Browsing by Subject "Risk perception"

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  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Lehtonen, Esko; Havia, Ville; Kovanen, Anna; Leminen, Miika; Saure, Emma (2016)
    Hazard and risk perception has been studied extensively among car drivers, and their link to crash involvement is established. Bicyclists, in particular, are vulnerable road users. Better understanding of their risk and hazard perception could help to improve their traffic safety. In this study, we investigated the risk perception of bicyclists in a city environment. Two groups of bicyclists were compared: 19 frequent and 19 infrequent bicyclists. Participants were shown video clips taken with a camera attached to the handlebar of a bicycle, and they were asked to continuously indicate with a slider how much caution the situation needed. The frequent cyclists had more frequent rises in the caution estimate, which suggest that they anticipated or detected more hazards than infrequent cyclists. This is in line with the classical hazard perception results, which link the car driving experience to faster and more accurate hazard perception. The overall level or caution was not directly related to the rise event rate or bicycling frequency. Those cyclists who reported typically cycling faster than others showed elevated overall level of caution on sidewalks compared with others, but there was no difference on bike paths. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Vainio, Annukka; Ollila, Sari; Lundén, Janne (2019)
    Disclosure systems for official food safety inspection results have been introduced in many countries including Finland in order to increase compliance of food business operators (FBOs). Although the disclosure systems are intended to affect FBOs, few studies have been published on FBOs' experiences of these systems. To investigate FBOs' opinions of disclosed food safety inspections in Finland, a questionnaire was distributed in 2016. The questionnaire study also aimed to recognize factors affecting compliance and disagreements about gradings with a special focus on FBOs' risk perception. In total 1277 responses from FBOs in retail (n = 523), service (n = 507) and industry (n = 247) sectors revealed that the majority of FBOs perceived the disclosure to promote correction of non-compliance. However, many FBOs disagreed with the grading of inspection findings. Most common topics of disagreements were maintenance of premises, record-keeping of own-check plan and adequacy and suitability of premises for operations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of occurrence of disagreements with grading was higher among those retail and service FBOs with a lower risk perception. Similarly, the occurrence of non-compliance was associated with FBOs' risk perception in all sectors. Thus, FBOs need proper guidance on food safety risks. These results can be used to improve the efficacy of disclosed food safety inspections.
  • Hatwagner, M.F.; Vastag, G.; Niskanen, V.A.; Kóczy, L.T. (Springer, 2018)
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science
    Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are widely applied for describing the major components of complex systems and their interconnections. The popularity of FCMs is mostly based on their simple system representation, easy model creation and usage, and its decision support capabilities. The preferable way of model construction is based on historical, measured data of the investigated system and a suitable learning technique. Such data are not always available, however. In these cases experts have to define the strength and direction of causal connections among the components of the system, and their decisions are unavoidably affected by more or less subjective elements. Unfortunately, even a small change in the estimated strength may lead to significantly different simulation outcome, which could pose significant decision risks. Therefore, the preliminary exploration of model ‘sensitivity’ to subtle weight modifications is very important to decision makers. This way their attention can be attracted to possible problems. This paper deals with the advanced version of a behavioral analysis. Based on the experiences of the authors, their method is further improved to generate more life-like, slightly modified model versions based on the original one suggested by experts. The details of the method is described, its application and the results are presented by an example of a banking application. The combination of Pareto-fronts and Bacterial Evolutionary Algorithm is a novelty of the approach. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Ollila, Sari; Vainio, Annukka; Lunden, Janne (2021)
    In many countries, food safety inspection disclosure systems have been implemented in order to improve food control. However, criticism has also been levelled at these systems, especially regarding grading. Moreover, only a few studies have focused on inspectors, despite the fact that they are responsible, in practice, for applying the disclosure system and grading. To investigate inspectors' perceptions of disclosure, disagreements experienced with food business operators (FBOs) over grading and the factors possibly related to such disagreements, we conducted a questionnaire-based study with Finnish inspectors in 2017. We received 148 answers from 52 out of 62 Finnish local food control units. Most inspectors (90.8%, N = 131) considered that Oiva, the disclosure system introduced in 2013, was at least a somewhat positive change, and almost all inspectors (95.1%, N = 143) considered that disclosure enhanced, at least to some degree, the correction of non-compliances. In general, inspectors had experienced a small number of disagreements over grading with FBOs, but, in relation to some topics, over 20% of inspectors had encountered a high number of disagreements. In our multiple linear regression model, disagreements over grading were associated with the perceived openness to interpretation of grading (B = 0.37, p < 0.001) and differences experienced in risk perception between inspectors and FBOs (B = 0.12, p = 0.001). Most inspectors (67.4%; N = 144) preferred the grading guidelines to contain a small amount of openness to interpretation. Inspectors supported disclosure and considered that the Oiva system had improved food control. However, especially related to grading topics where inspectors perceived the greatest degree of openness to interpretation and the largest number of disagreements over grading with FBOs, inspectors should be further trained and supported. In addition, this study highlights the need for improved consistency in grading especially between the food control units.