibilities in patients with PIDDs. This review does not address most parasitic diseases. Reference tables provide easily accessible information on a broader range of infections than is described in the text.
  • Frosini, S-M; Bond, R.; Rantala, M.; Grönthal, T.; Rankin, S. C; O’Shea, K.; Timofte, D.; Schmidt, V.; Lindsay, J.; Loeffler, A. (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Concern exists that frequent use of topically-applied fusidic acid (FA) and chlorhexidine (CHX) for canine pyoderma is driving clinically relevant resistance, despite rare description of FA and CHX genetic resistance determinants in canine-derived staphylococci. This study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and investigate presence of putative resistance determinants for FA and CHX in canine-derived methicillin-resistant (MR) and -susceptible (MS) staphylococci. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes (fusB, fusC, fusD, qacA/B, smr; PCR) and MICs (agar dilution) of FA and CHX were investigated in 578 staphylococci (50 MR S. aureus [SA], 50 MSSA, 259 MR S. pseudintermedius [SP], 219 MSSP) from Finland, U.S.A., North (NUK) and South-East U.K. (SEUK) and Germany. In all isolates with FA MIC ≥64 mg/L (n = 27) fusA and fusE were amplified and sequenced. Results FA resistance determinants (fusA mutations n = 24, fusB n = 2, fusC n = 36) were found in isolates from all countries bar U.S.A. and correlated with higher MICs (≥1 mg/L), although 4 SP isolates had MICs of 0.06 mg/L despite carrying fusC. CHX MICs did not correlate with qacA/B (n = 2) and smr (n = 5), which were found in SEUK SA, and SP from NUK and U.S.A. Conclusions Increased FA MICs were frequently associated with fusA mutations and fusC, and this is the first account of fusB in SP. Despite novel description of qacA/B in SP, gene presence did not correlate with CHX MIC. Selection pressure from clinical use might increase prevalence of these genetic determinants, but clinical significance remains uncertain in relation to high skin concentrations achieved by topical therapy.
  • Frentz, Dineke; Van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Abecasis, Ana B.; Albert, Jan; Hamouda, Osamah; Jorgensen, Louise B.; Kucherer, Claudia; Struck, Daniel; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Asjo, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Beshkov, Danail; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kolupajeva, Tatjana; Korn, Klaus; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; Sonnerborg, Anders; Stanekova, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Boucher, Charles A. B.; SPREAD Programme; Ristola, Matti A (2014)
  • Karambiri, Mawa; Brockhaus, Maria (2019)
    Based on an empirical study of struggles concerning access to land and political inclusion (and exclusion) in the context of a forest conservation project in rural Burkina Faso, this paper analyses environmental politics through the lens of citizenship. In Centre-east Burkina Faso, a peasant resistance to a newly demarcated forest conservation zone turns into an identity and political conflict involving an international conservation organization, the state, decentralized and customary authorities. Based on shared history and residency, a new citizenship of migrants had emerged. These new citizens, finding their given lands within the new forest conservation area, rejected the project-proposed forest boundaries, put forward their citizenship entitlements and engaged in resistance. Eventually they also found themselves in conflict with their polity, lost their claims along with their still-fragile citizenship. Consequently, they were evicted from the forest and labelled as les deguerpis, denied citizenship and became denizens. Beyond confirming the fragile, processual, nature of citizenship these findings also bear theoretical and conceptual implications, challenge the mainstream way environmental politics are analysed and suggest the need to understand political belonging and citizenship as the very basis of environmental struggles.
  • Liu, Shanna; Liu, Yongjun; Takala, Timo M.; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Suhua (2020)
    Listeria ivanovii is one of the two pathogenic species within the genus Listeria, the other being L. monocytogenes. In this study, we generated a stable pediocin resistant mutant Liv-r1 of a L. ivanovii strain, compared phenotypic differences between the wild-type and the mutant, localised the pediocin-induced mutations in the chromosome, and analysed the mechanisms behind the bacteriocin resistance. In addition to pediocin resistance, Liv-r1 was also less sensitive to nisin. The growth of Liv-r1 was significantly reduced with glucose and mannose, but less with cellobiose. The cells of Liv-r1 adsorbed less pediocin than the wild-type cells. Consequently, with less pediocin on the cell surface, the mutant was also less leaky, as shown as the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase to the supernatant. The surface of the mutant cells was more hydrophobic than that of the wild-type. Whole genome sequencing revealed numerous changes in the Liv-r1 chromosome. The mutations were found e.g., in genes encoding sigma-54-dependent transcription regulator and internalin B, as well as in genes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates such as glucose and cellobiose. Genetic differences observed in the mutant may be responsible for resistance to pediocin but no direct evidence is provided.
  • Lilley, Thomas M.; Prokkola, Jenni M.; Blomberg, Anna S.; Paterson, Steve; Johnson, Joseph S.; Turner, Gregory G.; Bartonička, Tomáš; Bachorec, Erik; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Field, Kenneth A. (2019)
    Resistance and tolerance allow organisms to cope with potentially life-threatening pathogens. Recently introduced pathogens initially induce resistance responses, but natural selection favors the development of tolerance, allowing for a commensal relationship to evolve. Mycosis by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, causing white-nose syndrome (WNS) in Nearctic hibernating bats, has resulted in population declines since 2006. The pathogen, which spread from Europe, has infected species of Palearctic Myotis for a longer period. We compared ecologically relevant responses to the fungal infection in the susceptible Nearctic M. lucifugus and less susceptible Palearctic M. myotis, to uncover factors contributing to survival differences in the two species. Samples were collected from euthermic bats during arousal from hibernation, a naturally occurring phenomenon, during which transcriptional responses are activated. We compared the whole-transcriptome responses in wild bats infected with P. destructans hibernating in their natural habitat. Our results show dramatically different local transcriptional responses to the pathogen between uninfected and infected samples from the two species. Whereas we found 1526 significantly upregulated or downregulated transcripts in infected M. lucifugus, only one transcript was downregulated in M. myotis. The upregulated response pathways in M. lucifugus include immune cell activation and migration, and inflammatory pathways, indicative of an unsuccessful attempt to resist the infection. In contrast, M. myotis appears to tolerate P. destructans infection by not activating a transcriptional response. These host-microbe interactions determine pathology, contributing to WNS susceptibility, or commensalism, promoting tolerance to fungal colonization during hibernation that favors survival.