Browsing by Subject "Review"

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  • Kovalainen, Anselmi; Haeren, Roel; Paetau, Anders; Lehecka, Martin (2021)
    Background: Intracranial intraparenchymal schwannomas (IS) are rare tumors that have mainly been described in case reports. Here, we report on a case of a brainstem IS and included a comprehensive literature review. Case Description: A 74-year-old man presented with progressive gait disturbances. CT- and MRI-imaging revealed a contrast-enhancing mass accompanied by a cyst in the dorsolateral pons. Hemangioblastoma was suspected and surgery was advised. During surgery, gross total resection of a non-invasive tumor was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Based on histopathological examination, the intraparenchymal brainstem tumor was diagnosed as schwannoma. Conclusion: Our extensive review illustrates that ISs are benign tumors that most often present in relatively young patients. Malignant cases have been described but form an extremely rare entity. Preoperative diagnosis based on radiological features is difficult but should be considered when peritumoral edema, calcifications, and cysts are noted. In benign cases, gross total resection of the lesion is curative. To adequately select this treatment and adjust the surgical strategy accordingly, it is important to include IS in the preoperative differential diagnosis when the abovementioned radiological features are present.
  • Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases risk of mortality from liver and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which may develop without cirrhosis. NAFLD predicts type 2 diabetes, even independently of obesity. Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD averages 25% and is as common as the metabolic syndrome. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The challenge for the diabetologist is to identify patients at risk of advanced liver disease and HCC. At a minimum, liver function tests (LFTs), despite being neither specific nor sensitive, should be performed in all patients with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Increases in LFTs, for which the updated reference values are lower (serum ALT approximate to 30 U/l in men and approximate to 20 U/l in women) than those hitherto used in many laboratories, should prompt assessment of fibrosis biomarkers and referral of individuals at risk to a NAFLD/hepatology clinic. Preferably, evaluation of NAFLD should be based on measurement of steatosis biomarkers or ultrasound if easily available. A large number of individuals carry the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) I148M variant (30-50%) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K variant (11-15%). These variants increase the risk of advanced liver disease and HCC but not of diabetes or CVD. Genotyping of selected patients for these variants is recommended. Many patients have 'double trouble', i.e. carry both a genetic risk factor and have the metabolic syndrome. Excess use of alcohol could be a cause of 'triple trouble', but such patients would be classified as having alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1, and by John Jones, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3940-5) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael Roden (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3911-x).
  • Balboa, Diego; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Groop, Leif; Otonkoski, Timo (2019)
    Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind beta cell dysfunction is essential for the development of effective and specific approaches for diabetes care and prevention. Physiological human beta cell models are needed for this work. We review the possibilities and limitations of currently available human beta cell models and how they can be dramatically enhanced using genome-editing technologies. In addition to the gold standard, primary isolated islets, other models now include immortalised human beta cell lines and pluripotent stem cell-derived islet-like cells. The scarcity of human primary islet samples limits their use, but valuable gene expression and functional data from large collections of human islets have been made available to the scientific community. The possibilities for studying beta cell physiology using immortalised human beta cell lines and stem cell-derived islets are rapidly evolving. However, the functional immaturity of these cells is still a significant limitation. CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) has enabled precise engineering of specific genetic variants, targeted transcriptional modulation and genome-wide genetic screening. These approaches can now be exploited to gain understanding of the mechanisms behind coding and non-coding diabetes-associated genetic variants, allowing more precise evaluation of their contribution to diabetes pathogenesis. Despite all the progress, genome editing in primary pancreatic islets remains difficult to achieve, an important limitation requiring further technological development.
  • Marionneau, Virve; Egerer, Michael; Nikkinen, Janne (2021)
    Purpose of Review: This systematic literature review evaluates the potential of gambling monopolies to affect gambling harms. It compares the occurrence of gambling harms in jurisdictions with gambling monopolies to jurisdictions with license-based regimes. Recent Findings: The review identified 21 publications concerning three gambling-related harm indicators: problem gambling prevalence, total consumption, and the appearance of conflicts of interest. Due to the dearth of literature, concept papers and older publications were also included. Summary: Results show that there is a paucity of empirical research on the effectiveness of different regulatory regimes in affecting gambling harms. Available research demonstrates that monopolistic regimes appear to perform somewhat better in terms of problem gambling prevalence and total consumption but may also be more prone to conflicts of interest than license-based regimes. Monopolistic configurations also differ between themselves, and issues such as availability, accessibility, product range, scope of preventive work, monitoring, as well as the recognition of the public health approach may better predict the levels of harm in society than the existence of a monopoly.
