Browsing by Subject "Risk factor"

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  • Toijonen, Anna E.; Heinonen, Seppo T.; Gissler, Mika V. M.; Macharey, Georg (2020)
    Purpose To determine if the common risks for breech presentation at term labor are also eligible in preterm labor. Methods A Finnish cross-sectional study included 737,788 singleton births (24-42 gestational weeks) during 2004-2014. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the risks of breech presentation. Results The incidence of breech presentation at delivery decreased from 23.5% in pregnancy weeks 24-27 to 2.5% in term pregnancies. In gestational weeks 24-27, preterm premature rupture of membranes was associated with breech presentation. In 28-31 gestational weeks, breech presentation was associated with maternal pre-eclampsia/hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal birth weight below the tenth percentile. In gestational weeks 32-36, the risks were advanced maternal age, nulliparity, previous cesarean section, preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, birth weight below the tenth percentile, female sex, and congenital anomaly. In term pregnancies, breech presentation was associated with advanced maternal age, nulliparity, maternal hypothyroidism, pre-gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, congenital anomaly, female sex, and birth weight below the tenth percentile. Conclusion Breech presentation in preterm labor is associated with obstetric risk factors compared to cephalic presentation. These risks decrease linearly with the gestational age. In moderate to late preterm delivery, breech presentation is a high-risk state and some obstetric risk factors are yet visible in early preterm delivery. Breech presentation in extremely preterm deliveries has, with the exception of preterm premature rupture of membranes, similar clinical risk profiles as in cephalic presentation.
  • Aaltonen, Kari; Naatanen, Petri; Heikkinen, Martti; Koivisto, Maaria; Baryshnikoy, Ilya; Karpov, Boris; Oksanen, Jorma; Melartin, Tarja; Suominen, Kirsi; Joffe, Grigori; Paunio, Tiina; Isometsa, Erkki (2016)
    Background: Substantial literature exists on risk factors for suicidal behaviour. However, their comparative strength, independence and specificity for either suicidal ideation or suicide attempt(s) remain unclear. Methods: The Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study surveyed 287 psychiatric care patients with ICD-10-DCR depressive or bipolar disorders about lifetime suicidal behaviour, developmental history and attachment style, personality and psychological traits, current and lifetime symptom profiles, and life events. Psychiatric records were used to confirm diagnosis and complement information on suicide attempts. Multinomial regression models predicting lifetime suicidal ideation and single or repeated suicide attempts were generated. Results: Overall, 21.6% patients had no lifetime suicidal behaviour, 33.8% had lifetime suicide ideation without attempts, and 17.1% had a single and 27.5% repeated suicide attempts. In univariate analyses, lifetime suicidal behaviour was associated with numerous factors. In multivariate models, suicidal ideation was independently predicted by younger age, severe depressive disorder, bipolar disorder type II/nos, hopelessness, and childhood physical abuse. Repeated suicide attempts were independently predicted by younger age, female sex, severe depressive disorder with or without psychotic symptoms, bipolar disorder type II/nos, alcohol use disorder, borderline personality disorder traits, and childhood physical abuse. Limitations: Cross-sectional and retrospective study design, utilization of clinical diagnoses, and relatively low response rate. Conclusions: Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts may diverge both qualitatively and in terms of dose response. When effects of risk factors from multiple domains are concurrently examined, proximal clinical characteristics remain the most robust. All risk factors cluster into the group of repeated attempters. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Haapanen, M. J.; Perälä, M. M.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Simonen, M.; Pohjolainen, P.; Pesonen, A. K.; Räikkönen, K.; Eriksson, J. G.; von Bonsdorff, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Evidence suggests that early life stress (ELS) may extend its effect into adulthood and predispose an individual to adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether wartime parental separation, an indicator of severe ELS, would be associated with frailty in old age. Methods: Of the 972 participants belonging to the present sub-study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 117 (12. 0%) had been evacuated abroad unaccompanied by their parents in childhood during World War II. Frailty was assessed at a mean age of 71 years according to Fried's criteria. Results: Thirteen frail men (4 separated and 9 non-separated) and 20 frail women (2 separated and 18 non-separated) were identified. Compared to the non-separated men, men who had been separated had an increased relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty (age-adjusted RRR 3.93, 95% CI 1.02, 15.11) that persisted after adjusting for several confounders. No associations were observed among women (RRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.13, 2.94). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that ELS might extend its effects not just into adulthood but also into old age, and secondly, that men may be more vulnerable to the long-term effects of ELS.
