Browsing by Subject "Risk factors"

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  • Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko (2018)
    Background and aims: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. Methods: The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. Results: One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. Conclusions: An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Välimäki, Vilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tausta: Lukinkalvonalainen verenvuoto (SAV) on vakava, välitöntä hoitoa vaativa sairaus. Väestön vanheneminen ja hyvän toimintakyvyn säilyminen on lisännyt iäkkäiden potilaiden osuutta neurokirurgian klinikalla aktiivisesti hoidettavista SAV-potilaista. Ikääntymiseen liittyvien ominaispiirteiden takia eri-ikäisten SAV-potilaiden ennustetekijöissä voi olla eroja. Tutkimuksessa vertailtiin eri-ikäisten SAV-potilaiden ennusteeseen yhteydessä olevia riskitekijöitä. Menetelmät: Tutkittavana oli yhteensä 412 vuosina 2014-2019 Töölön sairaalan neurokirurgian klinikalla aktiivisesti hoidettua, aneurysmaperäisen SAV:n sairastanutta potilasta. Potilaat jaettiin iän perusteella ≥ 70-vuotiaiden sekä alle 70-vuotiaiden ryhmiin. Ryhmät samankaltaistettiin vuodon vaikeusasteen suhteen siten, että kummassakin ikäryhmässä oli samassa suhteessa lievempään ja vaikeampaan SAV:n sairastuneita potilaita. Potilaiden kliinisistä ominaisuuksista kerättiin tietoa ja SAV:sta toipumista arvioitiin takautuvasti 12 kk:n kuluttua vuodosta. Kuolleisuuteen ja huonoon toipumiseen yhteydessä olevia ominaisuuksia tutkittiin riskitekijäanalyysien avulla. Tulokset: Korkea ikä ja vaikea SAV olivat tärkeimmät huonon ennusteen riskitekijät. Vuoden seurannan jälkeen iäkkäiden potilaiden kokonaiskuolleisuus oli lähes nelinkertainen nuorempiin potilaisiin verrattuna. Vaikean SAV:n merkitys riskitekijänä oli nuorempien potilaiden ryhmässä suurempi kuin vanhuksilla. Pohdinta: Tärkein ennusteeseen vaikuttava riskitekijä on SAV:n vaikeusaste. Vaikka myös korkea ikä on SAV-potilaalla itsenäinen huonon ennusteen riskitekijä, on aktiivisesti hoidettujen vanhuspotilaidenkin mahdollista toipua itsenäisesti pärjääväksi etenkin, mikäli sairastettu SAV on luokiteltu alkuvaiheen kliinisen kuvan perusteella lieväksi.
  • Martiskainen, Mika; Oksala, Niku; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Kaste, Markku; Oksala, Anni; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Erkinjuntti, Timo (2014)
  • Macharey, Georg; Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Leena; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi; Nuutila, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2017)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate whether breech presentation at term was associated with known individual obstetric risk factors for adverse fetal outcome. Methods This was a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study. Obstetric risks in all breech and vertex singleton deliveries at term were compared between the years 2005 and 2014. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine significant risk factors. Results The breech presentation rate at term for singleton pregnancies was 2.4%. The stillbirth rate in term breech presentation was significantly higher compared to cephalic presentation (0.2 vs 0.1%). The odds ratios (95% CIs) for fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, gestational diabetes, a history of cesarean section and congenital fetal abnormalities were 1.19 CI (1.07-1.32), 1.42 CI (1.27-1.57), 1.06 CI (1.00-1.13), 2.13 (1.98-2.29) and 2.01 CI (1.92-2.11). Conclusions The study showed that breech presentation at term on its own was significantly associated with antenatal stillbirth and a number of individual obstetric risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes. The risk factors included oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, history of caesarean section and congenital anomalies.