  • Savarese, Marco; Välipakka, Salla; Johari, Mridul; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne (2020)
    Human genes have a variable length. Those having a coding sequence of extraordinary length and a high number of exons were almost impossible to sequence using the traditional Sanger-based gene-by-gene approach. High-throughput sequencing has partly overcome the size-related technical issues, enabling a straightforward, rapid and relatively inexpensive analysis of large genes. Several large genes (e.g. TTN, NEB, RYR1, DMD) are recognized as disease-causing in patients with skeletal muscle diseases. However, because of their sheer size, the clinical interpretation of variants in these genes is probably the most challenging aspect of the high-throughput genetic investigation in the field of skeletal muscle diseases. The main aim of this review is to discuss the technical and interpretative issues related to the diagnostic investigation of large genes and to reflect upon the current state of the art and the future advancements in the field. © 2020 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
  • Coll, Lluis; Ameztegui, Aitor; Collet, Catherine; Lof, Magnus; Mason, Bill; Pach, Maciej; Verheyen, Kris; Abrudan, Loan; Barbati, Anna; Barreiro, Susana; Bielak, Kamil; Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Ferrari, Barbara; Govedar, Zoran; Kulhavy, Jiri; Lazdina, Dagnija; Metslaid, Marek; Mohrens, Frits; Pereira, Mario; Peric, Sanja; Rasztovits, Ervin; Short, Ian; Spathelf, Peter; Sterba, Hubert; Stojanovic, Dejan; Valsta, Lauri; Zlatanov, Tzvetan; Ponette, Quentin (2018)
    Research into mixed-forests has increased substantially in the last decades but the extent to which the new knowledge generated meets practitioners' concerns and is adequately transmitted to them is unknown. Here we provide the current state of knowledge and future research directions with regards to 10 questions about mixed forest functioning and management identified and selected by a range of European forest managers during an extensive participatory process. The set of 10 questions were the highest ranked questions from an online prioritization exercise involving 168 managers from 22 different European countries. In general, the topics of major concern for forest managers coincided with the ones that are at the heart of most research projects. They covered important issues related to the management of mixed forests and the role of mixtures for the stability of forests faced with environmental changes and the provision of ecosystem services to society. Our analysis showed that the current scientific knowledge about these questions was rather variable and particularly low for those related to the management of mixed forests over time and the associated costs. We also found that whereas most research projects have sought to evaluate whether mixed forests are more stable or provide more goods and services than monocultures, there is still little information on the underlying mechanisms and trade-offs behind these effects. Similarly, we identified a lack of knowledge on the spatio-temporal scales at which the effects of mixtures on the resistance and adaptability to environmental changes are operating. Our analysis may help researchers to identify what knowledge needs to be better transferred and to better design future research initiatives meeting practitioner's concerns.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    To summarize the evidence on the relationship between long working hours and cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Large-scale meta-analyses with published and individual participant observational data on more than 740,000 men and women free of cardiovascular disease report a link between long working hours (>= 55 h a week) and the onset of cardiovascular events. Our meta-analytic update of summary evidence suggests a 1.12-fold (95% CI 1.03-1.21) increased risk associated with coronary heart disease and a 1.21-fold (95% CI 1.01-1.45) increased risk of stroke, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent and the possibility of residual confounding and bias cannot be ruled out. Few studies have examined the mechanisms which may be stress-related, behavioral, or biological. The recent pooled analyses suggest that increased cardiac electric instability and hypercoagulability might play a role. The evidence that long working hours are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is accumulating and suggests a small risk. Studies on the effects of long working hours in high-risk populations and those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, mechanistic research, and intervention studies are needed to advance this research field.
  • Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Aarnio, Harri; Airaksinen, Marja; Ojala, Raimo; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika (2019)
  • Barsby, Tom; Otonkoski, Timo (2022)
    The ability to maintain normoglycaemia, through glucose-sensitive insulin release, is a key aspect of postnatal beta cell function. However, terminally differentiated beta cell identity does not necessarily imply functional maturity. Beta cell maturation is therefore a continuation of beta cell development, albeit a process that occurs postnatally in mammals. Although many important features have been identified in the study of beta cell maturation, as of yet no unified mechanistic model of beta cell functional maturity exists. Here, we review recent findings about the underlying mechanisms of beta cell functional maturation. These findings include systemic hormonal and nutritional triggers that operate through energy-sensing machinery shifts within beta cells, resulting in primed metabolic states that allow for appropriate glucose trafficking and, ultimately, insulin release. We also draw attention to the expansive synergistic nature of these pathways and emphasise that beta cell maturation is dependent on overlapping regulatory and metabolic networks.