  • Haapanen, M. J; Perälä, M. M; Salonen, M. K; Kajantie, E.; Simonen, M.; Pohjolainen, P.; Pesonen, A. K; Räikkönen, K.; Eriksson, J. G; von Bonsdorff, M. B (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early life stress (ELS) may extend its effect into adulthood and predispose an individual to adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether wartime parental separation, an indicator of severe ELS, would be associated with frailty in old age. Methods Of the 972 participants belonging to the present sub-study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 117 (12.0%) had been evacuated abroad unaccompanied by their parents in childhood during World War II. Frailty was assessed at a mean age of 71 years according to Fried’s criteria. Results Thirteen frail men (4 separated and 9 non-separated) and 20 frail women (2 separated and 18 non-separated) were identified. Compared to the non-separated men, men who had been separated had an increased relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty (age-adjusted RRR 3.93, 95% CI 1.02, 15.11) that persisted after adjusting for several confounders. No associations were observed among women (RRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.13, 2.94). Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that ELS might extend its effects not just into adulthood but also into old age, and secondly, that men may be more vulnerable to the long-term effects of ELS.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (2015)
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results: Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions: MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Puukka, Pauli; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Perola, Markus; Färkkilä, Martti; Åberg, Fredrik (2020)
    Background and Aim Liver disease is traditionally categorized as alcoholic and non-alcoholic. We studied various risk factors predictive of advanced non-viral liver disease in general population and analyzed the interaction between these factors and alcohol consumption. Methods Persons without underlying liver disease who participated in the Health2000 or FINRISK studies 1992-2012 comprised a cohort of 41 260 individuals. Pattern of alcohol consumption and metabolic, lifestyle-related, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed with Cox regression analysis using severe liver disease hospitalization, cancer, or death as end-point. Viral liver diseases were excluded. Results A total of 355 liver events occurred during the mean 12.4-year follow-up (511 789 person-years). In the multivariate model, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, P = 0.0083 for men; HR 1.04, P = 0.0198 for women), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.52, P = 0.0006 for men; HR 1.58, P = 0.0167 for women), patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 mutations (HR 1.9, P = 0.024 for men; HR 2.7, P = 0.0109 for women), and weekly binge drinking (HR 2.4, P = 0.0024 for men; HR 7.4, P <0.0001 for women) predicted development of severe liver disease. Among men, diabetes (HR 2.7, P = 0.0002), average alcohol consumption (HR for 10 g/day 1.1, P = 0.0022), non-married status (HR 1.9, P = 0.0397 for single; HR 2.4, P = 0.0002 for widowed/separated), and serum high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.2, P = 0.0022) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.2, P = 0.0237) were additional risk factors. Alcohol intake increased the risk especially among persons with high WHR (P for interaction 0.009). Conclusions Age, patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 haplotype, and WHR increase the risk for development of severe liver disease. We found strong synergism between alcohol and central obesity. Binge drinking is an additional risk factor.
  • Salmi, Samuli J.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Hartikainen, Juha; Biancari, Fausto; Lehto, Joonas; Nissinen, Maunu; Malmberg, Markus; Yannopoulos, Fredrik; Savolainen, Jyri; Airaksinen, Juhani; Kiviniemi, Tuomas (2020)
    OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the indications, long-term occurrence, and predictors of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after isolated surgical aortic valve replacement with bioprostheses. METHODS: The CAREAVR study included 704 patients (385 females, 54.7%) without a preoperative PPI (mean +/- standard deviation age 75 +/- 7years) undergoing isolated surgical aortic valve replacement at 4 Finnish hospitals between 2002 and 2014. Data were extracted from electronic patient records. RESULTS: The follow-up was median 4.7years (range 1day to 12.3years). Altogether 56 patients received PPI postoperatively, with the median 507days from the operation (range 6days to 10.0years). The PPI indications were atrioventricular block (31 patients, 55%) and sick sinus syndrome (21 patients, 37.5%). For 4 patients, the PPI indication remained unknown. A competing risks regression analysis (Fine-Gray method), adjusted with age, sex, diabetes, coronary artery disease, preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, AF at discharge and urgency of operation, was used to assess risk factors for PPI. Only AF at discharge (subdistribution hazard ratio 4.34, 95% confidence interval 2.34-8.03) was a predictor for a PPI. CONCLUSIONS: Though atrioventricular block is the major indication for PPI after surgical aortic valve replacement, >30% of PPIs are implanted due to sick sinus syndrome during both short-term follow-up and long-term follow-up. Postoperative AF versus sinus rhythm conveys >4-fold risk of PPI.
