Browsing by Subject "Risk"

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  • Roivainen, Reina; Lauronen, Leena; Gaily, Eija; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Peltola, Maria; Laakso, Aki (2018)
  • González, Manuel; Mikkelä, Antti; Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Llarena, Ann-Katrin (Evira, 2016)
    Evira’s Research Reports 2/2016
    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common causes of gastrointestinal diseases in EU countries. Between four and five thousand human campylobacteriosis cases are registered each year in Finland, of which the majority are most probably acquired from abroad. The prevalence and concentration of campylobacters in foods are influenced by the whole production chain. Based on retail samples, the average annual prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 5.5–11.7% (95% CI) in Finnish chicken meat and 1.8–5.9% (95% CI) in turkey meat. No Campylobacter spp. were detected from either domestic beef or pork, and their prevalence was estimated to be 0.0–1.2% (95% CI). The mean concentration of Campylobacter spp. in contaminated poultry meat was estimated to be low, and the probability of illness per one serving was thus also relatively small. Even so, the assessment implies that thousands of human cases can occur due to meat consumption annually in Finland, with the biggest proportion related to chicken meat. However, the predicted number of cases is affected by many factors with uncertainty, such as the level of cross-contamination, size of serving and total consumption. For a general overview, other campylobacters sources should also be identified and their impact on campylobacteriosis quantified.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Nygren, Anja; Käkönen, Mira; Kallio, Maarit; Monge Monge, Adrian; Kanninen, Markku (2016)
    We systematically reviewed current climate change literature in order to examine how multiple processes that affect human vulnerability have been studied. Of the 125 reviewed articles, 79 % were published after 2009. There are numerous concepts that point out to stressors other than climate change that were used in reviewed studies. These different concepts were used interchangeably, and they illustrate processes that act on different scales. Most widely used concepts included non-climatic (40 % of the articles), multiple stressors (38 %) and other factors (37 %). About 75 % of the studies either acknowledged or carefully analyzed the social and environmental context in which vulnerability is experienced. One-third of the studies recognized climate change-related stressors as the most important, one-third argued that stressors other than climate are more important, and the rest of the studies did not analyze the relative importance of the different processes. Interactions between different stressors were mentioned in 76 % and analyzed explicitly in 28 % of the articles. Our review shows that there are studies that analyze the social context of vulnerability within climate change-related literature and this literature is rapidly expanding. Reviewed studies point out that there are multiple interacting stressors, whose interlinkages need to be carefully analyzed and targeted by policies, which integrate adaptation to climate change and other stressors. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should include analytical frameworks that reflect dissimilarities between different types of stressors, methodological triangulation to identify key stressors and analysis of interactions between multiple stressors across different scales.
  • Syvänne, Mikko; Strandberg, Timo (2018)
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Nygren, Anja; Monge Monge, Adrian Antonio; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Juhola, Sirkku (2018)
    Land use changes have been recognized to have considerable impacts on water; and vice versa, changes in water use and governance may have implications on land use and governance. This study analyzes recent land use/land cover (LULC) changes, and how changes in land use and water governance are perceived to affect land use and water-related risks in three case-study areas exposed to frequent flooding and inadequate or deteriorating water quality. The areas studied included the Vantaa basin in Finland, a section of the Grijalva basin in Mexico, and the Lower Xe Bang Fai basin in Laos. We show how there are complex and context-specific interrelationships between land use, water governance, and water-related risks in each study area. In a remote sensing analysis of LULC changes during the past 30 years, we found that LULC changes have been the most dramatic in Xe Bang Fai, Laos in the form of expanding agriculture and built-up areas; however, there has also been an expansion of built-up areas in the two other sites. According to our stakeholder scenario workshop data, analysis of policy documents and field visits, the nexus between land, water and risks is recognized to some extent in each study area. There have been modest shifts toward more integrated land use and water governance in Vantaa and Grijalva, while the integrated governance seems to have been most absent in Xe Bang Fai. Tighter integration of land and water policies is needed in all the three cases to manage the land use changes in a way that their effects on water-related risks will be minimized.
  • Seppälä, Toni; Meretoja, Tuomo (2019)
  • Malm, Heli (2018)
    Valproaattia ei saa käyttää kaksisuuntaisen mielialahäiriön hoitoon raskauden aikana. Litiumin käyttöä voi jatkaa, jos hoitovaste on ollut hyvä. Epilepsialääkkeistä lamotrigiini ja mielialaa tasaavat toisen polven antipsykootit vaikuttavat suhteellisen turvallisilta.