  • Robinson, Rachel; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Schnitzlein, Daniel; Voit, Falk; Girchenko, Polina; Wolke, Dieter; Lemola, Sakari; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri (2020)
    Preterm birth research is poised to explore the mental health of adults born very preterm(VP;1970) included VP/VLBW individuals with controls born at term(≥37+0 weeks) or with normal birth weight(NBW; ≥2500g). Thirteen studies were included. Studies consistently showed an increased risk for psychotropic medication use for VP/VLBW adults in comparison to NBW/term controls, but whether VP/VLBW adults have an increased risk for mental health disorders or symptoms appearing in adulthood remains uncertain. The quality of the evidence was moderate (65.8%) to high (34.2%). Further research in larger samples is needed.
  • Hemminki, Otto; dos Santos, Joao Manuel; Hemminki, Akseli (2020)
    In this review, we discuss the use of oncolytic viruses in cancer immunotherapy treatments in general, with a particular focus on adenoviruses. These serve as a model to elucidate how versatile viruses are, and how they can be used to complement other cancer therapies to gain optimal patient benefits. Historical reports from over a hundred years suggest treatment efficacy and safety with adenovirus and other oncolytic viruses. This is confirmed in more contemporary patient series and multiple clinical trials. Yet, while the first viruses have already been granted approval from several regulatory authorities, room for improvement remains. As good safety and tolerability have been seen, the oncolytic virus field has now moved on to increase efficacy in a wide array of approaches. Adding different immunomodulatory transgenes to the viruses is one strategy gaining momentum. Immunostimulatory molecules can thus be produced at the tumor with reduced systemic side effects. On the other hand, preclinical work suggests additive or synergistic effects with conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In addition, the newly introduced checkpoint inhibitors and other immunomodulatory drugs could make perfect companions to oncolytic viruses. Especially tumors that seem not to be recognized by the immune system can be made immunogenic by oncolytic viruses. Logically, the combination with checkpoint inhibitors is being evaluated in ongoing trials. Another promising avenue is modulating the tumor microenvironment with oncolytic viruses to allow T cell therapies to work in solid tumors. Oncolytic viruses could be the next remarkable wave in cancer immunotherapy.
  • Hemminki, Otto; dos Santos, João M; Hemminki, Akseli (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract In this review, we discuss the use of oncolytic viruses in cancer immunotherapy treatments in general, with a particular focus on adenoviruses. These serve as a model to elucidate how versatile viruses are, and how they can be used to complement other cancer therapies to gain optimal patient benefits. Historical reports from over a hundred years suggest treatment efficacy and safety with adenovirus and other oncolytic viruses. This is confirmed in more contemporary patient series and multiple clinical trials. Yet, while the first viruses have already been granted approval from several regulatory authorities, room for improvement remains. As good safety and tolerability have been seen, the oncolytic virus field has now moved on to increase efficacy in a wide array of approaches. Adding different immunomodulatory transgenes to the viruses is one strategy gaining momentum. Immunostimulatory molecules can thus be produced at the tumor with reduced systemic side effects. On the other hand, preclinical work suggests additive or synergistic effects with conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In addition, the newly introduced checkpoint inhibitors and other immunomodulatory drugs could make perfect companions to oncolytic viruses. Especially tumors that seem not to be recognized by the immune system can be made immunogenic by oncolytic viruses. Logically, the combination with checkpoint inhibitors is being evaluated in ongoing trials. Another promising avenue is modulating the tumor microenvironment with oncolytic viruses to allow T cell therapies to work in solid tumors. Oncolytic viruses could be the next remarkable wave in cancer immunotherapy.