  • Gudelj, Ivan; Salo, Perttu P.; Trbojevic-Akmacic, Irena; Albers, Malena; Primorac, Dragan; Perola, Markus; Lauc, Gordan (2018)
    Antibodies are known to have an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases which primarily involves the joints. Most RA patients develop auto antibodies against immunoglobulin G (IgG) and changes in IgG glycosylation have been associated with RA. We undertook this study to determine whether altered IgG glycosylation precedes the disease diagnosis. We studied IgG glycosylation in RA in two prospective cohorts (N = 14,749) by measuring 28 IgG glycan traits in 179 subjects who developed RA within 10-years follow-up and 358 matched controls. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography method based on hydrophilic interactions (HILIC-UPLC) was used to analyse IgG glycans. Future RA diagnosis associated with traits related to lower galactosylation and sialylation of IgG when comparing the cases to the matched controls. In RA cases, these traits did not correlate with the time between being recruited to the study and being diagnosed with RA (median time 4.31 years). The difference in IgG glycosylation was relatively stable and present years before diagnosis. This indicates that long-acting factors affecting IgG glycome composition are among the underlying mechanisms of RA and that decreased galactosylation is a preexisting risk factor involved in the disease development.
  • Välimäki, Vilja; Luostarinen, Teemu; Satopää, Jarno; Raj, Rahul; Virta, Jyri J. (2021)
    Background The mean age of actively treated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is increasing. We aimed to compare outcomes and prognostic factors between older and younger SAH patients. Methods A retrospective single-center analysis of aneurysmal SAH patients admitted to a neuro-ICU during 2014-2019. We defined older patients as >= 70 years and younger patients as
  • Carpen, Timo; Gille, Evelina; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Hansen, Johnni; Heikkinen, Sanna; Lynge, Elsebeth; Selander, Jenny; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Torfadottir, Johanna Eyrun; Mäkitie, Antti; Pukkala, Eero (2022)
    Background The aim of this study was to estimate occupational risk variation in the incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in a large population-based cohort of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study. Methods This study is based on a cohort of almost 15 million persons from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with 2898 nasopharyngeal cancer cases diagnosed in 1961-2005. The data on occupations were gathered from population censuses and cancer data from the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the national NPC incidence rates as the reference. Results There were 1980 male and 918 female NPC patients. The highest SIRs of NPC were observed among male waiters (SIR 3.69, 95% CI 1.91-6.45) and cooks and stewards (SIR 2.24, 95% CI 1.16-3.91). Among women, launderers had the highest SIR of NPC (2.04, 95% CI 1.02-3.65). Significantly decreased SIRs were found among male farmers (SIR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92) and male textile workers (SIR 0.49, 95% CI 0.22-0.93). Conclusions This study suggests that NPC may be associated with several work-related exposure agents such as smoking, kitchen air pollution and solvents. In future, occupational exposure-risk relations should be studied to understand more about causality and to assess effective prevention strategies.
  • Silwal, Sanju; Lehti, Venla; Chudal, Roshan; Suominen, Auli; Lien, Lars; Sourander, Andre (2019)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parental immigration status and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their offspring. Methods: This nested matched case-control study was based on a Finnish national birth cohort for 1987-2010 and cases were diagnosed with PTSD by 2012 from the Care Register for Health Care. We identified 3639 cases and 14,434 controls individually matched for gender, place and date of birth ( +/- 30 days). Conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between parental immigration status, parents' region of birth and time since paternal immigration, and PTSD after controlling for confounding factors. Results: The likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD was significantly increased among children with an immigrant father (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 - 2.4) than those with two Finnish parents and one immigrant mother. There was no significant association between having an immigrant mother or two immigrant parents and receiving a diagnosis of PTSD. The likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD was increased if the children's fathers had migrated less than five years before their birth (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.9) and if their immigrant fathers had been born in North Africa or the Middle East (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 - 3.3). Limitations: The sample included a heterogeneous migrant group without information on the reason for migration. The cases were identified from hospital diagnosis that may have only included severe cases. Conclusion: The increased likelihood of a diagnosis of PTSD underlines the need for psychosocial services among second-generation immigrants.