  • Suomela, Emmi; Oikonen, Mervi; Pitkanen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Virtanen, Johanna; Parkkola, Riitta; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jula, Antti; Loom, Britt-Marie; Mikkila, Vera; Telama, Risto; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2016)
    Background & Aims: Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults. Methods: Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver. Results: Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes. Lay summary: The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18 years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49 years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kivimäki, Mika; Rosenström, Tom (2019)
    Background: Depression is a heterogeneous mental disorder with multiple symptoms, but only few studies have examined whether associations of risk factors with depression are symptom-specific. We examined whether chronic diseases and social risk factors (poverty, divorce, and perceived lack of emotional support) are differently associated with somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms of depression. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were based on individual-level data from the 31,191 participants of six cross-sectional U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) carried out between 2005 and 2016. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Information on chronic diseases and social risk factors was self-reported by participants. Results: After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and all the of other symptoms besides the outcome symptom, higher number of chronic diseases was independently related to fatigue, psychomotor retardation/agitation, and sleep problems in a dose-response pattern (range of odds ratios: 1.21 to 2.59). Except for concentration problems, social risk factors were associated with almost all of the cognitive/affective symptoms (range of odds ratios: 1.02 to 2.09) but only sporadically with somatic symptoms. Limitations: All measures were self-reported by the participants, which may have introduced bias to the associations. Cross-sectional data did not allow us to study temporal dynamics. Conclusions: Specific symptoms of depression may be useful in characterizing the heterogeneous etiology of depression with respect to somatic versus social risk factors.
  • Welsh, Paul; Rankin, Naomi; Li, Qiang; Mark, Patrick B.; Würtz, Peter; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Marre, Michel; Poulter, Neil; Hamet, Pavel; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Sattar, Naveed (2018)
    Aims/hypotheses We aimed to quantify the association of individual circulating amino acids with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a case-cohort study (N = 3587), including 655 macrovascular events, 342 microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy) and 632 all-cause mortality events during follow-up, in a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. For this study, phenylalanine, isoleucine, glutamine, leucine, alanine, tyrosine, histidine and valine were measured in stored plasma samples by proton NMR metabolomics. Hazard ratios were modelled per SD increase in each amino acid. Results In models investigating associations and potential mechanisms, after adjusting for age, sex and randomised treatment, phenylalanine was positively, and histidine inversely, associated with macrovascular disease risk. These associations were attenuated to the null on further adjustment for extended classical risk factors (including eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). After adjustment for extended classical risk factors, higher tyrosine and alanine levels were associated with decreased risk of microvascular disease (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67, 0.91 and HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.98, respectively). Higher leucine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.90), histidine (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81, 0.99) and valine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70, 0.88) levels were associated with lower risk of mortality. Investigating the predictive ability of amino acids, addition of all amino acids to a risk score modestly improved classification of participants for macrovascular (continuous net reclassification index [NRI] +35.5%, p <0.001) and microvascular events (continuous NRI +14.4%, p = 0.012). Conclusions/interpretation We report distinct associations between circulating amino acids and risk of different major complications of diabetes. Low tyrosine appears to be a marker of microvascular risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of fundamental markers of kidney function.
  • Vähämurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Telama, Risto; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Background and aims: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. Methods: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. Results: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDLcholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p Conclusions: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.
  • Unruptured Aneurysms SAH CDE; Hackenberg, Katharina A. M.; Algra, Ale; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Frosen, Juhana; Hasan, David; Juvela, Seppo; Langer, David; Meyers, Philip; Morita, Akio (2019)
    IntroductionVariability in usage and definition of data characteristics in previous cohort studies on unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) complicated pooling and proper interpretation of these data. The aim of the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke UIA and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Common Data Elements (CDE) Project was to provide a common structure for data collection in future research on UIA and SAH.MethodsThis paper describes the development and summarization of the recommendations of the working groups (WGs) on UIAs, which consisted of an international and multidisciplinary panel of cerebrovascular specialists on research and treatment of UIAs. Consensus recommendations were developed by review of previously published CDEs for other neurological diseases and the literature on UIAs. Recommendations for CDEs were classified by priority into Core,' SupplementalHighly Recommended,' Supplemental,' and Exploratory.'ResultsNinety-one CDEs were compiled; 69 were newly created and 22 were existing CDEs. The CDEs were assigned to eight subcategories and were classified as Core (8), SupplementalHighly Recommended (23), Supplemental (25), and Exploratory (35) elements. Additionally, the WG developed and agreed on a classification for aneurysm morphology.ConclusionThe proposed CDEs have been distilled from a broad pool of characteristics, measures, or outcomes. The usage of these CDEs will facilitate pooling of data from cohort studies or clinical trials on patients with UIAs.