  • Kangasluoma, Juha; Cai, Runlong; Jiang, Jingkun; Deng, Chenjuan; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Chan, Tommy; Fu, Yueyun; Kim, Changhyuk; Laurila, Tiia M.; Zhou, Ying; Dada, Lubna; Sulo, Juha; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku; Petaja, Tuukka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne (2020)
    Interest in understanding gas-to-particle phase transformation in several disciplines such as at-mospheric sciences, material synthesis, and combustion has led to the development of several distinct instruments that can measure the particle size distributions down to the sizes of large molecules and molecular clusters, at which the initial particle formation and growth takes place. These instruments, which include the condensation particle counter battery, a variety of electrical mobility spectrometers and the particle size magnifier, have been usually characterized in lab-oratory experiments using carefully prepared calibration aerosols. They are then applied, alone or in combination, to study the gas-to-particle transition in experiments that produce particles with a wide range of compositions and other properties. Only a few instrument intercomparisons in either laboratory or field conditions have been reported, raising the question: how accurately can the sub-10 nm particle number size distributions be measured with the currently available instrumentation? Here, we review previous studies in which sub-10 nm particle size distributions have been measured with at least two independent instruments. We present recent data from three sites that deploy the current state-of-the-art instrumentation: Hyytiala, Beijing, and the CLOUD chamber. After discussing the status of the sub-10 nm size distribution measurements, we present a comprehensive uncertainty analysis for these methods that suggests that our present understanding on the sources of uncertainties quite well captures the observed deviations be-tween different instruments in the size distribution measurements. Finally, based on present understanding of the characteristics of a number of systems in which gas-to-particle conversion takes place, and of the instrumental limitations, we suggest guidelines for selecting suitable in-struments for various applications.
  • Molins, C.; Roldan, A.; Corripio, I.; Isohanni, M.; Miettunen, J.; Seppala, J.; Seppala, A.; Koponen, Hannu; Moilanen, J.; Jaaskelainen, E.; M-RESIST Grp (2016)
  • Olsen, A.; Berg, R.; Tagel, M.; Must, K.; Deksne, G.; Enemark, H.L.; Alban, L.; Johansen, M.V.; Nielsen, H.V.; Sandberg, M.; Lundén, A.; Stensvold, C.R.; Pires, S.M.; Jokelainen, P. (2019)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonotic parasite. Meat of infected animals is presumed to constitute a major source of human infection and may be a driver of geographical variation in the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in humans, which is substantial in the Nordic-Baltic region in northern Europe. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in different animal species used for human consumption are scattered. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of seroprevalence studies and meta-analysis to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in five animal species that are raised or hunted for human consumption in the Nordic-Baltic region: domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces). We searched for studies that were conducted between January 1990 and June 2018, and reported in articles, theses, conference abstracts and proceedings, and manuscripts. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables influencing the seroprevalence. Findings: From a total of 271 studies identified in the systematic review, 32 were included in the meta-analysis. These comprised of 13 studies on domestic pigs, six on sheep, three on cattle, six on wild boars, and four on moose. The estimated pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was 6% in domestic pigs (CI 95% : 3–10%), 23% in sheep (CI 95% : 12–36%), 7% in cattle (CI 95% : 1–21%), 33% in wild boars (CI 95% : 26–41%), and 16% in moose (CI 95% : 10–23%). High heterogeneity was observed in the seroprevalence data within each species. In all host species except wild boars, the pooled seroprevalence estimates were significantly higher in animals >1 year of age than in younger animals. Not all studies provided information on animal age, sensitivity and specificity of the serological method employed, and the cut-off values used for defining an animal seropositive. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region had tested positive for T. gondii. This indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region. Large variations were observed in the seroprevalence estimates between the studies in the region; however, studies were too few to identify spatial patterns at country-level. © 2019
  • Heikkurinen, Pasi (2018)
    Purpose This article examines how responsibility and strategy can and should be connected in a business organization. Design/methodology/approach The article offers a review of the field by mapping previous studies according to their strategy and responsibility orientations and, consequently, identifies the classic perspective, as well as the major deficiencies and prevailing research gaps in the literature. Findings The article contributes to the field of strategic corporate responsibility by reframing the field with a contender perspective that challenges the classic view of strategy and responsibility amalgamation. Together, the classic and the contender perspectives are synthesized to form an integrative perspective that is more holistic than those currently available. Originality/value The article ends by calling for a reimagining of the relationship between corporate responsibility and strategy to find promising future research avenues and effective business practices suitable to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.