  • Kraemer, Yvonn; Mäki, Kaisa; Marinkovic, Ivan; Nybo, Taina; Isokuortti, Harri; Huovinen, Antti; Korvenoja, Antti; Melkas, Susanna; Harno, Hanna (2022)
    Background Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is a common symptom following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Patients at risk to develop acute PTH (aPTH) and further persistent PTH (pPTH) need to be recognized. Methods This is a one-year follow-up of 127 patients with mTBI, aged 18 to 68, referred to outpatient clinic in the Helsinki University Hospital. Symptoms were assessed at the emergency department (ED), with structured interview at outpatient clinic visit and with Rivermead post-concussion symptom questionnaire at one, three, and 12 months after injury. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders at 3-4 months and return to work (RTW) from patient records. Results At one month, 77/127 patients (61%) had aPTH. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for aPTH were headache at the emergency department (ED) (OR 5.43), other pain (OR 3.19), insomnia (OR 3.23), and vertigo (OR 5.98). At three months, 17 patients (22% of aPTH patients) had developed pPTH, and at one year, 4 patients (24% of pPTH patients) still presented with pPTH. Risk factors for pPTH at three months were older age (OR 1.06) and current insomnia (OR 12.3). The frequency of psychiatric disorders did not differ between the groups. pPTH patients performed worse on their RTW. Conclusions Risk factors for aPTH were insomnia, headache at ED, other pain, and vertigo and for pPTH, insomnia and older age. RTW rate was lower among pPTH patients.
  • Lehti, Venla; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Helenius, Hans; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik (2012)
  • Backman, Helena; Eriksson, Berne; Hedman, Linnea; Stridsman, Caroline; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Sovijarvi, Anssi; Lindberg, Anne; Ronmark, Eva; Lundback, Bo (2016)
    Background: Attempts have been made to use dynamic spirometry to define restrictive lung function, but the definition of a restrictive spirometric pattern (RSP) varies between studies such as BOLD and NHANES. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of RSP among adults in northern Sweden based on different definitions. Methods: In 2008-2009 a general population sample aged 21-86y within the obstructive lung disease in northern Sweden (OLIN) studies was examined by structured interview and spirometry, and 726 subjects participated (71% of invited). The prevalence of RSP was calculated according to three different definitions based on pre-as well as post-bronchodilator spirometry: 1) FVC <80% & FEV1/FVC > 0.7 2) FVC <80% & FEV1/FVC > LLN 3) FVC <LLN & FEV1/FVC > LLN Results: The three definitions yielded RSP prevalence estimates of 10.5%, 11.2% and 9.4% respectively, when based on pre-bronchodilator values. The prevalence was lower when based on post-bronchodilator values, i.e. 7.3%, 7.9% and 6.6%. According to definition 1 and 2, the RSP prevalence increased by age, but not according to definition 3. The overlap between the definitions was substantial. When corrected for confounding factors, manual work in industry and diabetes with obesity were independently associated with an increased risk for RSP regardless of definition. Conclusions: The prevalence of RSP was 7-11%. The prevalence estimates differed more depending on the choice of pre-compared to post-bronchodilator values than on the choice of RSP definition. RSP was, regardless of definition, independently associated with manual work in industry and diabetes with obesity. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Toijonen, Anna; Heinonen, Seppo; Gissler, Mika; Macharey, Georg (2021)
    Purpose To assess the risk factors for adverse outcomes in attempted vaginal preterm breech deliveries. Methods A retrospective case-control study, including 2312 preterm breech deliveries (24 + 0 to 36 + 6 gestational weeks) from 2004 to 2018 in Finland. The preterm breech fetuses with adverse outcomes born vaginally or by emergency cesarean section were compared with the fetuses without adverse outcomes with the same gestational age. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the risk factors for adverse outcomes (umbilical arterial pH below 7, 5-min Apgar score below 4, intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal death <28 days of age). Results Adverse outcome in vaginal preterm breech delivery was associated with maternal obesity (aOR 32.19, CI 2.97-348.65), smoking (aOR 2.29, CI 1.12-4.72), congenital anomalies (aOR 4.50, 1.56-12.96), preterm premature rupture of membranes (aOR 1.87, CI 1.00-3.49), oligohydramnios (28-32 weeks of gestation: aOR 6.50, CI 2.00-21.11, 33-36 weeks of gestation: aOR 19.06, CI 7.15-50.85), epidural anesthesia in vaginal birth (aOR 2.44, CI 1.19-5.01), and fetal growth below the second standard deviation (28-32 weeks of gestation: aOR 5.89, CI 1.00-34.74, 33-36 weeks of gestation: aOR 12.27, CI 2.81-53.66). Conclusion The study shows that for each subcategory of preterm birth, there are different risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes in planned vaginal breech delivery. Due to the extraordinary increased risk of adverse outcomes, we would recommend a planned cesarean section in very preterm breech presentation (28 + 0 to 32 + 6 weeks) with severe maternal obesity, oligohydramnios, or fetal growth restriction and in moderate to late preterm breech presentation (33 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks) with oligohydramnios or fetal growth restriction.