  • Mishra, Gita D.; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2019)
    Introduction: While the associations of genetic, reproductive and environmental factors with the timing of natural menopause have been extensively investigated, few epidemiological studies have specifically examined their association with premature (<40 years) or early natural menopause (40-45 years). Aim: The aim of this position statement is to provide evidence on the predictors of premature and early natural menopause, as well as recommendations for the management of premature and early menopause and future research. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. Results and conclusions: Strong genetic predictors of premature and early menopause include a family history of premature or early menopause, being a child of a multiple pregnancy and some specific genetic variants. Women with early menarche and nulliparity or low parity are also at a higher risk of experiencing premature or early menopause. Cigarette smoking (with a strong dose-response effect) and being underweight have been consistently associated with premature and early menopause. Current guidelines for the management of premature and early menopause mainly focus on early initiation of hormone therapy (HT) and continued treatment until the woman reaches the average age at menopause (50-52 years). We suggest that clinicians and health professionals consider the age at menopause of the relevant region or ethnic group as part of the assessment for the timing of HT cessation. In addition, there should be early monitoring of women with a family history of early menopause, who are a child of a multiple pregnancy, or who have had early menarche (especially those who have had no children). As part of preventive health strategies, women should be encouraged to quit smoking (preferably before the age of 30 years) and maintain optimal weight in order to reduce their risk of premature or early menopause.
  • Feel4Diabet Res Grp; Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikstrom, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lindström, Jaana (2020)
    Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson's correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson's correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 +/- 12.8 among women and 46.6 +/- 12.8 among men (p <0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner.
  • Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikström, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Huys, Nele; Vraukó-Tóth, Katalin; Moreno, Luis A; Usheva, Natalya; Chakarova, Nevena; Rado, Sándorné A; Iotova, Violeta; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Cardon, Greet; Liatis, Stavros; Manios, Yannis; Lindström, Jaana (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson’s correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson’s correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 ± 12.8 among women and 46.6 ± 12.8 among men (p <  0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872. Registered March 20, 2015.
  • Edgren, Robert; Castren, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2017)
    The expansion of online gambling opportunities calls for better comprehension of online gambling, including relevant gender specific correlates. This study compared online and land-based gamblers among males and females separately, utilizing a nationally representative Finnish survey sample of 18-74 year olds. Online gamblers were younger than land-based gamblers and had full-time working status more often than land-based gamblers, with partial indication of land-based gamblers' monthly income being lower. Online gambling was associated with participation in computer or video gaming more strongly than with land-based gambling. Results show that the strongest predictors of online gambling common to both genders were younger age, computer gaming and gambling on multiple gambling types. Risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were not associated to gambling mode when controlling for other factors. Results indicate that particularly for females online gambling may be related to higher relative expenditure and at-risk and problem gambling, providing implications for tailored interventions. The continued study of subgroups of gamblers is necessary to comprehensively understand the altering gambling milieu. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Böhm, Julia K.; Maegele, Marc; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Ripatti, Samuli; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. Methods This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Results Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to - 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Conclusion Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
  • Michalek, Irmina Maria; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni; Sparen, Par; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero (2019)
    Objectives: To determine whether occupational exposure to heavy metals (chromium (VI), iron, nickel, lead) and welding fumes is associated with the risk of kidney cancer and to describe whether other occupational exposures included in the Job Exposure Matrix of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study are associated with the risk. Materials and methods: Nested case-control study among individuals registered in population censuses in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden in 1960-1990. A total of 59,778 kidney cancer cases, and 298,890 controls matched on sex, age, and country. Cumulative occupational exposures to metals (chromium (VI), iron, nickel, lead), welding fumes, and 24 other occupational exposure covariates, lagged 0, 10, and 20 years. Results: Overall, there was no or very little association between kidney cancer and exposures studied. The risk was elevated in individuals with high exposure to asbestos (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.08-1.31). The risk was significantly decreased for individuals characterized with high perceived physical workload (OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.82-0.91), high exposure to ultraviolet radiation (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.92), and high exposure to wood dust (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.71-0.94). The risk of kidney cancer under the age of 59 was elevated in individuals with high exposure to nickel (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.03-2.17). The risk of kidney cancer in age 59-74 years was elevated for individuals with high exposure to iron (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.07-1.85), and high exposure to welding fumes (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.09-1.89). Conclusions: The only markedly elevated risks of kidney cancer were seen for the highest exposures of nickel and iron/welding fumes in specific age strata.