  • Lankinen, Petteri; Parkkila, Anna-Kaisa; Roine, Risto P.; Turpeinen, Miia (2019)
    • Monia sähkökirurgisia instrumentteja käytettäessä syntyy kirurgista savua. • Henkilöstö voi altistua kumulatiivisesti savun haitallisille komponenteille. • Tavallinen kirurginen hengityssuojain antaa yli 90-prosenttisen suojan. Lisäksi tulisi käyttää asianmukaisella suodattimella varustettua paikallista savunpoistolaitteistoa. • Savulle altistumisen ei ole osoitettu lisäävän sairastavuutta tai syöpäriskiä.
  • Strandberg, Timo (2019)
    Tulokset antavat jo lisäaiheen tehostaa verenpainetaudin hoitoa.
  • Anttila, Veli-Jukka (2019)
  • Korhonen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna (2019)
    Riski on ei-toivotun asian todennäköisyys, mutta sitä on varsinkin numerona ilmaistuna vaikeaymmärtää ja tulkita. Valtimotautien ehkäisyssä (primaaripreventio) pyritään vaikuttamaan satojentuhansien henkilöiden riskitekijöihin, jotta tuhannet säästyisivät sairastumiselta. Etenkin terveen ihmisen riskitekijöihin puuttuminen vaatii potilaan ja lääkärin yhteisymmärrystä saavutettavissa olevista hyödyistä, käytettävistä keinoista ja niiden mahdollisista haitoista.
  • Tiitinen, Aila; Kero, Katja (2020)
    Emättimen paikallisten estrogeenihoitojen ei ole todettu lisäävän rintasyöpäriskiä. Limakalvojen kuivuminen on yleinen oire vaihdevuosien jälkeen, ja rintasyöpähoidot voivat pahentaa oireita. Hoitona voidaan aina käyttää hormonittomia kosteuttavia geelejä tai tabletteja. Liukuvoiteen käyttö yhdynnöissä on suositeltavaa. Rintasyövän hoidon jälkeen voidaan käyttää paikallisia estrogeenejä. Paikallishoitoa voidaan nykytiedon mukaan harkita myös aromataasinestäjää käyttävillä. Ensisijaisia ovat estriolia sisältävät valmisteet.
  • Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2016)
    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on similar to 4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment.
  • May-Wilson, Sebastian; Sud, Amit; Law, Philip J.; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hänninen, Ulrika A.; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepisto, Anna; Böhm, Jan; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Palles, Claire; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Meyer, Brian F.; Wakil, Salma M.; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G.; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S.; Fisher, David; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Passarelli, Michael N.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Win, Aung K.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steven; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Houlston, Richard S. (2017)
    Background: While dietary fat has been established as a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), associations between fatty acids (FAs) and CRC have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation (MR), we sought to evaluate associations between polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated FAs (SFAs) and CRC risk. Methods: We analysed genotype data on 9254 CRC cases and 18,386 controls of European ancestry. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were generated and used to evaluate associations with CRC per one standard deviation increase in genetically defined plasma FA levels. Results: Risk reduction was observed for oleic and palmitoleic MUFAs (OROA = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, P = 3.9 x 10(-3); ORPOA = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.84, P = 0.018). PUFAs linoleic and arachidonic acid had negative and positive associations with CRC respectively (ORLA = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.98, P = 3.7 x 10(-4); ORAA = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07, P Z 1.7 x 10(-4)). The SFA stearic acid was associated with increased CRC risk (ORSA Z 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P = 0.041). Conclusion: Results from our analysis are broadly consistent with a pro-inflammatory FA profile having a detrimental effect in terms of CRC risk. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona; Lillsunde, Pirjo (2018)
    Päihteiden käyttö lisää tapaturmariskiä ja vammojen vakavuutta. Vaara kuolla päihtyneenä tapaturmassa on miehillä kuusinkertainen naisiin verrattuna. Alkoholin aiheuttama kuormitus päivystyksissä lisääntynee uuden alkoholilain vuoksi. Päivystysyksiköissä on hyödyllistä testata tapaturmapotilaan veren alkoholipitoisuus ja keskustella testin tuloksesta. Päihdeongelmien varhainen tunnistaminen sekä potilaan tukeminen ja hoitoonohjaus ovat tärkeitä haittojen ehkäisemiseksi.
  • Peck, Helen (2006)
    International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications
  • Castellsague, Xavier; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Lehtinen, Matti; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C.; Palmroth, Johanna; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Germar, Maria Julieta V.; Peters, Klaus; Garland, Suzanne M.; Szarewski, Anne; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F.; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence; HPV PATRICIA Study Grp (2014)
  • Kivimäki, Mika; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Reijula, Kari (2019)