  • Hautala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Kauppinen, Oili; Nielsen, Martin K.; Sukura, Antti; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J. (2019)
    Gastrointestinal parasites, Parascaris sp. and strongyles, are common in young horses worldwide and control of these parasites is challenged by increasing anthelmintic resistance. Our aim was to identify risk factors for these infections as well as to assess the efficacy of fenbendazole (dose 7.5 mg/kg) and pyrantel embonate (dose 19 mg/kg) against Parascaris sp. We also evaluated association between owner observed symptoms and patent infections with these parasites. Fecal samples were collected from 367 young horses in Finland and a questionnaire study was conducted. Fecal egg counts were performed by Mini-FLOTAC (R) method. Univariable logistic regression models using patent infection status (Yes/No), separately for Parascaris sp. and strongyle infections as an outcome were run initially to screen potential risk factors collected by the questionnaire. After the initial screening, multiple logistic regression models were constructed and run to account for correlated data structure, risk factors and potential confounders simultaneously. Two significant risk factors for a patent Parascaris sp. infection were found: breeding farm size (p = 0.028) and frequency of horse movements (p = 0.010). Horses originating from large breeding farms were more likely (OR = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.51) to shed Parascaris sp. eggs upon relocation to training stables compared to horses originating from small breeding farms. Horses living in farms with frequent horse movements to other premises had higher odds (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.35-9.39) of a patent Parascaris sp. infection compared to farms with less frequent horse movements. Risk factors for patent strongyle infection included age (p <0.001) and season (p = 0.017). Horses were less likely (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.66) to shed strongylid eggs during the spring compared to the winter. Horses excreting over 200 ascarid eggs per gram were included in the anthelmintic efficacy trial. A mean FECR less than 90% was interpreted as presence of anthelmintic resistance. The mean FECR was 98.5% (95% CI: 95.8-100) and 68.0% (95% CI: 52.7-83.3) in the fenbendazole (n = 31) and pyrantel (n = 26) treatment groups, respectively. In conclusion, we identified two new risk factors for patent Parascaris sp. infection; breeding farm size and frequency of horse movements. Reduced efficacy of pyrantel against Parascaris sp. was observed for the second time in Europe. A relatively high Parascaris sp. prevalence in yearlings (34%) and two-year-olds (20%) was observed, which has not been reported earlier. An association between symptoms and a patent Parascaris sp. infection was observed in foals.