  • El Moutacim, Yasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Målet för denna avhandling är att undersöka på vilket sätt tidigt och senare diagnostiserad graviditetsdiabetes (GDM) påverkar barnets hälsa. Tillväxtrelaterade parametrar såsom vikt, ponderalindex, huvudomkrets och placentans vikt har studerats liksom även gestationsålder samt Apgar-poäng. Ytterligare har vi studerat skillnader hos mödrarna med graviditetsdiabetes. Materialet som användes i studien har insamlats för The Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL), ett randomiserat livsstilsinterventionsprojekt för kvinnor i riskgruppen för graviditetsdiabetes. Information om kvinnorna samlades i huvudsak in via blodprov, kostdagböcker och frågeformulär. Information gällande förlossningarna och barnen samlades in via patientjournaler. Studien påvisade att de kvinnorna som insjuknar i tidig GDM har en svårare sjukdomsbild och att de pojkar som föds till kvinnor med tidig GDM har en större vikt och ponderalindex än de som föds till en kvinna med sen GDM. Däremot påverkades flickors tillväxt i större mån av senare diagnostiserad GDM. Ytterligare kunde vi konstatera att flickfostrens vikt påverkas i större mån av GDM än pojkarnas. Denna studie påvisar att graviditetsdiabetes har en effekt på fostret trots att utfallen sällan är dramatiska, och att effekten är av olika grad beroende på fostrets kön. Därmed väcker studien frågan huruvida man i högre grad borde satsa resurser på uppföljning av och livsstilsinterventioner för gravida kvinnor i riskgruppen för GDM och särskilt för dem med flickfoster.
  • Laitinen, Tomi T.; Ruohonen, Saku; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G.; Mikkila, Vera; Mikola, Hanna; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Laitinen, Tomi; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jokinen, Eero; Niinikoski, Harri; Jula, Antti; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja (2017)
    Background: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association, is associated with incident cardiovascular disease in adults. However, association of the ideal CVH in childhood with current and future cardiac structure and function has not been studied. Methods and results: The sample comprised 827 children participating in the longitudinal Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) and The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS). In STRIP, complete data on the seven ideal CVH metrics and left ventricular (LV) mass measured with echocardiography were available at the age of 15 (n= 321), 17 (n= 309) and 19 (n= 283) years. In YFS, the cohort comprised children aged 12-18 years (n = 506) with complete ideal CVH metrics data from childhood and 25 years later in adulthood, and echocardiography performed in adulthood. In STRIP, ideal CVH score was inversely associated with LV mass during childhood (P = 0.036). In YFS, childhood ideal CVH score was inversely associated with LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, E/e' ratio, and left atrium end-systolic volume in adulthood (all P <0.01). In addition, improvement of the ideal CVH score between childhood and adulthood was inversely associated with LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume, E/e' ratio, and left atrium end-systolic volume (all P Conclusions: Childhood ideal CVH score has a long-lasting effect on cardiac structure and function, and the association is evident already in childhood. Our findings support targeting the ideal CVHmetrics as part of primordial prevention of cardiovascular diseases. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri K; Parviainen, Mickael C; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are common causes of morbidity and loss of active, physically demanding training days in military populations. We evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of knee disorders and injuries in male Finnish military conscripts. Methods The study population comprised 5 cohorts of 1000 men performing their military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Follow-up time for each conscript was the individual conscript’s full, completed military service period. Data for each man were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire used by defense force healthcare officials and from all original medical reports of the garrison healthcare centers. Background variables for risk factor analysis included the conscripts’ service data, i.e., service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), underweight, overweight, obesity, smoking habit, education, diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms. Results Of the 4029 conscripts, 853 visited healthcare professionals for knee symptoms during their military service, and 103 of these had suffered a knee injury. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms were: older age; service class A; overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2); smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal system. The majority of visits to garrison healthcare services due to knee symptoms occurred during the first few months of military service. Knee symptoms were negatively correlated with self-reported mental and behavioral disorders. Conclusions The present study highlights the frequency of knee disorders and injuries in young men during physically demanding military training. One-fifth of the male conscripts visited defense force healthcare professionals due to knee symptoms during their service period. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms during military service were age at military service; military service class A; overweight; smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal system. These risk factors should be considered when planning and implementing procedures to reduce knee disorders and injuries during compulsory military service.
  • Pihlajamaki, Harri K.; Parviainen, Mickael C.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are common causes of morbidity and loss of active, physically demanding training days in military populations. We evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of knee disorders and injuries in male Finnish military conscripts. Methods: The study population comprised 5 cohorts of 1000 men performing their military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Follow-up time for each conscript was the individual conscript's full, completed military service period. Data for each man were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire used by defense force healthcare officials and from all original medical reports of the garrison healthcare centers. Background variables for risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service data, i.e., service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), underweight, overweight, obesity, smoking habit, education, diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms. Results: Of the 4029 conscripts, 853 visited healthcare professionals for knee symptoms during their military service, and 103 of these had suffered a knee injury. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms were: older age; service class A; overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)); smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal system. The majority of visits to garrison healthcare services due to knee symptoms occurred during the first few months of military service. Knee symptoms were negatively correlated with self-reported mental and behavioral disorders. Conclusions: The present study highlights the frequency of knee disorders and injuries in young men during physically demanding military training. One-fifth of the male conscripts visited defense force healthcare professionals due to knee symptoms during their service period. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms during military service were age at military service; military service class A; overweight; smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal system. These risk factors should be considered when planning and implementing procedures to reduce knee disorders and injuries during compulsory military service.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Ljungberg, Börje; Hemminki, Otto (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background The dominant risk factor for urinary bladder cancer has been cigarette smoking, but, as smoking prevalence is decreasing in many populations, other risk factors may become uncovered. Such new risk factors could be responsible for halting the declining incidence of bladder cancer. We hypothesize that snuff use by Swedish men may increase the rate for bladder cancer, as snuff contains carcinogenic nitrosamines. Methods We carried out an ecological study by comparing incidence trends in lung and bladder cancers between Danish, Finnish and Swedish men in order to test if the Swedish bladder cancer rate deviates from the Danish and Finnish ones. We used the NORDCAN database for cancer data from 1960 through 2016 to test the hypothesis. Results In the three countries, the incidence of lung cancer started to decrease after a peak incidence, and this was later followed by declining incidence in bladder cancer in Denmark from 1990 to 2016 by 14.3%, in Finland by 8.3% but not in Sweden (the decline of 1.4% was not significant). The difference in trends can be partly explained by the increasing incidence in Swedish men aged 70 or more years. Sweden differs from the two other countries by low male smoking prevalence but increasing use of snuff recorded by various surveys. Conclusion The stable bladder cancer trend for Swedish men was opposite to the declining trends in Denmark, Finland and globally. We suggest that this unusual finding may be related to the increasing use of snuff by Swedish men. Average users of snuff are exposed to at least 3 times higher levels of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines than a smoker of one daily pack of cigarettes.