  • Jungell-Michelsson, Jessica; Heikkurinen, Pasi (2022)
    The making of sustainable economies calls for sufficiency in production and consumption. The discussion, however, lacks a shared understanding on what it means to operationalize sufficiency. In this article, we review and analyze the concept of sufficiency with a focus on its linkages to different economic scales (with a focus on micro- and macroeconomics) and economic actors (particularly consumers and producers). Altogether 307 articles were screened, resulting in a final data set of 94 peer-reviewed articles. In addition to the core assumption of ‘enoughness’, we found three premises describing the concept: (1) complementarity of capitals, (2) social metabolism, and (3) altruism. In the reviewed literature, sufficiency is understood as both an end in itself and a means for bringing consumption and production within ecological limits. By conducting the first systematic literature review on sufficiency, the study explicates a more integrated understanding of sufficiency and highlights the need to treat sufficiency across economic scales and actors. In future research, empirical work should be emphasized to grasp the contextual varieties in the operationalization of sufficiency.
  • Titus, Brian K.; Brown, Kevin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Vanguelova, Elena; Stupak, Inge; Evans, Alexander; Clarke, Nicholas; Guidi, Claudia; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kęstutis; de Vries, Wim; Hirai, Keizo; Kaarakka, Lilli; Hogg, Karen; Reece, Pam (2021)
    Forest biomass harvesting guidelines help ensure the ecological sustainability of forest residue harvesting for bioenergy and bioproducts, and hence contribute to social license for a growing bioeconomy. Guidelines, typically voluntary, provide a means to achieve outcomes often required by legislation, and must address needs related to local or regional context, jurisdictional compatibility with regulations, issues of temporal and spatial scale, and incorporation of appropriate scientific information. Given this complexity, comprehensive reviews of existing guidelines can aid in development of new guidelines or revision of existing ones. We reviewed 32 guidelines covering 43 jurisdictions in the USA, Canada, Europe and East Asia to expand upon information evaluated and recommendations provided in previous guideline reviews, and compiled a searchable spreadsheet of direct quotations from documents as a foundation for our review. Guidelines were considered in the context of sustainable forest management (SFM), focusing on guideline scope and objectives, environmental sustainability concerns (soils, site productivity, biodiversity, water and carbon) and social concerns (visual aesthetics, recreation, and preservation of cultural, historical and archaeological sites). We discuss the role of guidelines within the context of other governance mechanisms such as SFM policies, trade regulations and non-state market-driven (NSMD) standards, including certification systems. The review provides a comprehensive resource for those developing guidelines, or defining sustainability standards for market access or compliance with public regulations, and/or concerned about the sustainability of forest biomass harvesting. We recommend that those developing or updating guidelines consider (i) the importance of well-defined and understood terminology, consistent where possible with guidelines in other jurisdictions or regions; (ii) guidance based on locally relevant research, and periodically updated to incorporate current knowledge and operational experience; (iii) use of indicators of sensitive soils, sites, and stands which are relevant to ecological processes and can be applied operationally; and (iv) incorporation of climate impacts, long-term soil carbon storage, and general carbon balance considerations when defining sustainable forest biomass availability. Successful implementation of guidelines depends both on the relevance of the information and on the process used to develop and communicate it; hence, appropriate stakeholders should be involved early in guideline development.
  • Olaleye, Sunday Adewale; Sanusi, Ismaila Temitayo; Salo, Jari (Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Maribor, eCenter & Centre for Education and Counselling, 2017)
  • Hartikainen, Susanna; Rintala, Heta; Pylväs, Laura; Nokelainen, Petri (2019)
    Active learning has gained growing political, instructional, and research interest. However, the definitions of active learning are wide. The learning outcomes related to it have been mostly positive but the measurement methods are not without problems. This review provides an overview of active learning, especially in the context of engineering higher education, by answering two research questions: (1) How is the concept of active learning defined and justified in engineering higher education research? (2) What are the learning outcomes connected to active learning and how is learning measured in engineering higher education research? Sixty-six empirical articles were analyzed inductively with qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that active learning was defined in various ways, and in some articles, it was not defined at all. In addition, justification (theoretical or empirical) for the use of active learning was seldomly reported. Finally, the indicators used to measure the impact of active learning on students’ learning outcomes were mostly based on students’ self-report data and focused on course specific development in subject-related knowledge. More thorough descriptions and theoretical justifications, as well as the consideration of learning outcomes with appropriate research methods, could reinforce the transparency of empirical interventions and the application of active learning. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.