  • Andreucci, Alessandro; Campbell, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Sawyer, Susan M.; Kosola, Silja; Patton, George C.; Dunn, Kate M. (2020)
    Adults with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain, but the evidence is less clear for children. This prospective cohort study investigated whether children with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain and explored whether sex is a modifier of this association. In a prospective cohort study of Australian schoolchildren (n = 1239, mean age 9 years), the associations between sleep problems at baseline and new onset of both musculoskeletal pain and persistent musculoskeletal pain (pain lasting > 3 months) 1 year later were investigated using logistic regression. The potential modifying effect of sex was also assessed. One-year incidence proportion for musculoskeletal pain onset is 43% and 7% for persistent musculoskeletal pain. Sleep problems were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and persistent musculoskeletal pain onset in boys, odds ratio 2.80 (95% CI 1.39, 5.62) and OR 3.70 (1.30, 10.54), respectively, but not girls OR 0.58 (0.28, 1.19) and OR 1.43 (0.41, 4.95), respectively. Conclusions: Rates of musculoskeletal pain are high in children. Boys with sleep problems are at greater risk of onset of musculoskeletal pain, but girls do not appear to have higher risk. Consideration of sleep health may help prevent persistent musculoskeletal pain in children.What is Known:center dot Sleep problems are associated with the onset of musculoskeletal pain in dot It is not clear if the association between sleep problems and the onset of musculoskeletal pain is present also in children and if sex plays a role in this association.What is New:center dot This is the first large population-based study that has prospectively investigated the relationship between sleep problems and onset of musculoskeletal pain in school-aged dot Children, especially boys with sleep problems, were at increased risk for the development of persistent musculoskeletal pain.
  • Kaija, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Suusyövän ilmaantuvuus on ollut kasvussa niin maailmanlaajuisesti kuin Suomessakin, eikä sen ennuste ole parantunut merkittävästi hoitomenetelmien kehittymisestä huolimatta. Huomattava osa suusyövistä olisi ennaltaehkäistävissä terveemmillä elämäntavoilla sekä erityisesti pahimpia riskitekijöitä tupakkaa ja alkoholia välttämällä. Yksi tärkeimmistä hoidon ennusteeseen vaikuttavista tekijöistä on taudin diagnosoiminen mahdollisimman varhaisessa vaiheessa. Diagnoosin viivästymiseen voivat vaikuttaa monet tekijät. Useissa tutkimuksissa on todettu pisimmän viiveen olevan potilaasta johtuvaa viivettä, joka syntyy oireiden alkamisen ja hoitoon hakeutumisen välillä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää hoitoon hakeutumisen viivettä ja sen syitä Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiirin alueella. Tutkimus toteutettiin vuoden 2018 aikana haastattelututkimuksena. Haastatteluihin osallistui yhteensä 15 suusyövän primaarileikkaukseen saapunutta potilasta. Tärkeimmäksi tulokseksi tutkimuksessa nousi potilaiden saama vähäinen valistus ja neuvonta päihteiden käytöstä ja niiden vaikutuksesta suun terveyteen. Vain kahden potilaan kanssa oli keskusteltu suusyövästä ja sen riskitekijöistä ennen sairastumista, vaikka lähes kaikki kuuluivat suusyövän riskiryhmään. Viive potilaiden hoitoon hakeutumisessa ensimmäisten oireiden alettua vaihteli muutamasta vuorokaudesta useaan kuukauteen. Vain noin puolet potilaista oli saanut lähetteen suu- ja leukakirurgille heti ensimmäisestä hoitopaikastaan. Parantamisen varaa löytyy siis erityisesti ennaltaehkäisevän työn lisäksi niin potilaiden tietoisuudessa kuin terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten osaamisessa ja toimintatavoissakin. Vaikka tutkimuksen otanta on pieni, eivätkä tulokset siksi ole yleistettävissä laajemmalle, tarjoaa se suuntaa-antavaa tietoa suusyövän ennaltaehkäisyn ja hoidon aloituksen viivästymisen ongelmakohdista.
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Pukkala, Eero; Kauppila, Antti (2019)
    BackgroundThe length of interval between successive childbirths (birth interval) might influence the incidence of breast cancer, either by stimulating or by inhibiting the factors that are responsible for the initiation of breast cancer or its early development.MethodsThis is a case-control study nested in a cohort of 47,479 Finnish grand-multiparous (GM) women born after 1934, and registered as having had at least five births before 2013. The 1354 women with breast cancer diagnosis were compared with controls (1:5) matched by parity and date of birth of the mother. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of the risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer subtypes associated with each of the intervals between the 1st and 5th birth, stratified by age at diagnosis. Age at first and last birth before index date were used as covariates.ResultsIncreased intervals between the 1st and 5th births were associated with an increased risk of lobular breast cancer. In contrast, regarding ductal cancer, premenopausal women with shorter length of interval (